[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant methylation at imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in human 11p15.5 has been reported in many tumors including hepatoblastoma. However, the methylation status of imprinted DMRs in imprinted loci scattered through the human genome has not been analyzed yet in any tumors.
The methylation statuses of 33 imprinted DMRs were analyzed in 12 hepatoblastomas and adjacent normal liver tissue by MALDI-TOF MS and pyrosequencing. Uniparental disomy (UPD) and copy number abnormalities were investigated with DNA polymorphisms.
Among 33 DMRs analyzed, 18 showed aberrant methylation in at least 1 tumor. There was large deviation in the incidence of aberrant methylation among the DMRs. KvDMR1 and IGF2-DMR0 were the most frequently hypomethylated DMRs. INPP5Fv2-DMR and RB1-DMR were hypermethylated with high frequencies. Hypomethylation was observed at certain DMRs not only in tumors but also in a small number of adjacent histologically normal liver tissue, whereas hypermethylation was observed only in tumor samples. The methylation levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) did not show large differences between tumor tissue and normal liver controls. Chromosomal abnormalities were also found in some tumors. 11p15.5 and 20q13.3 loci showed the frequent occurrence of both genetic and epigenetic alterations.
Our analyses revealed tumor-specific aberrant hypermethylation at some imprinted DMRs in 12 hepatoblastomas with additional suggestion for the possibility of hypomethylation prior to tumor development. Some loci showed both genetic and epigenetic alterations with high frequencies. These findings will aid in understanding the development of hepatoblastoma.
BMC Cancer 12/2013; 13(1):608. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IGF2/H19-imprinting control region (ICR1) functions as an insulator to methylation-sensitive binding of CTCF protein, and regulates imprinted expression of IGF2 and H19 in a parental origin-specific manner. ICR1 methylation defects cause abnormal expression of imprinted genes, leading to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Not only ICR1 microdeletions involving the CTCF-binding site, but also point mutations and a small deletion of the OCT-binding site have been shown to trigger methylation defects in BWS. Here, mutational analysis of ICR1 in 11 BWS and 12 SRS patients with ICR1 methylation defects revealed a novel de novo point mutation of the OCT-binding site on the maternal allele in one BWS patient. In BWS, all reported mutations and the small deletion of the OCT-binding site, including our case, have occurred within repeat A2. These findings indicate that the OCT-binding site is important for maintaining an unmethylated status of maternal ICR1 in early embryogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perlman syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive overgrowth disorder. Recently, the deletion of exon 9 and other mutations of the DIS3L2 gene have been reported in patients; however, the mechanism behind this deletion is still unknown. We report the homozygous deletion of exon 9 of DIS3L2 in a Japanese patient with Perlman syndrome. We identified the deletion junction, and implicate a non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between two LINE-1 (L1) elements as the causative mechanism. Furthermore, the deletion junctions were different between the paternal and maternal mutant alleles, suggesting the occurrence of two independent NAHR events in the ancestors of each parent. The data suggest that the region around exon 9 might be a hot spot of L1-mediated NAHR.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.45.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 03/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gain of methylation (GOM) at the H19-differentially methylated region (H19-DMR) is one of several causative alterations in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an imprinting-related disorder. In most patients with epigenetic changes at H19-DMR, the timing of and mechanism mediating GOM is unknown. To clarify this, we analyzed methylation at the imprinting control regions of somatic tissues and the placenta from two unrelated, naturally conceived patients with sporadic BWS. Maternal H19-DMR was abnormally and variably hypermethylated in both patients, indicating epigenetic mosaicism. Aberrant methylation levels were consistently lower in placenta than in blood and skin. Mosaic and discordant methylation strongly suggested that aberrant hypermethylation occurred after implantation, when genome-wide de novo methylation normally occurs. We expect aberrant de novo hypermethylation of H19-DMR happens to a greater extent in embryos than in placentas, as this is normally the case for de novo methylation. In addition, of 16 primary imprinted DMRs analyzed, only H19-DMR was aberrantly methylated, except for NNAT DMR in the placental chorangioma of Patient 2. To our knowledge, these are the first data suggesting when GOM of H19-DMR occurs.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2012; 158A(7):1670-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is characterized by an accumulation of multiple congenital anomalies. Although patients with BWS are known to have a higher incidence of embryonal tumors, there has been no reports associated with acute leukemia. This report describes the case of a patient with BWS who developed Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (AMKL,FAB;M7). Because most patients with BWS present gigantism, the therapy-related toxicity of chemotherapy can be a very serious problem. This patient exhibited no therapy-related toxicity after chemotherapy, suggesting that acute leukemia with BWS may not require a reduction in dosage.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2010; 55(4):733-5. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Commd1 gene is imprinted in the adult mouse brain and is predominantly expressed from the maternal allele. A paternally expressing imprinted gene, U2af1-rs1, resides in the first intron of Commd1 in an antisense orientation. We found that RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at serine 2 of the carboxyl-terminal domain repeats, a marker of transcription elongation, is enriched on the paternal allele than on the maternal allele in the Commd1 promoter. The Commd1 promoter harbours no allelic differences in DNA methylation and histone modifications. These results strongly suggested that imprinting of Commd1 is generated by interference with paternal Commd1 transcription by the oppositely directed U2af1-rs1 transcription.
Journal of biochemistry 09/2009; 146(6):771-4. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MeCP2, a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein, is known to bind to methylated CpG sites via a conserved MBD, leading to transcriptional repression. However, studies in cell-free system for gene repression and MeCP2 binding have suggested that DNA methylation-independent repression also occurs in living cells. It has been difficult to characterize the target genes of MeCP2 because a limited number have been identified to date. In this context, we screened for MeCP2 target genes using knockdown (KD) experiments combined with microarray gene expression analyses. Of the 49 genes that showed a more than three-fold increase in expression in two independent KD experiments conducted with different siRNA sets, unexpectedly, half (24 genes) did not contain promoter CpG islands (CGIs). Of seven selected genes that did contain CGIs, only two were methylated at the CGI, bound MeCP2 before KD, and reduced MeCP2 after KD. For three, MeCP2 was observed to bind to the unmethylated CGI before KD, and for one MeCP2 was reduced after KD. Another two genes neither had DNA methylation nor bound MeCP2 before KD. Gene ontology analysis suggested that MeCP2 represses a certain group of genes. These results suggest that in addition to the canonical gene repression function, MeCP2 can repress gene expression by binding to unmethylated DNA in particular genes in living cells.
Genes & Genetic Systems 05/2008; 83(2):199-208. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting-related human disease. The frequencies of causative alterations such as loss of methylation (LOM) of KvDMR1, hypermethylation of H19-DMR, paternal uniparental disomy, CDKN1C gene mutation, and chromosome abnormality have been described for North American and European patients, but the corresponding frequencies in Japanese patients have not been measured to date. Analysis of 47 Japanese cases of BWS revealed a significantly lower frequency of H19-DMR hypermethylation and a higher frequency of chromosome abnormality than in North American and European patients. These results suggest that susceptibility to epigenetic and genetic alterations differs between the two groups.
European Journal of HumanGenetics 01/2008; 15(12):1205-10. · 4.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the silencing mechanism of retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RAR beta2) in cervical carcinogenesis, we investigated RAR beta2 expression and the status of both DNA methylation and histone modifications at the promoter in cervical cancer cell lines. RAR beta2 was frequently repressed in cancer cell lines and in primary cancers of the cervix. Although the majority of RAR beta2-negative cancers had methylated promoter, RAR beta2 was repressed with hypomethylated promoter in a substantial fraction of the cancers. The RAR beta2-negative cells with hypomethylated promoters showed a repressive histone modification pattern at the promoter. RAR beta2 was reactivated by a histone deacetylase inhibitor, accompanied by formation of active histone modifications. The repressive modification was also observed in cells repressed with hypermethylated promoter, but RAR beta2 was reactivated only by DNA demethylating agent and not by histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results suggest that RAR beta2 is silenced by either of the two key epigenetic pathways, DNA methylation or repressive histone modifications, depending on the individual cancer cells.
Cancer Letters 04/2007; 247(2):318-27. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human MURR1 is an orthologue of mouse Murr1 gene, which was previously reported to be imprinted only in adult brain with a maternal allele-predominant expression and to contain another imprinted gene, U2af1-rs1, in the first intron. Human MURR1 was found not to harbor the U2af1-rs1 orthologue and to be expressed biallelically in tissues, including adult brain. Three genes identified around Murr1 and their orthologues around MURR1 were expressed biallelically. These findings suggest that the mouse imprinting locus is limited to a small region and the introduction of U2af1-rs1 in mouse causes the imprinting of this locus. The CpG island (CGI) at U2af1-rs1 with maternal methylation was the only differentially methylated region among CGIs found in these loci. Detailed methylation analyses of the U2af1-rs1 CGI in germ cells led to identification of a region with oocyte-specific methylation. These results suggest that this region is the imprinting control region of the Murr1/U2af1-rs1 locus in mouse.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse Murr1 gene contains an imprinted gene, U2af1-rs1, in its first intron. U2af1-rs1 shows paternal allele-specific expression and is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of the Murr1 gene. In contrast to a previous report of biallelic expression of Murr1 in neonatal mice, we have found that the maternal allele is expressed predominantly in the adult brain and also preferentially in other adult tissues. This maternal-predominant expression is not observed in embryonic and neonatal brains. In situ hybridization experiments that used the adult brain indicated that Murr1 gene was maternally expressed in neuronal cells in all regions of the brain. We analyzed the developmental change in the expression levels of both Murr1 and U2af1-rs1 in the brain and liver, and we propose that the maternal-predominant expression of Murr1 results from transcriptional interference of the gene by U2af1-rs1 through the Murr1 promoter region.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/2004; 24(1):270-9. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the chromatin-based imprinting mechanism of the p57(KIP2)/LIT1 subdomain at chromosome 11p15.5 and the mouse ortholog at chromosome 7F5, we investigated the histone-modification status at a differentially CpG methylated region of Lit1/LIT1 (DMR-Lit1/LIT1), which is an imprinting control region for the subdomain and is demethylated in half of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that, in both species, DMR-Lit1/LIT1 with the CpG-methylated, maternally derived inactive allele showed histone H3 Lys9 methylation, whereas the CpG-unmethylated, paternally active allele was acetylated on histone H3/H4 and methylated on H3 Lys4. We have also investigated the relationship between CpG methylation and histone H3 Lys9 methylation at DMR-LIT1 in patients with BWS. In a normal individual and in patients with BWS with normal DMR-LIT1 methylation, histone H3 Lys9 methylation was detected on the maternal allele; however, it disappeared completely in the patients with the DMR-LIT1 imprinting defect. These findings suggest that the histone-modification status at DMR-Lit1/LIT1 plays an important role in imprinting control within the subdomain and that loss of histone H3 Lys9 methylation, together with CpG demethylation on the maternal allele, may lead to the BWS phenotype.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 11/2003; 73(4):948-56. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse chromosome 7F4/F5, where the imprinting domain is located, is syntenic to human 11p15.5, the locus for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The domain is thought to consist of the two subdomains Kip2 (p57(kip2))/Lit1 and Igf2/H19. Because DNA methylation is believed to be a key factor in genomic imprinting, we performed large-scale DNA methylation analysis to identify the cis-element crucial for the regulation of the Kip2/Lit1 subdomain. Ten CpG islands (CGIs) were found, and these were located at the promoter sites, upstream of genes, and within intergenic regions. Bisulphite sequencing revealed that CGIs 4, 5, 8, and 10 were differentially methylated regions (DMRs). CGIs 4, 5, and 10 were methylated paternally in somatic tissues but not in germ cells. CGI8 was methylated in oocyte and maternally in somatic tissues during development. Parental-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSSs) were found near CGI8. These data indicate that CGI8, called DMR-Lit1, is not only the region for gametic methylation but might also be the imprinting control region (ICR) of the subdomain.
Genome Research 01/2003; 12(12):1860-70. · 14.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human 11p15.5, as well as its orthologous mouse 7F4/F5, is known as the imprinting domain extending from IPL/Ipl to H19. OBPH1 and Obph1 are located beyond the presumed imprinting boundary on the IPL/Ipl side. We determined full-length cDNAs and complete genomic structures of both orthologues. We also investigated their precise imprinting and methylation status. The orthologues resembled each other in genomic structure and in the position of the 5' CpG island and were expressed ubiquitously. OBPH1 and Obph1 were predominantly expressed from the maternal allele only in placenta, with hypo- and not differentially methylated 5' CpG islands in both species. These results suggested that the imprinting domain would extend beyond the presumed imprinting boundary and that methylation of the 5' CpG island was not associated with the imprinting status in either species. It remains to be elucidated whether the gene is under the control of the KIP2/LIT1 subdomain or is regulated by a specific mechanism. Analysis of the precise genomic sequence around the region should help resolve this question.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We cloned cDNAs for Xenopus aldolases A, B and C. These three aldolase genes are localized on different chromosomes as a single copy gene. In the adult, the aldolase A gene is expressed extensively in muscle tissues, whereas the aldolase B gene is expressed strongly in kidney, liver, stomach and intestine, while the aldolase C gene is expressed in brain, heart and ovary. In oocytes aldolase A and C mRNAs, but not aldolase B mRNA, are extensively transcribed. Thus, aldolase A and C mRNAs, but not B mRNA, occur abundantly in eggs as maternal mRNAs, and strong expression of aldolase B mRNA is seen only after the late neurula stage. We conclude that aldolase A and C mRNAs are major aldolase mRNAs in early stages of Xenopus embryogenesis which proceeds utilizing yolk as the only energy source. aldolase B mRNA, on the other hand, is expressed only later in development in tissues which are required for dietary fructose metabolism. We also isolated the Xenopus aldolase C genomic gene (ca. 12 kb) and found that its promoter (ca. 2 kb) contains regions necessary for tissue-specific expression and also a GC rich region which is essential for basal transcriptional activity.
Cell Research 07/2002; 12(2):85-96. · 10.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse chromosome 7F4/F5, where the imprinting domain is located, is syntenic to human 11p15.5, the locus for Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. The domain is thought to consist of two subdomains: Kip2 (p57kip2)/Lit1 and Igf2/H19. Since DNA methylation is believed to be the key factor in genomic imprinting, large-scale DNA sequencing and methylation analysis were performed to identify the cis-element crucial for the regulation of the Kip2/Lit1 subdomain. Ten CpG islands (CGIs), which scattered in 500 kb long, were identified, and these were located at the promoter sites, upstream of genes, and within intergenic regions. Bisulphite sequencing revealed that CGIs 4, 5, 8, and 10 were differentially methylated regions (DMRs). CGIs 4, 5, and 10 were methylated paternally in somatic tissues but not in germ cells. On the other hand, CGI8 was methylated in oocyte and maternally in somatic tissues during development. Furthermore, a parental-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site was found near CGI8. These data indicate that CGI8, called DMR-Lit1, is not only the region for gametic methylation but might be the imprinting control region (ICR) of the subdomain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously cloned cDNAs for all the members (A, B and C) of Xenopus aldolase gene family, and using in vitro transcribed RNAs as references, performed quantitative studies of the expression of three aldolase mRNAs in embryos and adult tissues. A Xenopus egg contains ca. 60 pg aldolase A mRNA and ca. 45 pg aldolase C mRNA, but contains only ca. 1.5 pg aldolase B mRNA. The percent composition of three aldolase mRNAs (A:B:C) changes from 56:1.5:42.5 (fertilized egg) to 54:10:36 (gastrula), to 71:14.5:14.5 (neurula) and to 73:20:7 (tadpole) during development. These results are compatible with the previous results of zymogram analysis that aldolases A and C are the major aldolases in early embryos, whose development proceeds depending on yolk as the only energy source. Aldolase B mRNA is expressed only late in development in tissues such as pronephros, liver rudiment and proctodeum which are necessary for the future dietary fructose metabolism, and the expression pattern is consistent to that in adult tissues. We also show that three aldolase genes are localized on different chromosomes as single copy genes.
Mechanisms of Development 05/2001; 102(1-2):283-7. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WT2 is defined by a maternal-specific loss of heterozygosity on human chromosome 11p15.5 in Wilms' and other embryonal tumors. Therefore, the imprinted genes in this region are candidates for involvement in Wilms' tumorigenesis. We now report a novel imprinted gene, KCNQ1DN (KCNQ1 downstream neighbor). This gene is located between p57(KIP2) and KvLQT1 (KCNQ1) of 11p15.5 within the WT2 critical region. KCNQ1DN is imprinted and expressed from the maternal allele. We examined the expression of KCNQ1DN in Wilms' tumors. Seven of eighteen (39%) samples showed no expression. In contrast, other maternal imprinted genes in this region, including p57(KIP2), IMPT1, and IPL exhibited almost normal expression in these samples, although some samples expressed IGF2 biallelically. These results suggest that KCNQ1DN existing far from the H19/IGF2 region may play some role in Wilms' tumorigenesis along with IGF2.
Journal of Biochemistry 12/2000; 128(5):847-53. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel gene, C11orf2, was identified by BLAST search in the human chromosome 11p15.5 region potentially responsible for Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) and some cancers. Two cDNA clones with different sizes were obtained, which share a potential ORF of 399bp and are different in their 3' untranslated regions. This gene was revealed to be expressed exclusively in human heart and in almost no other tissues examined by northern blotting. Two transcripts of different sizes, 0.9 and 3.1kb, were identified in heart, consistent with the length of the two cDNA clones. The gene shows biallelic expression (non-imprinted) in fetal liver, although it is located in the imprinted domain of 11p15.5. C11orf21 codes a protein of 132 amino acids as proved by the expression of C11orf21-EGFP fusion protein in cultured cells. The EGFP-fusion protein expressed in cultured cells localized mainly in the cytoplasm.