[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Midostaurin (PKC412), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 and KIT, is in clinical trials for the treatment for acute myeloid leukemia and advanced systemic mastocytosis. In vitro studies showed that midostaurin is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and that midostaurin inhibits and/or induces the same enzyme. Here, we address the clinical relevance of CYP3A4-related drug-drug interactions with midostaurin as either a "victim" or "perpetrator."
Three phase I studies in healthy volunteers evaluated the effects of a CYP3A4 inhibitor (ketoconazole 400 mg daily for 10 days) or CYP3A4 inducer (rifampicin 600 mg daily for 14 days) on concentrations of midostaurin and its metabolites following a single 50-mg dose of midostaurin and the effects of midostaurin as a single dose (100 mg) and multiple doses (50 mg twice daily) on midazolam (a sensitive CYP3A4 probe) concentration. The plasma concentrations of midostaurin and its 2 active metabolites, CGP62221 and CGP52421, were determined using a sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method.
Inhibition of CYP3A4 by ketoconazole increased midostaurin exposure more than tenfold, and induction of CYP3A4 by rifampicin decreased midostaurin exposure by more than tenfold. Midostaurin did not appreciably affect the concentrations of midazolam or its metabolite, 1'-hydroxymidazolam, at single or multiple doses.
The pharmacokinetics of midostaurin and its metabolites was affected substantially by ketoconazole and rifampicin, suggesting that midostaurin is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Midostaurin did not appear to inhibit or induce CYP3A4 in vivo.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2013; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many tumor cells rely on aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation for their continued proliferation and survival. Myc and HIF-1 are believed to promote such a metabolic switch by, in part, upregulating gene expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase 1 (PDHK1), which phosphorylates and inactivates mitochondrial PDH and consequently pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Here we report that tyrosine phosphorylation enhances PDHK1 kinase activity by promoting ATP and PDC binding. Functional PDC can form in mitochondria outside of the matrix in some cancer cells and PDHK1 is commonly tyrosine phosphorylated in human cancers by diverse oncogenic tyrosine kinases localized to different mitochondrial compartments. Expression of phosphorylation-deficient, catalytic hypomorph PDHK1 mutants in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxia and increased oxidative phosphorylation with enhanced mitochondrial utilization of pyruvate and reduced tumor growth in xenograft nude mice. Together, tyrosine phosphorylation activates PDHK1 to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutively activated mutant FLT3 has emerged as a promising target for therapy for the subpopulation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who harbor it. The small molecule inhibitor, PKC412, targets mutant FLT3 and is currently in late-stage clinical trials. However, the identification of PKC412-resistant leukemic blast cells in the bone marrow of AML patients has propelled the development of novel and structurally distinct FLT3 inhibitors that have the potential to override drug resistance and more efficiently prevent disease progression or recurrence. Here, we present the novel first-generation "type II" FLT3 inhibitors, AFG206, AFG210, and AHL196, and the second-generation "type II" derivatives and AST487 analogs, AUZ454 and ATH686. All agents potently and selectively target mutant FLT3 protein kinase activity and inhibit the proliferation of cells harboring FLT3 mutants via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle inhibition. Cross-resistance between "type I" inhibitors, PKC412 and AAE871, was demonstrated. While cross-resistance was also observed between "type I" and first-generation "type II" FLT3 inhibitors, the high potency of the second-generation "type II" inhibitors was sufficient to potently kill "type I" inhibitor-resistant mutant FLT3-expressing cells. The increased potency observed for the second-generation "type II" inhibitors was observed to be due to an improved interaction with the ATP pocket of FLT3, specifically associated with introduction of a piperazine moiety and placement of an amino group in position 2 of the pyrimidine ring. Thus, we present 2 structurally novel classes of FLT3 inhibitors characterized by high selectivity and potency toward mutant FLT3 as a molecular target. In addition, presentation of the antileukemic effects of "type II" inhibitors, such as AUZ454 and ATH686, highlights a new class of highly potent FLT3 inhibitors able to override drug resistance that less potent "type I" inhibitors and "type II" first-generation FLT3 inhibitors cannot.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays a pathogenic role in a number of human hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. These include t(4;14) multiple myeloma associated with ectopic expression of FGFR3 and t(4;12)(p16;p13) acute myeloid leukemia associated with expression of a constitutively activated fusion tyrosine kinase, TEL-FGFR3. We recently reported that FGFR3 directly tyrosine phosphorylates RSK2 at Y529, which consequently regulates RSK2 activation. Here we identified Y707 as an additional tyrosine in RSK2 that is phosphorylated by FGFR3. Phosphorylation at Y707 contributes to RSK2 activation, through a putative disruption of the autoinhibitory alphaL-helix on the C terminus of RSK2, unlike Y529 phosphorylation, which facilitates ERK binding. Moreover, we found that FGFR3 interacts with RSK2 through residue W332 in the linker region of RSK2 and that this association is required for FGFR3-dependent phosphorylation of RSK2 at Y529 and Y707, as well as the subsequent RSK2 activation. Furthermore, in a murine bone marrow transplant assay, genetic deficiency in RSK2 resulted in a significantly delayed and attenuated myeloproliferative syndrome induced by TEL-FGFR3 as compared with wild-type cells, suggesting a critical role of RSK2 in FGFR3-induced hematopoietic transformation. Our current and previous findings represent a paradigm for tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent regulation of serine-threonine kinases.
Molecular and cellular biology 03/2009; 29(8):2105-17. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Warburg effect describes a pro-oncogenic metabolism switch such that cancer cells take up more glucose than normal tissue and favor incomplete oxidation of glucose even in the presence of oxygen. To better understand how tyrosine kinase signaling, which is commonly increased in tumors, regulates the Warburg effect, we performed phosphoproteomic studies. We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y(105)). This inhibits the formation of active, tetrameric PKM2 by disrupting binding of the PKM2 cofactor fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Furthermore, we found that phosphorylation of PKM2 Y(105) is common in human cancers. The presence of a PKM2 mutant in which phenylalanine is substituted for Y(105) (Y105F) in cancer cells leads to decreased cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions, increased oxidative phosphorylation with reduced lactate production, and reduced tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Our findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An attractive target for therapeutic intervention is constitutively activated, mutant FLT3, which is expressed in a subpopulation of patients with acute myelocyic leukemia (AML) and is generally a poor prognostic indicator in patients under the age of 65 years. PKC412 is one of several mutant FLT3 inhibitors that is undergoing clinical testing, and which is currently in late-stage clinical trials. However, the discovery of drug-resistant leukemic blast cells in PKC412-treated patients with AML has prompted the search for novel, structurally diverse FLT3 inhibitors that could be alternatively used to override drug resistance. Here, we report the potent and selective antiproliferative effects of the novel mutant FLT3 inhibitor NVP-AST487 on primary patient cells and cell lines expressing FLT3-ITD or FLT3 kinase domain point mutants. NVP-AST487, which selectively targets mutant FLT3 protein kinase activity, is also shown to override PKC412 resistance in vitro, and has significant antileukemic activity in an in vivo model of FLT3-ITD(+) leukemia. Finally, the combination of NVP-AST487 with standard chemotherapeutic agents leads to enhanced inhibition of proliferation of mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Thus, we present a novel class of FLT3 inhibitors that displays high selectivity and potency toward FLT3 as a molecular target, and which could potentially be used to override drug resistance in AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small molecule inhibitors that target fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-activating mutations have potential in the treatment of leukemias. However, certain mutations can simultaneously activate the tyrosine kinase, and confer resistance to small molecule inhibitors. We therefore tested the sensitivity of 8 FLT3 activation loop mutants to midostaurin. Each mutant conferred IL-3 factor-independent proliferation to Ba/F3 cells, and each resulted in the constitutive activation of FLT3 and its targets, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and extracellular stimuli-responsive kinase (ERK). For each mutant tested, midostaurin inhibited cell growth and phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK. In contrast, midostaruin did not inhibit Ba/F3 cells stably transduced with FLT3-internal tandem duplications containing a G697R mutation that confers resistance to midostaurin, demonstrating that midostaurin inhibition of FLT3 activation loop mutants was not due to off-target effects. We conclude that midostaurin is a potent inhibitor of a spectrum of FLT3 activation loop mutations, and that acute myeloid leukemia patients with such mutations are potential candidates for clinical trials involving midostaurin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of beta-lactam derivatives has been designed and synthesized to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of the human 20S proteasome. The most potent compounds of this new structural class of beta-subunit selective 20S proteasome inhibitors exhibit IC50 values in the low-nanomolar range and show good selectivity over the trypsin-like and post-glutamyl-peptide hydrolytic activities of the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a useful surrogate assay for monitoring the efficacy of FLT3 inhibition in patients treated with oral FLT3 inhibitors. The plasma inhibitory activity (PIA) for FLT3 correlates with clinical activity in patients treated with CEP-701 and PKC412. Using the PIA assay, along with in vitro phosphorylation and cytotoxicity assays in leukemia cells, we compared PKC412 and its metabolite, CGP52421, with CEP-701. While both drugs could effectively inhibit FLT3 in vitro, CEP-701 was more cytotoxic to primary samples at comparable levels of FLT3 inhibition. PKC412 appears to be more selective than CEP-701 and therefore less effective at inducing cytotoxicity in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples in vitro. However, the PKC412 metabolite CGP52421 is less selective than its parent compound, PKC412, and is more cytotoxic against primary blast samples at comparable levels of FLT3 inhibition. The plasma inhibitory activity assay represents a useful correlative tool in the development of small-molecule inhibitors. Our application of this assay has revealed that the metabolite CGP52421 may contribute a significant portion of the antileukemia activity observed in patients receiving oral PKC412. Additionally, our results suggest that nonselectivity may constitute an important component of the cytotoxic effect of FLT3 inhibitors in FLT3-mutant AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FLT3 kinase inhibitors are currently under investigation as a new treatment for acute myeloid leukemia. We report here a molecular concept invoking interactions between an aromatic ring and the side chains of Phe691 and Cys828, two residues of the ATP pocket, to obtain potent and specific inhibitors of this kinase. The hypothesis has been validated by the successful design of a new inhibitor prototype showing promising antiproliferative activity in cellular assays.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2006; 49(15):4451-4. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in the FLT3 tyrosine kinase (TK) occur in approximately 35% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Therefore, targeting mutated FLT3 is an attractive therapeutic strategy, and early clinical trials testing FLT3 TK inhibitors (TKI) showed measurable clinical responses. Most of these responses were transient; however, in a subset of patients blast recurrence was preceded by an interval of prolonged remission. The etiology of clinical resistance to FLT3-TKI in AML is unclear but is of major significance for the development of future therapeutic strategies. We searched for mechanisms of resistance in 6 patients with AML who had relapses upon PKC412 treatment. In an index AML patient, an algorithm of analyses was applied using clinical material. In vivo and in vitro investigation of primary blasts at relapse revealed persistent TK phosphorylation of FLT3 despite sufficient PKC412 serum levels. Through additional molecular analyses, we identified a single amino acid substitution at position 676 (N676K) within the FLT3 kinase domain as the sole cause of resistance to PKC412 in this patient. Reconstitution experiments expressing the N676K mutant in 32D cells demonstrated that FLT3-ITD-N676K was sufficient to confer an intermediate level of resistance to PKC412 in vitro. These studies point out that a genetically complex malignancy such as AML may retain dependence on a single oncogenic signal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). We investigated the mechanisms of resistance in patients with progressive GISTs with primary KIT mutations and the efficacy of the kinase inhibitor PKC412 for the inhibition of imatinib-resistant mutants.
We performed a cytogenetic analysis and screened for mutations of the KIT and PDGFRA kinase domains in 26 resistant GISTs. KIT autophosphorylation status was assessed by Western immunoblotting. Imatinib-resistant GIST cells and Ba/F3 cells expressing these mutant proteins were tested for sensitivity to imatinib and PKC412.
Six distinct secondary mutations in KIT were detected in 12 progressive tumors, with V654A and T670I found to be recurrent. One progressive tumor showed acquired PDGFRA -D842V mutation. Amplification of KIT or KIT / PDGFRA was found in 2 patients. Eight of 10 progressive tumors available for analysis showed phosphorylated KIT. Two remaining progressive tumors lost KIT protein expression. GIST cells carrying KIT -del557-558/T670I or KIT -InsAY502-503/V654A mutations were resistant to imatinib, while PKC412 significantly inhibited autophosporylation of these mutants. Resistance to imatinib and sensitivity to PKC412 of KIT -T670I and PDGFRA -D842V mutants was confirmed using Ba/F3 cells.
This study shows the high frequency of KIT/PDGFRA kinase domain mutations in patients with secondary resistance and defines genomic amplification of KIT / PDGFRA as an alternative cause of resistance to the drug. In a subset of patients, cancer cells lost their dependence on the targeted tyrosine kinase. Our findings show the sensitivity of the imatinib-resistant KIT -T670I and KIT -V654A and of PDGFRA -D842V mutants to PKC412.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human stem cell leukemia-lymphoma syndrome usually presents itself as a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) that evolves to acute myeloid leukemia and/or lymphoma. The syndrome associated with t(8;13)(p11;q12) results in expression of the ZNF198-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1 fusion tyrosine kinase. Current empirically derived cytotoxic chemotherapy is inadequate for treatment of this disease. We hypothesized that small-molecule inhibitors of the ZNF198-FGFR1 fusion would have therapeutic efficacy. We characterized the transforming activity of ZNF198-FGFR1 in hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Expression of ZNF198-FGFR1 in primary murine hematopoietic cells caused a myeloproliferative syndrome in mice that recapitulated the human MPD phenotype. Transformation in these assays, and activation of the downstream effector molecules PLC-gamma, STAT5, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT, required the proline-rich domains, but not the ZNF domains, of ZNF198. A small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PKC412 (N-benzoyl-staurosporine) effectively inhibited ZNF198-FGFR1 tyrosine kinase activity and activation of downstream effector pathways, and inhibited proliferation of ZNF198-FGFR1 transformed Ba/F3 cells. Furthermore, treatment with PKC412 resulted in statistically significant prolongation of survival in the murine model of ZNF198-FGFR1-induced MPD. Based in part on these data, PKC412 was administered to a patient with t(8;13)(p11;q12) and was efficacious in treatment of progressive myeloproliferative disorder with organomegaly. Therefore, PKC412 may be a useful therapy for treatment of human stem cell leukemia-lymphoma syndrome.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2004; 101(40):14479-84. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteasome inhibition is a therapeutic concept of current interest in anticancer research. We report here the design, synthesis, and biological characterization of prototypes of a new class of noncovalent proteasome inhibitors showing high activity in biochemical and cellular assays.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2004; 47(20):4810-3. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidomimetics have been commonly used as lead compounds to design inhibitors with high affinity and specificity for a particular enzyme. The discovery that a 2-aminobenzylstatine derivative originally designed to target an aspartyl protease was able to inhibit specifically and non-covalently the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome represented a unique starting point for our medicinal chemistry endeavor for this target. Utilizing a structure-based design approach, we have been able to improve the potency of this new class of proteasome inhibitors without affecting its in vitro selectivity profile.
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry 03/2003; 57(4):179-181. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro, procathepsin D is activated to pseudocathepsin D by incubation at low pH. To investigate the mechanism of this activation, recombinant human procathepsin D and two mutants were generated in a baculovirus expression system. One mutant carried a point mutation within the catalytic domain, which resulted in a catalytically inactive enzyme form (D77A). The other carried a point mutation within the propeptide, which prevented activation by processing at the ‘autoproteolysis-site’ (L26P). Neither mutant is capable of processing itself to form pseudocathepsin D, and L26P is not able to process D77A. Despite the inability of L26P to cleave either its own or a wild-type prosequence, it did exhibit activity against a synthetic peptide substrate. The ability of intact precursor (zymogen) to cleave a peptide, but not a protein substrate, offers new insights into the mechanism of inhibition by the propeptide. Mature cathepsin D can process the inactive D77A mutant to the pseudoform, demonstrating that processed species are capable of cleaving zymogen molecules in an intermolecular interaction. In addition, kinetic studies provide evidence for a two-phase mechanism for the conversion of procathepsin D to pseudocathepsin D, one phase where the first molecules of pseudocathepsin D are formed at a low rate and a second phase where the process is autocatalytically accelerated by newly formed pseudocathepsin D molecules. Finally, with the help of the mutants L26P and D77A it was observed that at least two additional proteinase activities, found in conditioned media from insect cell culture, are capable of activating procathepsin D by cleaving it within the proregion. This observation suggests that there are likely to be multiple proteinases in the extracellular matrix that are capable of activating procathepsin D, thereby triggering the second autocatalytic phase. This may also be important for solid tumors, where the presence of cathepsin D has been correlated with tumor growth and invasion.
European Journal of Biochemistry. 12/2001; 265(1):384 - 393.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 20S proteasome is the catalytic core of the proteasome and utilizes N-terminal threonines as the catalytic residues. It exhibits at least three distinct peptidase activities: chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and post-glutamyl-peptide hydrolytic activities. Because of the proteasome's role in the degrdn. of proteins involved in various pathophysiol. processes or in crit. intracellular regulatory cascades, inhibitors of the 20S proteasome are being explored for use as potential anti-inflammatory agents and for the treatment of cancer and auto-immune diseases. Our specific target in the search of novel cytotoxic and antiproliferative agents is the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome. We describe here the identification and characterization of a series of 2-aminobenzylstatine derivs. that inhibit non-covalently the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome with IC50 values in the nM range. These compds. show good in vitro selectivity over the trypsin-like and post-glutamyl-pept
Abstracts of Papers, 221st ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA, United States, April 1-5, 2001. 01/2001;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sprouting of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is necessary for any solid tumor to grow large enough to cause life-threatening disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key promoters of tumor induced angiogenesis. VEGF receptors, the tyrosine kinases Flt-1 and KDR, are expressed on vascular endothelial cells and initiate angiogenesis upon activation by VEGF. 1-Anilino-(4-pyridylmethyl)-phthalazines, such as CGP 79787D (or PTK787 / ZK222584), reversibly inhibit Flt-1 and KDR with IC(50) values < 0.1 microM. CGP 79787D also blocks the VEGF-induced receptor autophosphorylation in CHO cells ectopically expressing the KDR receptor (ED(50) = 34 nM). Modification of the 1-anilino moiety afforded derivatives with higher selectivity for the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases Flt-1 and KDR compared to the related receptor tyrosine kinases PDGF-R and c-Kit. Since these 1-anilino-(4-pyridylmethyl)phthalazines are orally well absorbed, these compounds qualify for further profiling and as candidates for clinical evaluation.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2000; 43(12):2310-23. · 5.61 Impact Factor