Marion Morena

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (65)130.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Whole-blood viscosity is increasingly being recognized as a factor implicated in the vascular disease progression in high-risk chronic kidney disease patients. Intermittent hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration sessions, characterized by rapid volume changes and anemia correction by erythropoietin stimulating agents, are favorable conditions for enhancing whole-blood viscosity changes and consequently triggering cardiovascular events. To evaluate whole-blood viscosity changes induced by hemodiafiltration, a cross-sectional study has been performed in a group of 28 stable patients. In order to assess the impact of vessel size on whole-blood viscosity changes, we performed a dynamic whole viscosity analysis on a wide spectrum of shear rates reproducing vasculature hemorheologic conditions. Blood viscosity changes are dependent on patient characteristics, hemoglobin, and total plasma protein concentrations. Whole blood viscosity increases significantly during hemodiafiltration over the complete spectrum of shear rates. Dynamic whole-blood viscosity (WBV) increases up to 60%, predominantly at low shear rates in small arterioles and capillary beds. This observation underlines the potential pathogenic contribution of WBV increase in capillaries triggering cardiovascular events in the postdialysis period. Eight patients died from cardiovascular events. Higher WBV increase was noted in this group but did not reach statistical significance due to the insufficient power of the study. Hemorheological changes associated with WBV increase in capillary beds may contribute to aggravate silent tissue hypoxemia and precipitate cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients. Prospective studies specifically designed and powered to evaluate the impact of WBV changes on cardiovascular events in dialysis patients are required.
    Hemodialysis International 10/2010; 14(4):433-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1542-4758.2010.00496.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of bone proteins resulting from transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteoblasts suggests that vascular calcifications are a bioactive process. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) could play a key role in bone-vascular calcification imbalance and could be a marker of vascular calcification extent and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between vascular risk biomarkers (including classic risk factors and OPG) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) extent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and to establish within the markers the appropriate cut-off value to predict CAC. A total of 133 non-dialyzed CKD patients at various stages of kidney disease [75 males/58 females, median age: 69.9 (27.4-94.6)] were enrolled, excluding extrarenal replacement therapy patients. All underwent chest multidetector computed tomography for CAC scoring. Blood samples were collected for measurement of vascular risk markers (kidney disease, inflammation, nutrition, calcium phosphate and OPG). A potential relationship between CAC and these biological markers was investigated, and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was designed thereafter to identify a cut-off value of involved markers that best predicted the presence of CAC. After adjustment for age, diabetes, smoking and gender, among biological markers, only low-estimated glomerular filtration rate using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [OR = 3.63 (1.10-12.02)], high FEPO(4) [OR = 3.99 (1.17-13.6)] and high OPG levels [OR = 8.54 (2.14-34.11)] were associated with the presence of CAC. A protective effect of 1.25(OH)(2) vitamin D [OR = 0.20 (0.05-0.79)] and LDL cholesterol [OR = 0.27 (0.08-0.94)] on CAC was also observed. ROC curve analysis showed that the OPG best cut-off value predicting CAC was 757.7 pg/mL. These results suggest that a CAC increase is strongly associated with a plasma OPG increase in CKD patients. The values of OPG >757.7 pg/mL allow us to predict the presence of CAC in these patients.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2009; 24(11):3389-97. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfp301 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection constitutes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The type of vascular access is an important determinant of the risk of infection. Therefore, identification of risk factors leading to catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is strongly required. The aim of this prospective large cohort study of HD patients using only catheters as vascular access was to isolate risk factors for CRB. 2,230 permanent silicone dual catheters implanted in 1,749 patients between November 1982 and November 2005 were studied. The following data were collected at the time of catheter implantation: presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis, immunodepression, Wright-Khan index, site and side of catheter insertion, and history of bacteremia. The site of catheter insertion was internal jugular (n = 2,133), subclavian (n = 79) and femoral (n = 17). Duration of catheter use was as follows: 30-90 days (n = 1,607) and >90 days (n = 1,054); 226 episodes of bacteremia occurred in 197 catheters. Microorganisms responsible were mainly Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall incidence of bacteremic episodes was 0.514/1,000 catheter days. Hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, site of catheter implantation, duration of catheter use, Wright-Khan comorbidity index and previous history of CRB were significant risk factors associated with bacteremia in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that a previous history of a bacteremic episode (odds ratio, OR = 2.70, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.56-4.68), diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.65-3.39), duration of catheter use >90 days (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.35-2.55) and hypertension (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.08-2.04) were still significant factors associated with bacteremia. Reducing CRB is still a challenge for nephrologists to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Our study could demonstrate that diabetes, previous history of CRB, site of catheter implantation and duration of catheter use were the most important risk factors for bacteremia. Therefore, to prevent CRB, particular attention should be paid to patients with diabetes and a previous history of bacteremia following strict hygienic and aseptic rules for catheter handling associated with the regular use of antiseptic lock solutions.
    Blood Purification 04/2009; 28(1):21-8. DOI:10.1159/000210034 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • A-S Bargnoux · M Morena · S Badiou · A-M Dupuy · B Canaud · J-P Cristol ·
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is commonly observed in chronic renal failure patients resulting from an unbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species and impairement of defense mechanisms. Proteins appear as potential targets of uremia-induced oxidative stress and may undergo qualitative modifications. Proteins could be directly modified by reactive oxygen species which leads to amino acid oxydation and cross-linking. Proteins could be indirectly modified by reactive carbonyl compounds produced by glycoxidation and lipo-peroxidation. The resulting post-traductional modifications are known as carbonyl stress. In addition, thiols could be oxidized or could react with homocystein leading to homocysteinylation. Finally, tyrosin could be oxidized by myeloperoxidase leading to advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP). Oxidatively modified proteins are increased in chronic renal failure patients and may contribute to exacerbate the oxidative stress/inflammation syndrome. They have been involved in long term complications of uremia such as amyloidosis and accelerated atherosclerosis.
    Annales de biologie clinique 03/2009; 67(2):153-8. DOI:10.1684/abc.2009.0295 · 0.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular calcifications constitute an important risk factor for mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. A better knowledge of physiopathologic phenomena responsible for vascular mineralization leads to emerging biological markers of vascular calcifications. In calcified arteries, presence of bone matrix as well as osteoblast cells suggest that vascular calcification is an active and highly regulated process. In uremic environment, vascular smooth muscle cells can transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells. The OPG–RANK–RANKL system is clearly of central significance in controlling vascular calcifications as in bone metabolism. Converging results suggest that circulating OPG determination should be a relevant marker of calcifications. Impairment in inhibitory system such as Matrix Gla Protein and fetuin-A promotes bone matrix calcification. Finally, FGF-23, an early and sensitive marker of bone and mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease patients, appears as a promising marker.
    Medecine Nucleaire 01/2009; 33(1):53-61. DOI:10.1016/j.mednuc.2008.11.001 · 0.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is commonly observed in the elderly and could be involved in age-related diseases. However, the determinants of superoxide anion overproduction are not clearly understood. Superoxide anion production was evaluated using a lucigenin-based chemiluminescence method in 478 elderly subjects (304 women, 174 men; 79.5+/-7.1 years). Homocysteine (HCy) metabolism (homocysteinemia, vitamin B12, plasma, and erythrocyte folates), inflammation (CRP, fibrinogen, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein), lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol), and nutritional parameters (albumin, transthyretin) were determined. The results show that HCy levels (p<0.001) and superoxide anion production (p=0.04) increase with aging, but CRP does not. Highest HCy (>20 microM) (OR 1.83 (1.09-3.07), p=0.02) and CRP over 5 mg/L (adjusted OR 2.01 (1.15-3.51), p=0.01) are the main determinants in superoxide anion production in the elderly. These clinical data are confirmed in an in vitro study using THP-1 monocyte-like cells. Incubation with HCy thiolactone (HTL) (0-200 microM) and LPS (0-20 ng/ml) dramatically enhances NADPH oxidase expression and activation. Moreover, a synergic action was evidenced for low concentrations of HTL (20 microM) and LPS (5 ng). Taken together, the clinical data and in vitro experiments support the hypothesis that moderate homocysteinemia and low-grade inflammation synergically enhance NADPH oxidase activity in the elderly.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2008; 46(6):737-44. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.11.002 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) enhanced bone markers expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) implicated in osteoblastic differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the role of NAD(P)H oxidase in vascular calcification processes. A7r5 rat VSMCs were incubated with beta-glycerophosphate (10 mm) or uremic serum to induce a diffuse mineralization. H(2)O(2) production by VSMCs was determinated by chemiluminescence. NAD(P)H oxidase sub-unit (p22(phox)), Cbfa-1, ERK phosphorylation and bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expressions were measured by Western blotting. VSMCs exhibited higher production of H(2)O(2) and early expression of p22(phox) with beta-glycerophosphate or uremic serum within 24 h of treatment. beta-glycerophosphate-induced oxidative stress was associated with Cbfa-1 expression followed by ALP expression and activity, meanwhile the VSMCs expressing ALP diffusely calcified their extracellular matrix. Interestingly, diphenyleneiodonium partly prevented the osteoblastic differentiation. Results from this model strongly suggest a major implication of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in vascular calcification supported by VSMCs osteoblastic differentiation.
    Free Radical Research 10/2008; 42(9):789-97. DOI:10.1080/10715760802400766 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation-induced atherosclerosis and enhanced susceptibility to infection are linked to immune dysfunction and account for an important part of mortality in hemodialysis patients. This 4-yr prospective study aimed to use cytokine proteomic determination for predicting cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Levels of 12 cytokines were measured using a proteomic biochip system in 134 patients who were on stable hemodialysis and compared with a control group of 150 healthy volunteers. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between cytokine and clinical outcome. A proinflammatory state characterized by decreased anti-/proinflammatory cytokine ratio was evidenced in hemodialysis patients compared with control subjects. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, IL-6 and (IL-4+IL-10)/IL-6 ratio were associated with a significant and specific enhanced hazard ratio of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 11.32 [95% confidence interval 2.52 to 50.90; P < 0.01] and hazard ratio 3.14 [95% confidence interval 1.20 to 8.22; P < 0.05], respectively, when comparing the third and first tertiles). It is interesting that (IL-4+IL-6+IL-10)/(IL-2+IFN-gamma) ratio, used as a marker of lymphocytes T helper subsets cytokine secretion, was associated only with noncardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 4.93; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 23.65; P < 0.05). Beyond the strong prediction of cardiovascular mortality by IL-6, determination of cytokine ratios can be useful to identify hemodialysis patients with increased noncardiovascular mortality risk.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2008; 3(2):423-30. DOI:10.2215/CJN.02010507 · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at evaluating oxidative stress (OS) markers (i) in a cross-sectional study of hemodialysis (HD) patients to investigate potential regional effects of these markers and (ii) in a prospective crossover study to evaluate vitamin E-coated membrane (VE) effects. At baseline, OS parameters including low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidizability were measured in HD patients from five dialysis facilities. Patients were then randomly assigned to two treatment groups: group I patients (n = 33) switching to VE, and group II patients (n = 29) still using reference polysulfone (PS) membrane. After 3 months, patients were switched from VE to PS and vice versa for 6 months. The same OS parameters were measured after each period. At baseline, the cross-sectional analysis of LDL oxidizability showed a regional effect. By contrast, the crossover study did not show beneficial effects of VE on this parameter. Regional variations of LDL oxidizability in HD patients exist and may explain discrepancies in interventional therapy on OS.
    Blood Purification 02/2008; 26(3):300-10. DOI:10.1159/000128991 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition and inflammation are recognized as important predictors of poor clinical outcome in haemodialysis (HD). This study was designed to estimate the relative contribution of known biological markers of inflammation, malnutrition and muscle mass in the prognosis of HD patients. A total of 187 HD patients (100 women, 87 men, median age 66.7 years [22.3-93.5]) were followed-up yearly for 5 years. At baseline, pre-dialysis values of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, transthyretin, total HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were determined. Estimation of creatinine index (CI) as muscle mass marker was determined by creatinine kinetic modelling using pre- and post-dialysis creatinine values. During the follow-up period, 89 deaths (53 from cardiovascular causes) were observed. After adjustment for age, gender, dialysis vintage, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the highest tertile of CRP and lowest tertile of transthyretin and CI were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR)=1.98 [1.12-3.47], 2.58 [1.48-4.50], 2.71 [1.42-5.19], respectively). In addition, low CI had an additive value to low levels of transthyretin. In contrast, high cholesterol (RR=0.47 [0.27-0.83], P=0.0091) and vitamin E concentrations (RR=0.46 [0.26-0.80], P= 0.006) showed a protective trend for all-cause mortality. In the multivariate analysis, transthyretin appeared as the most predictive biological marker of non-CV mortality (RR=3.78 [1.30-10.96], P=0.014), and CI of CV mortality (RR=2.61 [1.06-6.46], P=0.038), respectively. Discussion. These results confirm that uraemic malnutrition constitutes an important risk factor for mortality in HD. Beyond transthyretin, CI seems to be an additional marker routinely available and monthly determined in HD patients.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2008; 23(1):345-53. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfm573 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) have a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and inflammation. As these 2 conditions often occur concomitantly in HD patients, they have been referred to together as the ‘malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome’ (MICS) or ‘malnutrition-inflammation atherosclerosis’ (MIA) syndrome to emphasize its important association with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidant defense mechanisms, is well established in HD subjects and could contribute to the poor clinical outcome of these patients. The aim of the present review is to discuss in more detail the common consequences of MICS and oxidative stress and their possible relationships with the long-term complications of HD patients, leading to the conclusion that a complex syndrome similar to the MICS or MIA is the oxidative stress-inflammation association, which may be called the “oxidative stress complex syndrome.”
    Hemodialysis International 03/2007; 11(s1):S32 - S38. DOI:10.1111/j.1542-4758.2007.00144.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • B Canaud · M Morena · J P Cristol · D Krieter ·
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    ABSTRACT: beta(2)M is a strong and independent indicator of hemodialysis patient outcomes and an excellent surrogate for middle molecules, and deserves to be routinely monitored and incorporated into dialysis adequacy targets. beta(2)M has a double meaning, reflecting both dialysis efficacy in terms of solute mass transfer and patient bioactivity. The work of Ward et al. in this issue warrants a study to test the hypothesis that long daily hemodiafiltration treatment would be the optimal renal replacement modality to improve dialysis patient outcomes.
    Kidney International 05/2006; 69(8):1297-9. DOI:10.1038/ · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombosis of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the leading cause of vascular access (VA) loss usually due to silent stenosis. Therefore, assessment of relevant risk factors of VA monitoring may provide insight into potential therapeutic targets for stenosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors (including inflammation and mineral metabolism dysfunctions) on the failure of internal AVF in HD patients. 128 HD patients with internal AVF were included in the study and followed up for two years. At baseline, VA morphology and function were followed by Doppler ultrasonography and serum albumin, prealbumine, C-reactive protein, orosomucoid, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, bone-type alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor ê ê B ligand were measured. At baseline, 50 stenoses were detected but none of them required any intervention. Age and biological parameters did not significantly differ between patients with or without VA stenosis. Over the two year- follow up, VA thrombosis occurred in 19 patients. Preexisting stenosis of VA was present in 9/19 patients (47.3% of cases) (chi-square = 3.708, p = 0.0538). Despite the low rate of events, phosphorus [1.75 (0.95-2.77) vs 1.42 (0.47-3.22) mmol/L, p = 0.0416], Calcium x Phosphorus product [4.00 (2.00-5.90) vs 3.40 (1.10-6.80) mmol(2)/L(2), p = 0.0676] and parathyroid hormone [165.00 (1.00-944.00) vs 79.50 (1.00-846.60) ng/L, p = 0.0814) levels were higher in the 19 thrombotic patients whereas all other biological parameters did not significantly differ. These results, which confirm that VA thrombosis occurs more frequently upon preexisting stenosis, also demonstrate that mineral metabolism disorders, compared to inflammation, may contribute to VA dysfunction leading to thrombosis.
    The journal of vascular access 04/2006; 7(2):77-82. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of bone proteins resulting from transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteoblasts suggests that vascular calcifications are a bioactive process. Regulating molecules such as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) could play a key role in bone-vascular calcification imbalance. This study investigated the contribution of these proteins as well as mineral metabolism disorders in hemodialysis (HD) patient outcome. A total of 185 HD patients were followed up prospectively for 2 yr. In addition to clinical characteristics, mineral metabolism markers as well as OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) were measured at baseline. After 2 yr, survival rates were described with Kaplan-Meier and compared with Cox regression analyses; 50 patients died (27 from cardiovascular diseases). Calcium, phosphate, and calcium x phosphate product were not associated with mortality. Both hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone > or =300 pg/ml) and hypoparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone <150 pg/ml) were poorly associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. By contrast, elevated OPG levels predicted all-cause (relative risk [RR] 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 5.41; P = 0.006) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14 to 8.69; P = 0.03). Low levels of sRANKL were associated with a protective effect for all-cause mortality (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.94; P = 0.03). The association of OPG with all-cause mortality was stronger in patients with C-reactive protein > or =12.52 mg/L. In this condition, both highest (RR 5.68; 95% CI 1.48 to 22.73; P = 0.01) and lowest tertiles (RR 5.37; 95% CI 147 to 1968; P = 0.01) significantly predicted poor outcome. These results show that regulating-bone molecules, especially OPG, are strong predictors of mortality in HD patients, suggesting that OPG is a vascular risk factor, in particular in patients who have high C-reactive protein levels. OPG determination therefore should be added to the biologic follow-up of these patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2006; 17(1):262-70. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2005030260 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite several technical advances in dialysis treatment modalities and a better patient care management including correction of anemia, suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism, lipid and oxidative stress profiles improvement, the morbidity and the mortality of dialysis patients still remain still elevated. Recent prospective interventional trials in hemodialysis (HEMO study and 4D study) were not very conclusive in showing any significant improvement in dialysis patient outcomes. High-efficiency convective therapies, such as online hemodiafiltration (HDF), are claimed to be superior to conventional diffusive hemodialysis (HD) in improving the dialysis efficacy and in reducing intradialytic morbidity and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. The aim of this report was, first, to review the evidence-based facts tending to prove the superiority of HDF vs. HD in terms of efficacy and tolerance, and, second, to analyze the needs to prove the clinical superiority of HDF in terms of reducing morbidity and all-cause mortality of dialysis patients. A systematic review of studies comparing HDF and HD has been performed in the microbiological safety of online production, the solute removal capacity of small and medium-size uremic toxins, and its implication in the reduction of the bioactive dialysis system vs. patient interaction. Major planned randomized international studies comparing HDF and HD in terms of morbidity and mortality have been reviewed. To conclude, it is thought that these long-term prospective randomized trials will clarify on a scientific evidence-based level the putative beneficial role of high-efficiency HDF modalities on dialysis patient outcomes.
    Hemodialysis International 02/2006; 10 Suppl 1(s1):S5-S12. DOI:10.1111/j.1542-4758.2006.01183.x · 1.24 Impact Factor

  • Journal de Radiologie 10/2005; 86(10):1288-1288. DOI:10.1016/S0221-0363(05)75316-6 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past decade, hemodialysis (HD)-induced inflammation has been linked to the development of long-term morbidity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on regular renal replacement therapy. Because interleukins and anaphylatoxins produced during HD sessions are potent activators for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, an example of an enzyme that is responsible for overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), this may constitute a link between leukocyte activation and cell or organ toxicity. Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between oxidant production and antioxidant defense mechanisms, has been documented in ESRD patients using lipid and/or protein oxidative markers. Characterization of HD-induced oxidative stress has included identification of potential activators for NADPH oxidase. Uremia per se could prime phagocyte oxidative burst. HD, far from improving the oxidative status, results in an enhancement of ROS owing to hemoincompatibility of the dialysis system, hemoreactivity of the membrane, and trace amounts of endotoxins in the dialysate. In addition, the HD process is associated with an impairment in antioxidant mechanisms. The resulting oxidative stress has been implicated in long-term complications including anemia, amyloidosis, accelerated atherosclerosis, and malnutrition. Prevention of oxidative stress in HD might focus on improving the hemocompatibility of the dialysis system, supplementation of deficient patients with antioxidants, and modulation of NADPH oxidase by pharmacologic approaches.
    Hemodialysis International 02/2005; 9(1):37-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1492-7535.2005.01116.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • K Klouche · M Morena · B Canaud · B Descomps · J J Beraud · J P Cristol ·
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    ABSTRACT: Heme protein toxicity, owing to generation of reactive oxygen species most likely by direct interaction between heme iron and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), may be involved in various pathologies, including atherogenesis and pigmentary acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of heme cytotoxicity and the effects of antioxidant therapies in an in vitro model of heme-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Human LDLs were exposed to heme, iron (Fe), protoporphyrin (PPIX) and PPIX-Zinc (Zn) with or without H2O2. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by measurement of conjugated diene formation (at the 234-nm absorbance). The effect of various antioxidants, such as vitamin E and vitamin C, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), mannitol and desferoxamine (DFO) was further investigated in the established in vitro model of LDL oxidation. Incubation of LDLs in the presence of heme/H2O2 induced lipid peroxidation with the optimal oxidation rate being at 5 microm heme/100 microm H2O2 doses. By contrast, incubation of LDL with H2O2, Fe, Fe/H2O2, PPIX, PPIX/H2O2, heme or PPIX-Zn did not initiate any LDL oxidation. In vitro, the vitamin E load protected native LDLs against heme/H2O2 oxidative modifications. Incubation of LDLs with increasing doses of vitamin C, GSH and DFO conferred a dose-dependent protection, while mannitol and GSSG had no effect. Initiation and propagation of heme-induced lipid peroxidation is not mediated by a Fenton reaction but depends on specific interactions between heme and H2O2. It may result from the generation of ferryl and perferryl radicals derived from hemic Fe and H2O2 interactions. A protective effect of vitamins E, C, GSH and DFO was demonstrated in this model.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2004; 34(9):619-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2004.01395.x · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress during sepsis induces tissue damage, leading to organ dysfunction and high mortality. The antioxidant effects of vitamin E have been reported in several diseases, but not in sepsis. Statins have cholesterol-independent anti-inflammatory effects that are related to a decrease of isoprenoid proteins and oxidative stress. Therefore, we evaluated superoxide anion (O2- degree) production and ex vivo effects of vitamin E and simvastatin in sepsis. Fourteen healthy volunteers, 14 intensive care unit (ICU) nonseptic, and 14 ICU patients with sepsis were included in this prospective study. Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and vitamin E levels were determined by routine laboratory tests. Superoxide anion production was measured in the venous blood by chemiluminescence technique after phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. Effects of vitamin E and simvastatin on O2- degree production was investigated ex vivo. Luminescence was indexed to the leukocyte count. We also investigated the in vitro effect of simvastatin on translocation of NADPH oxidase p21 Rac2 subunit in THP-1 monocytic cell line. The ratio of vitamin E/cholesterol + triglycerides was significantly decreased in septic as compared with nonseptic patients and volunteers. The O2- degree production was significantly higher in the group of septic patients than in the others, regardless of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte count. Vitamin E and simvastatin induced ex vivo an inhibition of O2- degree production of 20% and 40% respectively. In vitro, simvastatin inhibited phorbol myristate acetate-induced- O2- degree production by monocytes through NADPH oxidase inactivation. We conclude that sepsis is associated with a significant decrease in vitamin E and an overproduction of O2- degree. Vitamin E and simvastatin lessen this phenomenon through NADPH oxidase inactivation.
    Shock 08/2004; 22(1):34-9. DOI:10.1097/01.shk.0000129197.46212.7e · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemodiafiltration (HDF) is a well-recognized treatment modality that offers a way of optimizing renal replacement therapy efficacy of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. On-line production of substitution fluid by the 'cold sterilization' process (ultrafiltration) gives access to an unlimited amount of sterile and non-pyrogenic IV grade solution. This advantageous low-cost solution may therefore be employed to develop various forms of high-flux HDF modalities (ol-HDF). High-flux post-dilutional HDF (post-HDF) has mainly been used in clinical practice since it offers the most efficient and best compromise between diffusive and convective clearances. Nowadays, the new targets in anemia correction have created hemorheological conditions that render high filtration rate more difficult to achieve and/or at the expense of higher transmembrane pressure. To overcome this new challenging condition and keeping the same concept, it has been proposed to develop alternative modalities with various sites of fluid substitution (predilution, mixed pre-post with various percentages) in HDF. In this presentation we discuss the benefits of using pre-HDF and show how to match performances with post-HDF. Potential advantages of new ol-HDF options (pre-, mixed and mid-dilution) that are advocated have to be demonstrated in clinical trials. On-line HDF is a multipurpose treatment method that is employed to improve care and outcomes of ESRD patients. Due to its versatility, ol-HDF should be considered as a technical platform permitting to personalize and tailor treatment to patients' needs. The mode of substitution (post-, pre-, mixed or mid-dilution) should be established according to hemorheological conditions of the individual patient.
    Blood Purification 02/2004; 22 Suppl 2(2):40-8. DOI:10.1159/000081874 · 1.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
130.05 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2014
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 2013
    • Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2006-2013
    • Institut de Recherche en Cancerologie de Montpellier
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2008-2012
    • Université Montpellier
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2002
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France