J Quilley

New York Medical College, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (63)250.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid posited to act in the circulatory adaptation to pregnancy and the development of preeclampsia. Red blood cells (RBCs) may function as major contributors of cis- and trans-EETs. METHODS We performed paired analyses of EETs, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and 20-HETE in RBCs, plasma, and urine from preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant and nonpregnant women. Blood from fetal and maternal circulation was collected. EETs, DHETs, and 20-HETE were analyzed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Vascular function and inflammation indices were analyzed. RESULTS Plasma EET is higher in normotensive (median, range; 9.9, 6.3-25.2ng/mL n = 29) and preeclamptic (10.9, 6.0-48.0ng/mL, n = 19) women than in nonpregnant controls (7.3, 3.7-10.2ng/mL, n = 19) and correlate with RBC EETs, C-reactive protein, and arterial stiffness. Renal production of EETs, measured as urinary DHETs, was reduced in preeclamptic (4.5, 1.6-24.5ng/mg creatinine) compared to normotensive (11.4, 1.6-44.5ng/mg creatinine) pregnancies. EETs are 3- to 5-fold greater in fetoplacental than in maternal circulation (RBCs 36.6, 13.1-69.4 vs. 12.5, 6.4-12.0ng/10(9) cells; plasma 31.6, 8.5-192.6 vs. 12.0, 6.8-48.0ng/mL). Both cis- and trans-EETs are present in fetal RBCs. CONCLUSIONS RBCs contribute to elevated levels of EETs in the fetoplacental circulation. EETs may modulate systemic and fetoplacental hemodynamics in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Decreased renal EET generation may be associated with the development of maternal renal dysfunction and hypertension in preeclampsia.
    American Journal of Hypertension 02/2013; 26(2):271-8. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • John Quilley
    American Journal of Hypertension 11/2011; 24(11):1188. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression is increased in the kidney of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and associated with enhanced release of prostaglandins stimulated by arachidonic acid (AA). Treatment of diabetic rats with nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase or with tempol to reduce superoxide prevented these changes, suggesting the possibility that peroxynitrite (ONOO) may be the stimulus for the induction of renal COX-2 in diabetes. Consequently, we tested the effects of an ONOO decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4'-pyridyl)porphyrinato iron(III) (FeTMPyP), which was administered for 3-4 wk after the induction of diabetes. FeTMPyP treatment normalized the twofold increase in the expression of nitrotyrosine, a marker for ONOO formation, in the diabetic rat and prevented the increase in renal COX-2 expression without modifying the two- to threefold increases in renal release of prostaglandins PGE(2) and 6-ketoPGF(1α) in response to AA. FeTMPyP treatment of diabetic rats reduced the elevated creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of TNF-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, suggesting a renoprotective effect. Double immunostaining of renal sections and immunoprecipitation of COX-2 and nitrotyrosine suggested nitration of COX-2 in diabetic rats. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to elevated glucose (450 mg/dl) or ONOO derived from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), expression of COX-2 was increased and was prevented when endothelial cells were treated with FeTMPyP. These results indicate that elevated glucose increases the formation of ONOO, which contributes to the induction of renal COX-2 in the diabetic rat.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2011; 300(3):H1125-32. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the hypothesis that vascular and renal dysfunction caused by angiotensin II (Ang II) through increased levels of blood pressure, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats can be prevented by lentiviral-mediated delivery of endothelial heme oxygenase (HO)-1. We targeted the vascular endothelium using a lentiviral construct expressing human HO-1 under the control of the endothelium-specific promoter VE-cadherin (VECAD-HO-1) and examined the effect of long-term human HO-1 expression on blood pressure in Ang II-mediated increases in blood pressure and oxidant stress. A bolus injection of VECAD-HO-1 into the renal artery resulted in expression of human HO-1 for up to 6-9 weeks. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with Ang II minipumps and treated with lentivirus carrying either the HO-1 or green fluorescent protein. Renal tissue from VECAD-HO-1-transduced rats expresses human HO-1 mRNA and proteins without an effect on endogenous HO-1. Infusion of Ang II increased blood pressure (p < 0.001) but decreased vascular relaxation in response to acetylcholine, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS (peNOS) levels, and renal and plasma levels of adiponectin (p < 0.05); in contrast, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels increased. Ang II-treated animals had higher levels of superoxide anion and inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased urinary protein and plasma creatinine levels. Lentiviral transduction with the VECAD-HO-1 construct attenuated the increase in blood pressure (p < 0.05), improved vascular relaxation, increased plasma adiponectin, and prevented the elevation in urinary protein and plasma creatinine in Ang II-treated rats. Endothelial-specific expression of HO-1 also reduced oxidative stress and levels of inflammatory cytokines resulting in increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, peNOS, and eNOS. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that endothelial-specific increases in HO-1 expression attenuate Ang II hypertension and the associated vascular dysfunction that is associated with increases in adiponectin and peNOS and reductions in oxidative stress and levels of inflammatory cytokines.
    Human gene therapy 03/2011; 22(3):271-82. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • J Quilley, M Santos, P Pedraza
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    ABSTRACT: The induction of renal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in diabetes has been implicated in the renal functional and structural changes in models where hypertension or uninephrectomy was superimposed. We examined the protective effects of 3 mo treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-58236) in terms of albuminuria, renal hypertrophy, and the excretion of TNF-α and TGF-β, which have also been implicated in the detrimental renal effects of diabetes. SC-58236 treatment (3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of diabetic rats resulted in reduced urinary excretion of PGE(2), 6-ketoPGF(1α), and thromboxane B(2), all of which were increased in the diabetic rat compared with age-matched nondiabetic rats. However, serum thromboxane B(2) levels were unchanged, confirming the selectivity of SC-58236 for COX-2. The renal protective effects of treatment of diabetic rats with the COX-2 inhibitor were reflected by a marked reduction in albuminuria, a reduction in kidney weight-to-body weight ratio, and TGF-β excretion and a marked decrease in the urinary excretion of TNF-α. The protective effects of SC-58236 were independent of changes in plasma glucose levels or serum advanced glycation end-product levels, which were not different from those of untreated diabetic rats. In an additional study, the inhibition of COX-2 with SC-58236 for 4 wk in diabetic rats resulted in creatinine clearance rates not different from those of control rats. These results confirm that the inhibition of COX-2 in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat confers renal protection and suggest that the induction of COX-2 precedes the increases in cytokines, TNF-α, and TGF-β.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2011; 300(6):H2316-22. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are vasodilator, natriuretic, and antiinflammatory lipid mediators. Both cis- and trans-EETs are stored in phospholipids and in red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulation; the maximal velocity (V(max)) of trans-EET hydrolysis by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is threefold that of cis-EETs. Because RBCs of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) exhibit increased sEH activity, a deficiency of trans-EETs in the SHR was hypothesized to increase blood pressure (BP). This prediction was fulfilled, since sEH inhibition with cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (AUCB; 2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 7 days) in the SHR reduced mean BP from 176 ± 8 to 153 ± 5 mmHg (P < 0.05), whereas BP in the control Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) was unaffected. Plasma levels of EETs in the SHR were lower than in the age-matched control WKY (16.4 ± 1.6 vs. 26.1 ± 1.8 ng/ml; P < 0.05). The decrease in BP in the SHR treated with AUCB was associated with an increase in plasma EETs, which was mostly accounted for by increasing trans-EET from 4.1 ± 0.2 to 7.9 ± 1.5 ng/ml (P < 0.05). Consistent with the effect of increased plasma trans-EETs and reduced BP in the SHR, the 14,15-trans-EET was more potent (ED(50) 10(-10) M; maximum dilation 59 ± 15 μm) than the cis-isomer (ED(50) 10(-9) M; maximum dilation 30 ± 11 μm) in relaxing rat preconstricted arcuate arteries. The 11,12-EET cis- and trans-isomers were equipotent dilators as were the 8,9-EET isomers. In summary, inhibition of sEH resulted in a twofold increase in plasma trans-EETs and reduced mean BP in the SHR. The greater vasodilator potency of trans- vs. cis-EETs may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of sEH inhibitors.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2011; 300(6):H1990-6. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    John Quilley
    Journal of Hypertension 10/2010; 28(10):2010-1. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of coronary angioplasty are limited by the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells leading to restenosis. We hypothesized that increased activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE) after angioplasty in response to growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), leads to reduced cAMP levels, which, in turn, may contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In rats subjected to angioplasty, aortic expression and activity of PDE3/PDE4 were increased within 24 h and associated with reduced phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of PDE3 increased VASP phosphorylation in aortic rings from rats subjected to angioplasty, whereas inhibition of PDE4 or stimulation of adenylate cyclase with isoproterenol was without effect; however, combined inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4 produced a synergistic effect on VASP phosphorylation. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, exposure to PDGF-BB resulted in increased expression of PDE3, which was prevented by an inhibitor of PI3 kinase but not by inhibitors of the MAP kinase signaling pathway. In contrast, FGF increased the expression of PDE4 in vascular smooth muscle cells but did not influence expression of PDE3. This study shows that angioplasty results in increased expression/activity of PDE, possibly arising from stimulation by PDGF-BB and FGF, and decreased cAMP levels, which may promote restenosis. These results provide a rational explanation for the beneficial effects of PDE inhibitors.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 590(1-3):29-35. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    Yu-Jung Chen, Jing Li, John Quilley
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    ABSTRACT: We confirmed that release of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) from the isolated perfused kidney of diabetic rats is greatly reduced compared with age-matched control rats. The present studies were undertaken to examine potential mechanisms for the deficit in renal 20-HETE in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes of 3-4 wk duration. A role for oxidative stress was excluded, inasmuch as treatment of diabetic rats with tempol, an SOD mimetic, for 4 wk did not affect the renal release of 20-HETE. Similarly, chronic inhibition of nitric oxide formation with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or aldose reductase with zopolrestat failed to alter the release of 20-HETE from the diabetic rat kidney. Inasmuch as 20-HETE may be metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX), the expression/activity of which is increased in diabetes, we included indomethacin in the perfusate of the isolated kidney to inhibit COX but found no effect on 20-HETE release. Diabetic rats were treated for 3 wk with fenofibrate to increase expression of cytochrome P-450 (CYP4A) in an attempt to find an intervention that would restore release of 20-HETE from the diabetic rat kidney. However, fenofibrate reduced 20-HETE release in diabetic and control rat kidneys but increased expression of CYP4A. Only insulin treatment of diabetic rats for 2 wk to reverse the hyperglycemia and maintain blood glucose levels at <200 mg/dl reversed the renal deficit in 20-HETE. We conclude that oxidative stress, increased aldose reductase activity, or increased COX activity does not contribute to the renal deficit of 20-HETE in diabetes, which may be directly related to insulin deficiency.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2008; 294(5):H2305-12. · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Yu-Jung Chen, John Quilley
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression is increased in the diabetic rat and has been linked to increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal injury. Our studies indicate that oxidative stress in the form of peroxynitrite (ONOO) may be the stimulus for induction of COX-2. In this study, we addressed the effects of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist on renal COX-2 expression as fibrates exert renal protective effects. Forty-eight hours after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin in male Wistar rats, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg/day) was started, and the effects were compared with untreated diabetic rats and treated and untreated age-matched control rats (n = 5 per group). After 12 to 14 weeks of treatment, the right kidney was perfused to determine prostaglandin release in response to arachidonic acid (AA), and the left kidney was used to examine the expression of COX-2 and nitrotyrosine, an index of ONOO formation. Release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in response to AA was enhanced in the diabetic rat kidney compared with control (4.8 +/- 0.7 versus 1.9 +/- 0.7 ng/min) and reduced by fenofibrate to 0.6 +/- 0.2 ng/min. A similar pattern was obtained for AA-stimulated release of 6-ketoPGF(1alpha). The effects of fenofibrate were associated with reduced renal expression of COX-2 and nitrotyrosine in diabetic rats. We used creatinine clearance as an index of GFR, which was increased in the diabetic rat, 3.09 +/- 0.4 versus 1.15 +/- 0.1 ml/min for control, and reduced by fenofibrate treatment to 1.87 +/- 0.3 ml/min. These results show that fenofibrate treatment of diabetic rats decreases renal COX-2 expression, possibly by reducing nitrosative stress, and is associated with a reduction of the enhanced GFR.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2008; 324(2):658-63. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that cAMP and cGMP are important for vasorelaxation, and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate their levels. Balloon angioplasty (BAL) is associated with reduced cAMP and cGMP levels, and inhibition of PDE-3 reduces restenosis. In this study, we found that BAL increased PDE-3 activity, which affected vasoreactivity of rat aortic rings 24-h post-BAL; these were compared with intact (INT) and ex vivo endothelium-denuded rings (RUB) from sham rats. In BAL and RUB rings, vasorelaxant responses to ACh were abolished. The EC(50) for phenylephrine (PE) was 1.8-fold less in RUB than in INT or BAL, whereas the maximal contractile effect of PE was greater in BAL than in INT or RUB. PDE-3 inhibitors reduced the maximal response to PE by >65% in BAL compared with 10-30% in INT and RUB; the reduction of the maximal response to U-46619 was 37% in BAL compared with 8% in INT with no reduction in RUB. PDE-4 inhibitors reduced PE-induced tone by <30% in an endothelium-dependent manner. Vasorelaxant responses to agonists that utilize cAMP were greatly impaired in BAL and RUB rings, and inhibition of PDE-3 enhanced the vasorelaxant responses in BAL or RUB. Inhibition of PDE-4 increased vasorelaxant responses to isoproterenol (ISO) to a much lesser degree. Thus PDE-3 and PDE-4 inhibitors exhibited differential effects on PE-induced tone and vasorelaxant responses to ISO. Inhibition of PDE-3 also produced a greater increase in cAMP in BAL than INT or RUB rings. These results suggest that increased PDE-3 activity after BAL may promote a vasospastic state and that the reduction in cAMP may, possibly, influence vessel remodeling.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 07/2007; 292(6):H2973-81. · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Yu-Jung Chen, Jing Li, John Quilley
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and arachidonic acid-stimulated prostaglandin release are increased in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and are reduced by tempol treatment, indicating a role for superoxide. Generation of nitric oxide (NO) and its product with superoxide, peroxynitrite, is also increased in diabetes and can induce COX-2. To investigate a role of NO, rats were treated with L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) to inhibit NO synthase (NOS) for 14-18 days. In isolated perfused kidneys from diabetic rats, prostaglandin release and vasoconstrictor responses to arachidonic acid were increased and renal cortical expression of COX-2 was 2-fold that of control rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with L-NAME reduced arachidonic acid-stimulated release of prostaglandins and the expression of COX-2. L-NAME increased vasoconstrictor responses to AA in diabetic and non-diabetic rats but abolished the differences between the two. These results, coupled with those using tempol, suggest that NO or its product with superoxide may contribute to the induction of renal COX-2 in the diabetic rat.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2006; 541(1-2):80-6. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Jing Li, Yu-Jung Chen, John Quilley
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression is increased in the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat and is associated with enhanced renal prostaglandin release in response to arachidonic acid (AA). Endoperoxide-mediated vasoconstrictor responses to AA were also enhanced in the diabetic rat kidney. Because oxidative stress is increased in diabetes and has been shown to induce COX-2, we assessed its contribution to prostaglandin release by treating diabetic rats with tempol (120 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Release of AA-stimulated prostaglandins PGE(2) and 6-ketoPGF(1alpha) from the isolated perfused kidney was used as an index of COX activity, and Western analysis was used to determine COX-2 protein expression. In untreated diabetic rats, the release of prostaglandins in response to AA was markedly enhanced; the increase in release of both 6-ketoPGF(1alpha) and PGE(2) after AA was twice that in control rats. Renal cortical COX-2 expression in diabetic rats was 3-fold that of control rats. Tempol treatment reduced the AA-stimulated release of prostaglandins to levels seen in control rats; this was associated with reduced expression of COX-2 protein to levels not different from that in control rats. However, the enhanced vasoconstrictor response to AA in diabetic rats was unaffected by tempol treatment but abolished by inhibition of COX-1 with SC58560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole]. The addition of tempol to the perfusate of kidneys from diabetic and control rats had only a slight effect on prostaglandin release. We conclude that oxidative stress is an integral component of the mechanism involved in the induction of renal COX-2 in diabetes.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2005; 314(2):818-24. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are candidate endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors that demonstrate a wide range of biological effects. The presence of both cis- and trans-EETs in rat plasma was identified with HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in this study. The total EETs in plasma are 38.2 ng/ml with cis-EETs representing 21.4 +/- 0.4 ng/ml and trans-EETs 16.8 +/- 0.4 ng/ml. EETs in RBCs were estimated to be 20.2 ng/10(9) RBCs, which corresponds to 200 ng in RBCs contained in 1 ml blood. RBC incubation with 10 mM tert-butyl hydroperoxide resulted in 4.4-fold increase of total cis-EETs (from 9.2 to 40.2 ng/10(9) RBCs) and 5.5-fold increase of total trans-EETs (from 11.0 to 60.8 ng/10(9) RBCs). EETs were released (2 ng/ml) from RBCs after incubation at 37 degrees C for 10 min even after being washed 3 times, indicating that RBCs are reservoirs of plasma EETs. The identification of cis- and trans-EETs in RBCs and in plasma as well as their release from RBCs suggest a vasoregulatory role of RBCs in view of their potent vasoactivity.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 02/2005; 75(1-4):65-78. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • John Quilley, Yue Qiu
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    ABSTRACT: Increased extracellular K+ is reported to cause endothelium-independent vasodilation and K+ has been proposed as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. However, the endothelium is endowed with K+ channels that may also be responsive to increased K+. We examined the vasodilator effect of bolus administration of 20, 40 and 60 micromol KCl in the rat isolated kidney in which perfusion pressure was elevated with phenylephrine. KCl produced dose-dependent vasodilator responses that were virtually abolished by removal of the endothelium which also abolished the vasodilator effect of bradykinin without affecting that to nitroprusside. The vasodilator effect of KCl was unaffected by inhibition of cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase or cytochrome P450 but reduced by inhibition of K+ channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA). Barium chloride reduced the vasodilator effects of KCl but charybdotoxin/apamin was without effect. These results indicate that KCl results in endothelium-dependent vasodilation that is independent of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins and cytochrome P450 but dependent on activation of endothelial K+ channels.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 02/2005; 508(1-3):193-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel eicosanoid, 5,6-trans-epoxy-8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (5,6-trans-EET), was identified in rat red blood cells. Characterization of 5,6-trans-EET in the sn-2 position of the phospholipids was accomplished by hydrolysis with phospholipase A(2) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The electron ionization spectrum of 5,6-erythro-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-erythro-DHET), converted from 5,6-trans-EET in the samples, matches that of the authentic standard. Hydrogenation of the extracted 5,6-erythro-DHET with platinum(IV) oxide/hydrogen resulted in an increase of the molecular mass by 6 daltons and the same retention time shift as an authentic standard in gas chromatography, suggesting the existence of three olefins as well as the 5,6-erythro-dihydroxyl structure in the metabolite. Match of retention times by chromatography indicated identity of the stereochemistry of the red blood cell 5,6-erythro-DHET vis à vis the synthetic standard. High pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the phospholipase A(2)-hydrolyzed lipid extracts from red blood cells revealed match of the mass spectrum and retention time of the compound with the authentic 5,6-trans-EET standard, providing direct evidence of the existence of 5,6-trans-EET in red blood cells. The presence of other trans-EETs was also demonstrated. The ability of both 5,6-trans-EET and its product 5,6-erythro-DHET to relax preconstricted renal interlobar arteries was significantly greater than that of 5,6-cis-EET. In contrast, 5,6-cis-EET and 5,6-trans-EET were equipotent in their capacity to inhibit collagen-induced rat platelet aggregation, whereas 5,6-erythro-DHET was without effect. We propose that the red blood cells serve as a reservoir for epoxides which on release may act in a vasoregulatory capacity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2004; 279(35):36412-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our initial studies on renal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and activity addressed the critical role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in increasing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) that eventuated in expression of COX-2 in the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) of the nephron. COX-2 supplanted the dominant oxygenase, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, omega-hydroxylase, that synthesized 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). These findings served as the basis for additional studies on: 1) the role of glucocorticoids in regulating COX-2 expression and activity in the mTAL; and 2) the utilization of the same signaling pathways in response to stimulation of the mTAL calcium receptor (CaR). These studies of mTAL COX-2 expression which are addressed in the first part of this chapter are followed by explorations of the expression of COX-2 in preglomerular microvessels (PGMV) and the relationship of COX-2 to 20-HETE, the principal eicosanoid of PGMV. The third and last component of this chapter explores the signaling events, focusing on COX-2, which are set in motion by diabetes.
    Current Pharmaceutical Design 02/2004; 10(6):613-26. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    John Quilley, Yu-Jung Chen
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    ABSTRACT: In the rat isolated perfused kidney, arachidonic acid elicits cyclooxygenase-dependent vasoconstriction through activation of PGH2/TxA2 receptors; responses are enhanced in kidneys from diabetic rats. This study examined the roles of cyclooxygenase-1/cyclooxygenase-2 in the enhanced renal vasoconstrictor effect of arachidonic acid in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Release of 20-HETE was also determined, as this eicosanoid has been reported to elicit cyclooxygenase-dependent vasoconstriction. We confirmed that vasoconstrictor responses to arachidonic acid were enhanced in the diabetic rat kidney associated with a 2-fold-greater increase in the release of 6-ketoPGF1alpha, which was used as an index of cyclooxygenase activity. One and three micrograms of arachidonic acid increased perfusion pressure by 85+/-37 and 186+/-6 mm Hg, respectively, in diabetic rat kidneys compared with 3+/-1 and 17+/-8 mm Hg, respectively, in control rat kidneys. Inhibition of both cyclooxygenase isoforms with indomethacin (10 micromol/L) abolished the vasoconstrictor response to arachidonic acid in both diabetic and control rat kidneys, whereas inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 with nimesulide (5 micromol/L) reduced perfusion pressure responses to 1 and 3 microg arachidonic acid only in the diabetic rat kidney to 15+/-8 and 108+/-26 mm Hg, respectively, consistent with a 3-fold increase in the renal cortical expression of cyclooxygenase-2. 20-HETE release from the diabetic rat kidney was reduced almost 6-fold and was not increased in response to arachidonic acid. These results demonstrate that the renal vasoconstrictor effect of arachidonic acid is solely dependent on cyclooxygenase activity, with no evidence for a contribution from 20-HETE; in the diabetic rat, cyclooxygenase-2 activity contributes to the renal vasoconstrictor effect of arachidonic acid.
    Hypertension 11/2003; 42(4):837-43. · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • J Quilley, Y Qiu, J Hirt
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    ABSTRACT: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P450-derived constrictor eicosanoid produced by the preglomerular vasculature where it contributes to regulation of tone. Removal of the tonic inhibitory influence of nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to increase renal 20-HETE release. Because inhibition of NO synthesis enhances responses to vasoconstrictor agents, we examined a contribution for increased 20-HETE generation. In the rat kidney perfused with Krebs' buffer, responses to U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9alpha,11alpha-methanoepoxy PGF2alpha), a thromboxane A2 mimetic, were compared before and after 50 microM L-nitroarginine (L-NA) to inhibit NO synthase. L-NA raised perfusion pressure (PP) from 79 +/- 3 to 190 +/- 7 mm Hg and enhanced constrictor responsiveness to U46619. U46619 (10, 30, 100, and 300 ng) increased PP by 7 +/- 1, 17 +/- 2, 50 +/- 7, and 67 +/- 7 mm Hg, respectively, before L-NA and 15 +/- 1, 37 +/- 7, 68 +/- 10, and 85 +/- 11 mm Hg, respectively, after L-NA, which did not increase 20-HETE efflux from the kidney. Nonetheless, an inhibitor of omega-hydroxylase, dibromododecencyl methylsulfonimide (DDMS), which reduced 20-HETE release, normalized the enhanced responsiveness to U46619. When PP was elevated with phenylephrine, vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 were similarly enhanced, an effect that was also prevented by DDMS. DDMS and an antagonist of 20-HETE, 20-HEDE [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z), 15(Z)-dienoic acid], also reduced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 in the absence of elevation of PP. Because 20-HETE inhibits K+ channels, we examined the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on vasoconstrictor responses and showed that both tetraethylammonium (TEA) and charybdotoxin enhanced renal vasoconstrictor responses to U46619. However, the inhibitory effects of 20-HEDE on vasoconstrictor responses remained after treatment with TEA. These results support a role for 20-HETE vasoconstrictor responses but suggest an action independent of K+ channels.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 11/2003; 307(1):223-9. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown a cytochrome P450-dependent renal vasodilator effect of arachidonic acid in response to inhibition of cyclooxygenase and elevation of perfusion pressure, which was enhanced in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and linked to increased production of and/or responsiveness to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). In the SHR, vasodilation elicited by low doses of arachidonic acid was attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nw-nitro-L-arginine (50 micromol/L), whereas the responses to high doses were unaffected. Inhibition of epoxygenases with miconazole (0.3 micromol/L) in the presence of Nw-nitro-L-arginine greatly reduced the renal vasodilator response to all doses of arachidonic acid. Tetraethylammonium (10 mmol/L), a nonselective K+ channel blocker, abolished the nitric oxide-independent renal vasodilator effect of arachidonic acid as well as the vasodilator effect of 5,6-EET, confirming that EET-dependent vasodilation involves activation of K+ channels. Under conditions of elevated perfusion pressure (200 mm Hg) and cyclooxygenase inhibition, 5,6-EET, 8, 9-EET, and 11,12-EET caused renal vasodilatation in both SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), whereas 14,15-EET produced vasoconstriction. 5,6-EET was the most potent renal vasodilator of the EET regioisomers in the SHR by a factor of 4 or more. In the SHR, 5,6-EET- and 11,12-EET-induced renal vasodilatation was >2-fold greater than that registered in WKY. Thus, the augmented vasodilator responses to arachidonic acid in the SHR is through activation of K+ channels, and 5,6-EET is the most likely mediator.
    Hypertension 10/2003; 42(4):548-54. · 7.63 Impact Factor

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1k Citations
250.33 Total Impact Points


  • 1980–2011
    • New York Medical College
      • Department of Pharmacology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2000
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
    • Yale University
      • Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States