[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are a family of immunoglobulin-like single-span transmembrane molecules that are expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells, leukocytes and myocardia. JAM has been suggested to contribute to the adhesive function of tight junctions and to regulate leukocyte trans migration. We describe the crystal structure of the recombinant extracellular part of mouse JAM (rsJAM) at 2.5 A resolution. rsJAM consists of two immunoglobulin-like domains that are connected by a conformationally restrained short linker. Two rsJAM molecules form a U-shaped dimer with highly complementary interactions between the N-terminal domains. Two salt bridges are formed in a complementary manner by a novel dimerization motif, R(V,I,L)E, which is essential for the formation of rsJAM dimers in solution and common to the known members of the JAM family. Based on the crystal packing and studies with mutant rsJAM, we propose a model for homophilic adhesion of JAM. In this model, U-shaped JAM dimers are oriented in cis on the cell surface and form a two-dimensional network by trans-interactions of their N-terminal domains with JAM dimers from an opposite cell surface.
The EMBO Journal 09/2001; 20(16):4391-8. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, localizes at tight junctions, and regulates both paracellular permeability and leukocyte transmigration. To investigate molecular determinants of JAM function, the extracellular domain of murine JAM was produced as a recombinant soluble protein (rsJAM) in insect cells. rsJAM consisted in large part of noncovalent homodimers, as assessed by analytical ultracentrifugation. JAM dimers were also detected at the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with murine JAM, as evaluated by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, fluid-phase rsJAM bound dose-dependently solid-phase rsJAM, and such homophilic binding was inhibited by anti-JAM Fab BV11, but not by Fab BV12. Interestingly, Fab BV11 exclusively bound rsJAM dimers (but not monomers) in solution, whereas Fab BV12 bound both dimers and monomers. Finally, we mapped the BV11 and BV12 epitopes to a largely overlapping sequence in proximity of the extracellular amino terminus of JAM. We hypothesize that rsJAM dimerization induces a BV11-positive conformation which in turn is critical for rsJAM homophilic interactions. Dimerization and homophilic binding may contribute to both adhesive function and junctional organization of JAM.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2000; 275(40):30970-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutant presenilins (PS) contribute to the pathogenesis of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) by enhancing the production of Abeta42 from beta-amyloid precursor protein. Presenilins are endoproteolytically processed to N-terminal and C-terminal fragments, which together form a stable 1:1 complex. We have mapped the cleavage site in the PS2 protein by direct sequencing of its C-terminal fragment isolated from mouse liver. Three different N-terminal residues were identified starting at Val-299, Thr-301, and Leu-307 that correspond closely to the previously described N termini of the C-terminal fragment of human PS1. Mutational analysis of the PS2 cleavage site indicates that the principal endoproteolytic cleavage occurs at residues Met-298/Val-299 and that the N terminus is subsequently modified by secondary proteolytic cleavages. We have generated cleavage defective PS2 constructs, which accumulate exclusively as full-length polypeptides in transfected Neuro2a cells. Functional analysis of such cleavage defective PS2 carrying the FAD mutation Asn-141 --> Ile showed that its Abeta42 producing activity was strongly reduced compared with cleavage-competent FAD PS2. In contrast, cleavage defective PS2 was active in rescuing the egg-laying defect of a sel-12 mutant in Caenorhabditis elegans. We conclude that PS2 endoproteolytic cleavage is not an absolute requirement for its activities but may rather selectively enhance or stabilize its functions.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1999; 274(49):35233-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms that govern leukocyte transmigration through the endothelium are not yet fully defined. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) is a newly cloned member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which is selectively concentrated at tight junctions of endothelial and epithelial cells. A blocking monoclonal antibody (BV11 mAb) directed to JAM was able to inhibit monocyte transmigration through endothelial cells in in vitro and in vivo chemotaxis assays. In this study, we report that BV11 administration was able to attenuate cytokine-induced meningitis in mice. The intravenous injection of BV11 mAb significantly inhibited leukocyte accumulation in the cerebrospinal fluid and infiltration in the brain parenchyma. Blood-brain barrier permeability was also reduced by the mAb. We conclude that JAM may be a new target in limiting the inflammatory response that accompanies meningitis.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/1999; 190(9):1351-6. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper, we characterize an antibody, mAb BV13, directed to mouse vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, a major adhesive protein of interendothelial adherens junctions. When added to cultured endothelial cells, BV13 induces a redistribution of VE-cadherin from intercellular junctions. VE-cadherin redistribution did not change the localization of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule or tight junction markers such as zonula occludens 1, cingulin, and junctional adhesion molecule. Intravenous administration of mAb BV13 induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in vascular permeability in heart and lungs. By electron microscopy, interstitial edema and accumulation of mixed types of inflammatory cells in heart and lungs were observed. Injection of (rhodamine-labeled) Ricinus communis I lectin showed focal spots of exposed basement membrane in the alveolar capillaries and in some larger pulmonary vessels. These data indicate that VE-cadherin is required for vascular integrity and normal organ functions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1999; 96(17):9815-20. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated presenilin (PS) proteins are proteolytically processed. One of the processing pathways involves cleavage by caspases. Pharmacological inhibition of caspases is currently being discussed as a treatment for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. We therefore inhibited caspase mediated processing of PS-1 and PS-2 in cells transfected with wt and mutant PS by mutagenizing the substrate recognition site or by using specific peptide aldehydes known to block caspases. We found that the inhibition of caspase mediated processing of PS proteins does not decrease its amyloidogenic activity. PS cDNA constructs with mutations in the caspase cleavage site are biologically active in Caenorhabditis elegans such as the wt human PS proteins, demonstrating that caspase-mediated cleavage is not required for the physiological PS function in NOTCH signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are endoproteolytically processed in vivo and in cell transfectants to yield 27-35-kDa N-terminal and 15-24-kDa C-terminal fragments. We have studied the cleavage of PS1 and PS2 in transiently and stably transfected hamster kidney and mouse and human neuroblastoma cells by immunoblot and pulse-chase experiments. C-terminal fragments were isolated by affinity chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sequenced. The processing sites identified in PS1 and PS2 (Asp345/Ser346 and Asp329/Ser330, respectively) are typical for caspase-type proteases. Specific caspase inhibitors and cleavage site mutations confirmed the involvement of caspase(s) in PS1 and PS2 processing in cell transfectants. Fluorescent peptide substrates carrying the PS-identified cleavage sites were hydrolyzed by proteolytic activity from mouse brain. The PS2-derived peptide substrate was also cleaved by recombinant human caspase-3. Additional processing of PS2 by non-caspase-type proteases was also observed.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1997; 272(33):20655-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven metastatic cancer patients were studied during three different regimens of immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and/or interferon alpha (IFN alpha): group A received 4 days of IL-2 i.a. infusion (n = 3), group B IFN alpha s.c. during 5 days (n = 4), followed on day 3 by 5 days of a continuous IL-2 i.v. infusion, and group C had 4 days of IL-2 i.v. infusion together with s.c. IFN alpha on days 1 and 4 (n = 4). Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR) p55 and p75 and TNF alpha concentrations in serum were analyzed before therapy and daily during 8 days of the first therapy cycle. sTNFR was measured by radioimmunoassay. sTNFR p55 increased in all patient groups from a baseline value of 5.2 +/- 0.9 ng/ml to a maximum of 13.6 +/- 1.2 ng/ml by days 3-4 (P = 0.003). sTNFR p75 increased from 7.6 +/- 1.1 ng/ml to peak values of 30.1 +/- 2.6 ng/ml in groups A and B (P = 0.02). In group C the sTNFR p75 response was weak (NS). In group B, the increase of both p55 and p75 occurred only after addition of IL-2 to IFN alpha. TNF alpha increased weakly during treatment with IFN alpha alone (group B); it rose strongly during IL-2 and the combined treatment (groups A-C) from 8 +/- 2 pg/ml to 115 +/- 13 pg/ml (P = 0.003). In group B, it reached the maximum 24 h after addition of IL-2 to IFN alpha and decreased thereafter. There was a significant relationship between TNF alpha and sTNFR p55 or sTNFR p75 in groups A and C, (P = 0.001), but not in group B. Group C was also investigated during the third therapy cycle. The increase of sTNFR p75 was stronger (P = 0.01) and that of TNF alpha weaker than in the first cycle; the sTNFR p55 response was similar in both cycles. In conclusion sTNFR p55 and p75 are rapidly induced during IL-2 and IL-2+ IFN alpha treatment, the increase of sTNF receptors parallels or exceeds that of TNF alpha and may influence the immunomodulatory effects of TNF alpha during cytokine therapy.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 03/1994; 38(2):113-8. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two TNF binding proteins have been characterized as soluble fragments of TNF receptors. We measured the plasma concentrations of soluble type A (p75) and type B (p55) TNF receptors in patients with systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). In SLE and PSS patients plasma concentrations of both types of TNF receptors and in MCTD patients type A TNF receptors were significantly elevated compared to controls. Plasma concentrations of both soluble TNF receptors were highly correlated in SLE, PSS, and MCTD patients, indicating a possible coregulation of both TNF receptors. In contrast, soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sCD 25) plasma concentrations were not correlated and seem to be an independent parameter. The soluble forms of the TNF receptors neutralize TNF in cytotoxicity assays and are functionally active as TNF antagonists. In one patient with SLE, autoantibodies against type A TNF receptors were detected, TNF alpha, and TNF beta did not interfere with the autoantibody binding to the receptor.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 10/1993; 13(5):321-8. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previous studies we showed that cultured human keratinocytes expressed the 55-kD TNF receptor (TNFR) and that its expression the important for TNF alpha-mediated upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on keratinocytes. Because factors that either reduce or enhance TNFR expression are likely to have a major impact on the biological effects of TNF alpha on keratinocytes, these studies were conducted to determine the factors that regulate its expression on keratinocytes. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, human keratinocytes were shown to lack 75-kD TNFR expression, indicating that TNF responsiveness of human keratinocytes critically depended on regulation of 55-kD TNFR expression. Human keratinocyte 55-kD TNFR surface and mRNA expression was found to be regulated in vitro by recombinant human (rh) TNF alpha. Stimulation of keratinocytes with rhTNF alpha initially decreased, but later increased, 55-kD TNFR surface expression. This biphasic modulation of 55-kD TNFR surface expression was associated with concomitant changes in 55-kD TNFR mRNA expression. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, a well-known inducer of synthesis and secretion of TNF alpha by human keratinocytes, was found to mimic TNF alpha-induced modulation of 55-kD TNFR surface and mRNA expression via a TNF alpha-mediated autocrine regulatory mechanism. Production of soluble 55-kD TNFR by human keratinocytes remained unaffected by TNF alpha stimulation or UVB irradiation. These studies provide clear evidence that membrane expression of the human 55-kD TNFR may be regulated in human keratinocytes by the ligand itself: TNF alpha. Since in previous studies UVB irradiation transiently inhibited TNF alpha-induced human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression, it is proposed that UVB radiation-induced biphasic modulation of human keratinocyte 55-kD TNFR expression may affect the capacity of these cells to respond to TNF alpha.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1993; 92(1):462-70. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The remarkable ability of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), especially in combination with interferon, selectively to kill or inhibit malignant cell lines is so far unmatched by any other combination of cytokines. But clinical trials in cancer patients have on the whole been disappointing, and it has been estimated that a TNF dose would be effective only at 5-25 times the maximum tolerated dose. High TNF concentrations give a much more pronounced antitumour activity in mice, in which murine TNF is about 50-fold more systemically toxic than human TNF. But there is little or no species specificity in cytotoxicity of murine TNF and human TNF on human as well as on murine cell lines. This dual action of TNF may be explained by the existence of two types of receptor for TNF: the smaller, TNF-R55, is present on most cells and particularly on those susceptible to the cytotoxic action of TNF; the larger, TNF-R75, is also present on many cell types, especially those of myeloid origin, and is strongly expressed on stimulated T and B lymphocytes. In mice, human TNF binds only to murine TNF-R55 (ref. 15), which can then mediate cytotoxic activity on malignant cells. As human TNF does not bind to murine TNF-R75, the latter must be responsible for the much enhanced systemic toxicity of murine TNF. Human TNF can, however, become toxic in mice when a second pathway is activated. There is no reciprocal situation in the human system: human and murine TNF bind almost equally well to the two human TNF receptors. Here we describe human TNF mutants that sill interact with the human TNF-R55 receptor but which have largely lost their ability to bind to human TNF-R75. Activation of TNF-R55 is sufficient to trigger cytotoxic activity towards transformed cells. One representative human TNF mutant retains its antitumour activity in nude mice carrying tumours derived from human cancers. Under the appropriate conditions, such human TNF mutants are expected to induce less systemic toxicity in man, while still exerting their direct antitumour effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the biological role of the human tumor necrosis factor p75 (hTNF-R75), making use of the species specificity of TNF responses in murine (m) T cell lines. Several TNF-mediated activities on mouse T cells, such as cytokine induction or proliferation, showed a 100-500-fold difference in specific biological activity between mTNF and hTNF. After transfection of hTNF-R75 cDNA in a rat/mouse T cell hybridoma (PC60), however, the 100-fold lower specific biological activity of hTNF was converted to the same specific biological activity as mTNF. The TNF-mediated induction of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor was strongly synergized by the addition of interleukin 1. In the presence of the latter cytokine, ligand-competing monoclonal antibodies against hTNF-R75 (utr-1, utr-2, utr-3) were agonistic on transfected PC60 cells. This agonistic activity was further enhanced by crosslinking with sheep anti-murine immunoglobulin antibodies. These data provide direct evidence for a functional role of TNF-R75, without ligand-dependent TNF-R55 involvement, in the induction of cytokine secretion in T cells.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/1992; 176(4):1015-24. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFRs) were detected in the plasma of patients with different degrees of chronic renal failure (CRF) and of long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients. In uremic undialyzed patients, plasma levels of both sTNFRs increased progressively with declining renal function. A linear correlation was found between sTNFR plasma levels and plasma creatinine concentration. sTNFR levels in end-stage uremic patients shortly before commencement of first HD treatment were approximately tenfold higher than in normal subjects. Long-term HD patients showed a further increase in plasma sTNFRs. The origin of sTNFRs, as well as their physiological role remains to be elucidated.
Kidney International 10/1992; 42(3):663-7. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secretion of soluble cytokine receptors has been suggested as a mechanism for regulation of cytokine activity in vivo. The present investigation was performed to study whether secretion of soluble TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptors (TNFRs) might be associated with pregnancy. There are two known molecular species of the TNFR, the 55-kDa TNFR and the 75-kDa TNFR. The 75-kDa, as well as the 55-kDa TNFR, was detected in urine from pregnant women, whereas only the 75-kDa TNFR was detected in urine from the non-pregnant group. The concentration of TNFRs in urine increased towards term and was reduced in association with spontaneous delivery. The soluble forms of both TNFRs were also detected in amniotic fluid. Collectively, the data suggest that secretion of soluble TNFRs during pregnancy might be a defence mechanism for the protection of the fetus against TNF action.
Journal of Reproductive Immunology 09/1992; 22(2):105-16. · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serial plasma samples from human volunteers obtained after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin were analyzed for the presence of circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR). A four- to fivefold increase of type A (p75) and type B (p55) sTNFR was observed 3 h after endotoxin challenge. Pretreatment of the volunteers with ibuprofen before the injection of endotoxin resulted in a slight increase (3.87 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.27 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) and temporal shift of sTNFR-A release concurrent to a marked augmentation of TNF levels (603 +/- 118 vs. 338 +/- 56 pg/ml) as compared to the group without ibuprofen pretreatment. There was a significant correlation between peak sTNFR-A levels and peak TNF levels in the individual probands (r = 0.52, P = 0.04). On the contrary, release kinetics and plasma concentrations of sTNFR-B were identical in both groups (7.38 +/- 0.69 vs. 7.44 +/- 0.33 ng/ml) and no correlation with individual TNF levels was observed. The amount of sTNFR liberated upon endotoxin challenge was not sufficient to block TNF-mediated cytotoxic effects. Our data indicate that the release in vivo of type A and type B sTNFR upon a short exposure to endotoxin is regulated differently.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/1992; 90(2):533-6. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TNF is a highly pleiotropic cytokine. The recent identification of two distinct cellular receptors for TNF may provide explanations for the many different TNF activities. We have investigated the expression of the two receptor types, TNFR alpha (75 kDa) and TNFR beta (55 kDa), in human PBMC. Both receptors were found simultaneously expressed by cytofluorimetric, radioligand binding and Northern analysis of naive as well as PHA-activated PBMC. The expression levels in the CD14+ and CD14- subsets were different. Both receptors were strongly expressed in the CD14+ subset. The expression of the receptors in the CD14-, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subsets was lower and similar among these subsets, but TNFR alpha was expressed at higher level than TNFR beta. To dissect the functional roles of the two receptors, we studied the growth factor activity of TNF in the late proliferative responses of PBMC to PHA. In the first approach, the activity of either receptor was blocked by neutralizing, receptor type specific antibodies. In a second approach, the ligand, TNF, was inhibited by a neutralizing antiserum, and the cells were restimulated using type-specific anti-TNFR antibodies with agonistic activity. It was found that both receptor types mediated signals required for proliferative responses of PBMC to PHA from day 4 to day 8 in culture. The cell responses to the activation of either receptor type appeared to be independent, because one receptor could not compensate for the reduction in cell activation caused by blocking the other receptor type.
The Journal of Immunology 09/1992; 149(3):911-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding proteins (BP) was investigated in the sera of healthy volunteer blood donors and cancer patients. Two distinct types of TNFBP, types A and B, which are immunologically related to the cellular 75-kD TNF receptor (TNFR) and the cellular 55-kD TNFR, respectively, were assessed by immunoassays using nonblocking anti-receptor antibodies and 125I-recombinant human TNF alpha. As compared to the titers observed in 25 healthy controls, TNFBP types A and B titers were found to be elevated in almost all sera obtained from patients with underlying malignant disease. The highest amounts of TNFBP were seen in the sera of patients with B cell malignancies including hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and type B chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Treatment of HCL patients with recombinant human interferon-alpha was associated with decrease of circulating TNFBP.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/1992; 89(5):1690-3. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HL60 and EL4 cells incubated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plus staurosporin, a potent inhibitor of protein kinases, showed at least 2-fold increased levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activity compared with TNF-alpha alone both during rapid NF-kappa B activation from the cytosolic pool and protein synthesis-dependent NF-kappa B activation. NF-kappa B activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and interleukin-1 was inhibited by staurosporin. Staurosporin treatment hardly affected the TNF-alpha-induced increase in mRNA for the p51 subunit of NF-kappa B but interfered with any phorbol ester (PMA)-induced increase in p51 mRNA. Thus, induction of NF-kappa B and p51 mRNA by TNF-alpha was not mediated by a staurosporin-sensitive factor, but NF-kappa B activation by TNF-alpha was even reduced by action of a staurosporin-sensitive factor. Decreased levels of phosphorylation of TNF-R alpha (TNF receptor type alpha) after staurosporin-treatment correlated with increased induction of NF-kappa B by TNF-alpha. Staurosporin-treatment did not affect TNF-R levels. Although protein kinase C stimulation by PMA inhibited NF-kappa B activation by TNF-alpha, its action mechanism may be different from that of the staurosporin-sensitive factor. PMA induced disappearance of TNF-R alpha by shedding into the surrounding medium, with kinetics similar to those of its inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by TNF-alpha. Phosphorylation may not mediate receptor shedding, since PMA treatment did not detectably affect TNF-R alpha phosphorylation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1992; 267(3):2065-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two types of tumor necrosis factor receptors have been characterized, both capable of transmitting the signal and exerting the biological functions of TNF and lymphotoxin. We measured the plasma concentrations of two types of TNF binding proteins (sTNFR-A and sTNFR-B) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondylarthropathies (SpA) using an enzyme-linked binding assay. In normal controls (n = 43), mean plasma concentrations were 1030 +/- 55 and 1461 +/- 59 pg/ml for sTNFR types A and B, respectively. In 67 patients with moderate RA, mean levels were 1422 +/- 82 pg/ml (type A) and 2088 +/- 109 pg/ml (type B); in 34 patients with severe RA, 2588 +/- 279 pg/ml and 4494 +/- 550 pg/ml, respectively, were measured (P less than 0.0001 compared to normal controls). Concentrations of both type A and type B sTNFR were highly correlated in severe RA (R2 = 0.7) but not in SpA or normal controls. T lymphocytes in synovial fluid of patients with RA expressed predominantly type A TNF receptors on their surface; in some patients a weaker expression of type B receptors was also detectable. Soluble TNF binding proteins in patients with RA were able to neutralize TNF in a cytotoxicity assay, demonstrating their ability to act as "TNF-inhibiting factors". We conclude that both types of TNF receptors are parameters of disease activity in RA and may also act as TNF antagonists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a potent modulator of human keratinocyte intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. TNF alpha is known to exert its biologic effects by binding to specific cell-surface receptors. Two distinct TNF binding molecules, the 55-kd and the 75-kd TNF receptor (TNFR) recently have been found to be expressed by human cells. These two receptor types are independently regulated and differ markedly in their intracellular regions, indicating functional dichotomy. In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying ICAM-1 regulation in human keratinocytes, in the present study, the receptor molecules mediating TNF alpha induced ICAM-1 upregulation in human keratinocytes was defined. Human keratinocyte TNFR expression was assessed using monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize the 55-kd or the 75-kd TNFR. Using FACS analysis, normal (HNK) as well as transformed (KB) human keratinocytes were found to react with anti-55-kd TNFR, but not anti-75-kd TNFR antibodies. These immunofluorescence data were confirmed by Northern blot analysis revealing clearly detectable amounts of mRNA specific for the 55-kd TNFR in KB cells. Incubation of human keratinocytes with anti-55-kd TNFR antibodies at 37 degrees C for 24 h increased ICAM-1 expression in a TNF alpha-like fashion. Moreover, the well known synergistic effect of IFN gamma plus TNF alpha on keratinocyte ICAM-1 induction could be mimicked by stimulation of cells with IFN gamma plus anti-55-kd TNFR antibodies. Synergistic ICAM-1 induction was not associated with increased expression of the 55-kd TNFR in IFN gamma-stimulated human keratinocytes. These studies indicate that human keratinocytes express the 55-kd TNF receptor and that this surface molecule may play an important role in regulation of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/1991; 97(5):911-6. · 6.19 Impact Factor