[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines seeking to deploy statin treatment rely heavily on the use of estimates of absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as an arbiter of who should receive statins. We question whether this is an effective strategy unless the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) response is also considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite being both the longest known and the most prevalent genetic risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), little progress has been made in agreeing a role for lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] in clinical practice and developing therapies with specific Lp(a)-lowering activity. We review barriers to progress, and discuss areas of controversy which are important to future research.
Current Opinion in Lipidology 06/2014; · 5.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) complicates morbid obesity and is associated with increased cardiovascular disease incidence. An increase in circulating markers of chronic inflammation and dysfunctional high density lipoprotein (HDL) occur in severe obesity. Objective: To establish whether the effects of obesity on inflammation and HDL dysfunction are more marked when complicated by OSA. Design and patients: Morbidly obese patients (n=41) were divided into those whose apnea-hypo-apnea index (AHI) was more or less than the median value and on the presence of OSA ("OSA" and "no OSA (nOSA)" groups). We studied the antioxidant function of HDL and measured serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels in these patients. In a subset of 19 patients, we immunostained gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for TNFα, macrophages and measured adipocyte size. Results: HDL lipid peroxide (LPO) levels were higher and serum PON1 activity was lower in the high AHI group versus the low AHI group (p<0.05 and p<0.0001, respectively) and in the OSA group versus the "nOSA" group (p=0.005 and p<0.05 respectively). Serum TNFα and ICAM1 levels and TNFα immunostaining in SAT increased with the severity of OSA. Serum PON1 activity was inversely correlated with AHI (r= -0.41, p<0.03) in the OSA group. TNFα expression in SAT directly correlated with AHI (r= 0.53, p<0.03) in the subset of 19 patients from whom biopsy was obtained. Conclusion: Increased serum TNFα, ICAM-1 and TNFα expression in SAT provide a mechanistic basis for enhanced inflammation in patients with OSA. Decreased serum PON1 activity, impaired HDL anti-oxidant function and increased adipose tissue inflammation in these patients could be a mechanism for HDL and endothelial dysfunction.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2014; · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Diabetes-associated autoantibodies can be detected in adult-onset diabetes, even when initially non-insulin requiring, i.e., with latent autoimmune diabetes. We aimed to identify adult-onset autoimmune diabetes in patients with established "type 2 diabetes" participating in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) to characterize their phenotype and clinical outcome.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We prospectively studied 2,425 European patients with presumed type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 years, diabetes duration 7.9 years) for outcomes at 3.9 years after randomization to either atorvastatin or placebo. Subjects were screened for autoantibodies to GAD (GADA), insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2A), and zinc-transporter 8 (ZnT8A).RESULTSA total of 173 patients (7.1%) had GADA, of whom 11 (0.5%) and 5 (0.2%) were also positive for IA-2A and ZnT8A, respectively. At baseline, 44% of GADA-positive patients were not on insulin. Fewer autoantibody-positive than autoantibody-negative patients had metabolic syndrome (64 vs. 80%), and more were on insulin (56 vs. 17%) (P < 0.0001 for each) without lower HbA1c (69 mmol/mol [8.5%] vs. 62 mmol/mol [7.8%]). The frequency of microvascular and macrovascular events was similar in both cohorts, independent of atorvastatin.CONCLUSIONS
Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes was prevalent, even in patients with established diabetes presumed to have type 2 diabetes. After 11.8 years' diabetes duration, nearly half the patients with autoimmune diabetes were not on insulin treatment and almost two-thirds had metabolic syndrome. The type of diabetes, whether autoimmune diabetes or type 2 diabetes, did not impact the risk of microvascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) remain inversely associated with cardiovascular risk among patients who achieve very low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on statin therapy. It is also unknown whether a rise in HDL-C or apoA-I after initiation of statin therapy is associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk.
We performed a meta-analysis of 8 statin trials in which lipids and apolipoproteins were determined in all study participants at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Individual patient data were obtained for 38,153 trial participants allocated to statin therapy, of whom 5387 suffered a major cardiovascular event. HDL-C levels were associated with a reduced risk of major cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 0.83, 95%CI 0.81-0.86 per 1 standard deviation increment), as were apoA-I levels (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.72-0.82). This association was also observed among patients achieving on-statin LDL-C levels < 50 mg/dL. An increase of HDL-C was not associated with reduced cardiovascular risk (HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.94-1.01 per 1 standard deviation increment), whereas a rise in apoA-I was (HR 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.97).
Among patients treated with statin therapy, HDL-C and apoA-I levels were strongly associated with a reduced cardiovascular risk, even among those achieving very low LDL-C. An apoA-I increase was associated with a reduced risk of major cardiovascular events, whereas for HDL-C this was not the case. These findings suggest that therapies that increase apoA-I concentration require further exploration with regard to cardiovascular risk reduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels, their binding proteins (IGFBPs), and high-dose statin therapy, have all been linked to the development of diabetes. We aimed to identify whether atorvastatin caused dose-related changes in IGF proteins. DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 12 months in PANDA trial participants with type 2 diabetes randomised to 10mg (n=59) vs 80mg (n=60) of atorvastatin (N=119; mean (SD): age 64(10) years; 83% male; HbA1c 61(10) mmol/mol; blood pressure 131/73 mmHg. RESULTS: Atorvastatin was associated with overall reductions in circulating IGF1, IGF2 and IGFBP3 concentrations. The adjusted mean (95% CI) between-group differences that indicate dose-related changes in IGF proteins were not significant for: IGF1: -3 (-21 to 14) ng/ml; IGF2: -23 (-65 to 18) ng/ml; and IGFBP3: -0.34 (-0.71 to 0.03) µg/ml; negative values indicating numerically greater lowering with high-dose). The IGFBP1 concentration did not change overall with atorvastatin therapy overall but the adjusted mean (95% CI) between-group difference indicating a dose-related change in log IGFBP1 was highly significant -0.41 (-0.69 to 0-0.13, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: IGF1, IGF2 and IGFBP3 concentrations all decreased following atorvastatin therapy. A differential effect of low vs high dose atorvastatin on IGFBP1 concentrations was observed with likely implications for IGF bioavailability. The dose-related differential impact of atorvastatin treatment on concentration of IGF proteins merits investigation as a mechanism to explain the worsening of glucose tolerance with statin therapy.
European Journal of Endocrinology 01/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Both cigarette smoking and use of exogenous hormones are associated with changes in regional distribution of body fat, but their combined effects are less investigated. We examined the interrelation between smoking, exogenous hormones and fat distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Method We used data from 20 962 women without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) who were employees of a major department store in Britain. They completed a health questionnaire and attended a clinical examination that included waist and hip circumference measurements. The cross-sectional analyses were conducted using linear regression models. Results Cigarette smoking, particularly smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day, was associated with larger waist circumference and higher waist/hip ratio (WHR) in pre- and postmenopausal women after adjusting for potential confounding factors (all P < 0·001). Premenopausal women using combined oral contraceptive (COC) and postmenopausal women using oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had lower WHR than non-hormone users in both smokers and nonsmokers. However, smokers had higher WHR than nonsmokers in both groups of hormone users and nonusers. There was no significant interaction between smoking and hormone use in premenopausal and postmenopausal women (P > 0·05). Conclusion Although exogenous hormones use was related to a more favourable fat distribution in women, smoking was associated with greater abdominal fat accumulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycation of apolipoprotein B (apoB) of LDL increases its atherogenicity. Concentrations of both serum glycated apoB and small-dense LDL (SD-LDL) (syn LDL3; D=1.044-1.063 g/ml) are increased in diabetes and are closely correlated. We studied whether SD-LDL is more susceptible to glycation in vitro than more buoyant LDL in statin- and non-statin-treated type 2 diabetes. Serum SD-LDL apoB and glycated apoB on statins was 20±2 (mean±SD) and 3.6±0.41 compared to 47±3 and 5.89±0.68 mg/dL in those not receiving statins (P<0.001 and <0.01 respectively). There was a dose-dependent increase in glycation on incubation of LDL sub-fractions with glucose, which was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxides and electrophoretic mobility and a decrease in free amino groups. SD-LDL was more susceptible to these changes than more buoyant LDL. Both SD-LDL and more buoyant LDL from statin-treated patients were less susceptible to glycation. There were fewer free amino groups on LDL sub-fractions from statin-treated patients, which may contribute to this resistance. In conclusion, greater susceptibility of SD-LDL to glycation is likely to contribute to the raised levels of circulating glycated apoB in diabetes. Statins are associated with lower levels of both SD-LDL and glycated apo B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increases its atherogenicity, but whether high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can protect LDL against glycation is not known. LDL and HDL were isolated from 32 volunteers with serum HDL cholesterol concentrations ranging from 0.76 to 2.01 (mean = 1.36) mmol/L. Glycation of LDL was induced by incubation with 0-80 mmol/L glucose for 7 days at 37°C under nitrogen in the presence of and absence of human HDL. Glycation of LDL apolipoprotein B (apoB) doubled at glucose 50 and 80 mmol/L (both p < 0.001), and this increase was ameliorated by HDL. In the absence of glucose, 0.11 (0.01) [mean (standard error, SE)] mg apoB/mg LDL protein was glycated increasing to 0.22 (0.02) mg/mg at glucose 80 mmol/L in the absence of HDL, but remaining at 0.13 (0.01) mg/mg when autologous HDL was present. Heterologous HDL from a further study of 12 healthy participants was similarly effective in impeding LDL apoB glycation. HDL impeded not only glycation but also the lipid peroxidation, free amino group consumption and increased electrophoretic mobility of LDL which accompanied glycation. HDL from participants with higher serum paraoxonase1 (PON1) was more effective in impeding glycation and the related processes. In conclusion, HDL can impede the glucose-induced glycoxidation of LDL. PON1 may be important for this function of HDL.
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 08/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HDL cholesterol concentration is inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease and has a wide range of functions involved in many systems. The purpose of this review is to summarize HDL functionality, its relevance to atherosclerosis and factors affecting HDL functions.
The contribution of HDL to reverse cholesterol transport may not be as great as first envisaged. However, it still plays an important role in cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues. The capacity of HDL to promote cellular cholesterol efflux in an ex-vivo model has been reported to correlate more closely with carotid intima-media thickness than HDL cholesterol concentration. Recently, a variety of other functions of HDL have been described including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiglycation, anti-inflammatory, nitric oxide--inducing, antithrombotic and antiatherogenic activity and immune modulation as well as a potential role in glucose homeostasis, diabetes pathophysiology and complications.
HDL has a wide range of functions some of which are independent of its cholesterol content. Its cargo of apolipoproteins, various proteins and phospholipids contributes most to its various functions. These functions are affected by a number of genetic, physiological and pathological factors.
Current opinion in lipidology 06/2012; 23(4):353-66. · 6.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the relationship of levels of inflammatory risk markers to presence of clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with treated heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.
A cross-sectional study of patients on the Simon Broome Familial Hyperlipidaemia Register.
Six hospital outpatient clinics in the UK.
A total of 211 men and 199 women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.
Analysis of conventional risk factors and concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipoprotein(a), serum intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) mass.
CAD was present in 104 men and in 55 women; the mean ages of onset were 43.1 and 46.5 years, respectively. On univariate analysis there was a positive relationship of CAD with age, male sex, smoking, IL-6 and sICAM, and an inverse relationship with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and LpPLA2. On multivariate analysis, age, smoking, low LDL and low LpPLA2 were associated with CAD. When LpPLA2 values were adjusted for apoB and aspirin usage, there was no significant difference between those with and without CAD. Only age and smoking were independently associated with CAD in men, and IL-6 and lipoprotein(a) in women.
Although on univariate analysis inflammatory marker levels were associated with CAD in these patients, the majority of the associations, including that for hsCRP, disappeared when corrected for smoking and apoB. This may be because atherosclerotic plaques in these statin-treated patients were quiescent or an effect of aspirin usage. In this observational study newer risk markers were not usefully associated with the presence or absence of symptomatic CAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we aimed to replicate the previously reported association between the glycaemic response to metformin and the SNP rs11212617 at a locus that includes the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene in multiple additional populations.
Incident users of metformin selected from the Diabetes Care System West-Friesland (DCS, n = 929) and the Rotterdam Study (n = 182) from the Netherlands, and the CARDS Trial (n = 254) from the UK were genotyped for rs11212617 and tested for an association with both HbA(1c) reduction and treatment success, defined as the ability to reach the treatment target of an HbA(1c) ≤ 7 % (53 mmol/mol). Finally, a meta-analysis including data from literature was performed.
In the DCS cohort, we observed an association between rs11212617 genotype and treatment success on metformin (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03, 1.58, p = 0.028); in the smaller Rotterdam Study cohort, a numerically similar but non-significant trend was observed (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.87, 2.39, p = 0.15); while in the CARDS cohort there was no significant association. In meta-analyses of these three cohorts separately or combined with the previously published cohorts, rs11212617 genotype is associated with metformin treatment success (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04, 1.49, p = 0.016 and OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.33, 1.38, p = 7.8 × 10(-6), respectively).
A gene variant near ATM is significantly associated with metformin treatment response in type 2 diabetic patients from the Netherlands and the UK. This is the first robustly replicated common susceptibility locus found to be associated with metformin treatment response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels with the risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statin therapy have not been reliably documented.
To evaluate the relative strength of the associations of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB with cardiovascular risk among patients treated with statin therapy.
Meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled statin trials in which conventional lipids and apolipoproteins were determined in all study participants at baseline and at 1-year follow-up.
Relevant trials were identified by a literature search updated through December 31, 2011. Investigators were contacted and individual patient data were requested and obtained for 62,154 patients enrolled in 8 trials published between 1994 and 2008.
Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs for risk of major cardiovascular events adjusted for established risk factors by 1-SD increase in LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB.
Among 38,153 patients allocated to statin therapy, 158 fatal myocardial infarctions, 1678 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, 615 fatal events from other coronary artery disease, 2806 hospitalizations for unstable angina, and 1029 fatal or nonfatal strokes occurred during follow-up. The adjusted HRs for major cardiovascular events per 1-SD increase were 1.13 (95% CI, 1.10-1.17) for LDL-C, 1.16 (95% CI, 1.12-1.19) for non-HDL-C, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.11-1.18) for apoB. These HRs were significantly higher for non-HDL-C than LDL-C (P = .002) and apoB (P = .02). There was no significant difference between apoB and LDL-C (P = .21).
Among statin-treated patients, on-treatment levels of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB were each associated with risk of future major cardiovascular events, but the strength of this association was greater for non-HDL-C than for LDL-C and apoB.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2012; 307(12):1302-9. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of LDL-c response to statin using data from participants in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; n = 1,156), the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT; n = 895), and the observational phase of ASCOT (n = 651), all of whom were prescribed atorvastatin 10 mg. Following genome-wide imputation, we combined data from the three studies in a meta-analysis. We found associations of LDL-c response to atorvastatin that reached genome-wide significance at rs10455872 (P = 6.13 × 10(-9)) within the LPA gene and at two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the APOE region (rs445925; P = 2.22 × 10(-16) and rs4420638; P = 1.01 × 10(-11)) that are proxies for the ε2 and ε4 variants, respectively, in APOE. The novel association with the LPA SNP was replicated in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial (P = 0.009). Using CARDS data, we further showed that atorvastatin therapy did not alter lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and that Lp(a) levels accounted for all of the associations of SNPs in the LPA gene and the apparent LDL-c response levels. However, statin therapy had a similar effect in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients in the top quartile for serum Lp(a) levels (HR = 0.60) compared with those in the lower three quartiles (HR = 0.66; P = 0.8 for interaction). The data emphasize that high Lp(a) levels affect the measurement of LDL-c and the clinical estimation of LDL-c response. Therefore, an apparently lower LDL-c response to statin therapy may indicate a need for measurement of Lp(a). However, statin therapy seems beneficial even in those with high Lp(a).
The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2012; 53(5):1000-11. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials have shown that apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is better than calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-LDL-C) or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a target for statin treatment. However, there are no published reports of how well these targets are reached in patients with more severe hyperlipidaemias than represented in trials, as seen in lipid clinics.
We audited 195 patients attending a tertiary centre lipid clinic, who had been treated with a statin for more than one year. We measured total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride and from these calculated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C. We determined the average measured apoB values, at critical target values of LDL-C and non-HDL-C, by linear regression and compared them with values of apoB considered equivalent to these cholesterol indexes by expert groups. We also assessed the number of patients, both before and after treatment, in whom c-LDL-C and non-HDL-C could not be calculated due to hypertriglyceridaemia.
At the LDL-C target of 2.6 mmol L(-1) and the non-HDL-C target of 3.4 mmol L(-1), the measured apoB values were significantly higher than consensus apoB target values. The difference was most marked for c-LDL-C in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects and for non-HDL-C in patients without hypertriglyceridaemia. A similar pattern was seen using centile-derived consensus values but the differences were accentuated because this approach generates lower equivalent consensus apoB values.
ApoB offers a more consistent treatment target independent of hypertriglyceridaemia and would obviate technical problems related to high triglycerides.