F Ayad

Government of Ontario, Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (12)5.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy on plaque and established gingivitis of a new specially engineered sonic powered toothbrush with unique sensing and control technologies as compared to two commercially available power toothbrushes. This examiner-blind, three-treatment, parallel clinical study assessed plaque reduction via the comparison of pre- to postbrushing after a single use, and following four weeks' use measured by the Rustogi Modification of the Modified Navy Plaque Index. This study also assessed gingivitis using the Löe and Silness Gingival Index after four weeks' use. Qualifying adult male and female subjects from the northern New Jersey area reported to the study site after refraining from all oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours, and from eating, drinking, or smoking for four hours. Following an examination for gingivitis and plaque (pre-brushing), they were randomized into three balanced groups, each group using one of the three study toothbrushes in the order specified by a predetermined randomization plan. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for two minutes under supervision with their assigned toothbrush according to the manufacturers' instructions and a commercially available toothpaste (Colgate Cavity Protection), after which they were once again evaluated for plaque (post-brushing). Subjects were then dismissed from the study site with the toothpaste and their assigned toothbrush to use at home twice daily for the next four weeks. They again reported to the study site at which time they were evaluated for plaque and gingivitis. One-hundred eighty-four subjects complied with the protocol and completed the clinical study. Relative to the two commercially available toothbrushes, the new specially engineered sonic powered toothbrush with unique sensing and control technologies provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions in whole mouth plaque index scores (21.9 and 25.8%, respectively), gingival margin plaque index scores (14.5% and 18.9%, respectively), interproximal plaque index scores (160.0% and 136.4%, respectively), facial plaque index scores (17.9% for both), lingual plaque index scores (29.2% for both), and interproximal lingual plaque index scores (200.0% and 350.0%, respectively) after a single tooth brushing. Relative to the two commercially available toothbrushes, the new sonic powered toothbrush also provided statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions in whole mouth plaque index scores (47.4% and 40.0%, respectively), gingival margin plaque index scores (46.2% and 40.7%, respectively), interproximal plaque index scores (650% and 1400%, respectively), facial plaque index scores (47.6% and 40.9%, respectively), lingual plaque index scores (47.1% and 31.6%, respectively), and interproximal lingual plaque index scores (350.0% and 500.0%, respectively) after four weeks. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between the two commercially available toothbrushes for any plaque index score comparison. Relative to one of the commercially available toothbrushes, the new sonic powered toothbrush provided statistically significant reductions (p < 0.05) in gingival index scores (25.0%) and gingivitis severity scores (33.3%) after four weeks of product use. There were no statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences in gingivitis or gingivitis severity index scores between the new sonic powered toothbrush and the other commercially available toothbrush. A new specially engineered sonic powered toothbrush with unique sensing and control technologies provides significantly greater levels of efficacy on the removal of dental plaque after a single tooth brushing and after four weeks' use when compared to two commercially available power toothbrushes. The new sonic powered toothbrush also provides significantly greater levels of efficacy on the reduction of gingivitis and gingival bleeding when compared to one of the commercially available power toothbrushes.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2012; 23 Spec No A:A5-10.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an antiplaque alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), as compared to a control mouthwash containing only 0.05% NaF, in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis after three and six months of product use. This was a single-center, parallel-group, two-cell, double-blind, randomized clinical study. Prospective adult male and female subjects from San Jose, Costa Rica reported to the clinical facility having refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 12 hours, and from eating, drinking, or smoking for four hours prior to their visit. Qualifying subjects who presented with Gingival Index scores (Löe and Silness Index) of at least 1.0 and Plaque Index scores (Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein Index) of at least 1.5 were allowed to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups according to their baseline gingival and plaque scores. In the first treatment group (Test), subjects used an alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC and 0.05% NaF, whereas in the second treatment group (Control), subjects used a mouthwash containing only 0.05% NaF. Gingivitis and plaque assessments, and examinations of oral hard and soft tissues were conducted after three months and six months of product use. One-hundred and ten (110) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the six-month study. After six months of product use, the Test Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline with respect to Gingival (33.5%), Gingival Interproximal (34.5%), Gingival Severity (63.2%), Plaque (33.6%), Plaque Interproximal (30.0%), and Plaque Severity (73.6%) Index scores. After six months of product use, the Control Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline with respect to Gingival (6.9%), Plaque Interproximal (7.2%), and Plaque Severity (32.7%) Index scores. Furthermore, after six months of product use, the Control Mouthwash group exhibited reductions from baseline with respect to Plaque (6.1%), Gingival Interproximal (3.6%), and Gingival Severity (1.1%) Index scores which were not statistically significant. After three months of product use, the Test Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant reductions in Gingival (25.0%), Gingival Interproximal (22.3%), Gingival Severity (38.9%), Plaque (26.1%), Plaque Interproximal (22.4%), and Plaque Severity (75.0%) Index scores as compared to the Control Mouthwash group. After six months of product use, the Test Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant reductions in Gingival (38.1%), Gingival Interproximal (37.1%), Gingival Severity (63.6%), Plaque (36.5%), Plaque Interproximal (33.2%), and Plaque Severity (78.5%) Index scores as compared to the Control Mouthwash group. The results of this double-blind clinical study support that 1) an alcohol-free mouthwash containing a combination of 0.075% CPC and 0.05% NaF produces statistically significant reductions in dental plaque and gingivitis after three and six months compared to baseline, and 2) the alcohol-free CPC mouthwash provides a statistically significantly greater level of efficacy in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis after three and six months of product use as compared to the Control Mouthwash containing only NaF.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2011; 22(6):204-12.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy ofa dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride in controlling established gingivitis and supragingival plaque to that of a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate, and a commercially available dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride. Following a baseline examination for gingivitis and supragingival plaque, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Mississauga, Ontario, Canada area were randomized into three dentifrice groups. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for gingivitis and supragingival plaque were repeated after six weeks of product use. One-hundred eighty-two (182) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. Relative to the 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group, the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and supragingival plaque index scores of 26.5% and 29.4%, respectively, after six weeks of product use. Similarly, relative to the 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group, the 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate/zinc lactate dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and plaque index scores of 12.7% and 12.6%, respectively, after six weeks of product use. Further, relative to the 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate/zinc lactate dentifrice group, the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice group exhibited statistically significant reductions in gingival index and plaque index scores of 15.8% and 19.2%, respectively. The overall results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan, 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride is efficacious for the control of established gingivitis and supragingival plaque, and that it provides a greater level of efficacy for the control of gingivitis and supragingival plaque than does a dentifrice containing 0.454% stannous fluoride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and zinc lactate.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2010; 21(4):111-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this examiner-blind clinical study was to compare the extrinsic tooth-stain removal efficacy of a novel, nontray, "paint-on" liquid whitening gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide (Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel) with a commercially available whitening dentifrice. After a baseline examination for extrinsic tooth stain, qualifying adult men and women from Canada were randomized into two treatment groups balanced for age, gender, and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for 1 minute with their assigned dentifrice (Group 1: nonwhitening dentifrice; Group 2: whitening dentifrice). The subjects in Group 1 also were instructed to use the paint-on whitening gel for 30 minutes twice daily. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain were repeated after 2 and 3 weeks. Ninety-seven subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. At both the 2- and 3-week examinations, subjects assigned to the liquid whitening gel-treatment group exhibited statistically significant reductions in extrinsic tooth stain (P < .05) with respect to stain area (22.7% reduction at 3 weeks), stain intensity (26.3% reduction at 3 weeks), and overall stain removal (32% reduction at 3 weeks) compared with the commercially available whitening dentifrice group. Thus, the results of the examiner-blind clinical study support the conclusion that Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel provides a significantly greater level of extrinsic tooth-stain removal efficacy than a commercially available whitening dentifrice.
    Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J.: 1995) 12/2002; 23(11 Suppl 1):18-25.
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    ABSTRACT: An 8-week randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical study was conducted to assess the extrinsic stain prevention efficacy of three commercially available dentifrices: 1) a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride with copolymer, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate in a silica base (Product 1); 2) a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride, baking soda and peroxide, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate in a silica base (Product 2); and 3) a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Product 3). After the collection of baseline stain scores by a trained examiner and a subsequent oral prophylaxis, 126 volunteers were randomized to one of the three treatment groups (balanced for composite extrinsic stain scores). Throughout the 8-week treatment period, subjects brushed their teeth twice daily with their assigned dentifrice. At baseline, 4-, and 8-week evaluations, extrinsic dental stain was measured on the facial surfaces of the six maxillary anterior teeth and on the facial and lingual surfaces of the six mandibular anterior teeth using the Lobene Index. A total of 120 subjects completed the study. No adverse events were reported, and subjects who discontinued the study did so for reasons unrelated to the dentifrices. At the 4-week evaluation, composite stain scores were statistically significantly lower (P < .05) for both Product 1 (44.9%) and for Product 2 (34.6%) relative to Product 3. At the 8-week evaluation, composite stain scores were statistically significantly lower (P < .05) for both Product 1 (28.4%) and for Product 2 (29.6%) relative to Product 3. The results of this clinical study demonstrate that both dentifrices, one containing 0.234% sodium fluoride with copolymer, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate in a silica base; and one with 0.243% sodium fluoride with copolymer, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium tripolyphosphate in a silica base are more effective in preventing natural extrinsic stain formation on teeth as compared with a marketed control dentifrice.
    Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J.: 1995) 08/2002; 23(8):733-6, 738; quiz 740.
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    ABSTRACT: In two clinical trials of 8 weeks duration, the ability of a new dentifrice, containing potassium nitrate, stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride to reduce dentine hypersensitivity was compared with either a non-desensitising fluoride dentifrice or a commercially available desensitising dentifrice (Sensodyne F) to reduce dentine hypersensitivity. In both studies, the participants had to have at least two sensitive root surfaces. Subjects were stratified by baseline tactile and air blast sensitivity scores and the number of sensitive teeth and randomly allocated to 2 balanced groups. In the first study (N=81) the new dentifrice was compared with a fluoride dentifrice and in the second study (N=105) with Sensodyne F. Participants were requested to brush with their assigned dentifrice twice a day for one minute. At 4 and 8 weeks the sensitive teeth were again examined and their tactile and air blast sensitivity scores recorded. In study 1, the group using the new dentifrice tolerated greater pressure after 4 (34.9 g) and 8 weeks (38.4 g) than the group using the fluoride dentifrice (22.9 g and 19.0 g, respectively). These differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). At 4 and 8 weeks, the mean air blast scores for the group using the new dentifrice (1.39 and 0.83) were lower than for the group using fluoride dentifrice (1.78 and 1.76) and were significantly different at 8 weeks (p<0.001). In study 2 the group using the new dentifrice tolerated greater pressure after 4 (40.5 g) and 8 weeks (43.7 g) than the group using Sensodyne F (27.8 g and 33.2 g, respectively). These differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). At 4 and 8 weeks, the mean air blast scores for the group using the new dentifrice (1.10 and 0.67) were significantly lower than the group using Sensodyne F (1.90 and 1.57) (p<0.001). These studies demonstrate that the new dentifrice, containing potassium nitrate, stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride is significantly better at reducing dentine hypersensitivity than both the dentifrice containing sodium fluoride and the one containing potassium chloride, triclosan and sodium fluoride (Sensodyne F).
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 11/2001; 28(11):1032-6. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This six-week double-blind clinical study compared the toothwhitening effects of a new calculus-inhibiting dentifrice containing pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate and copolymer in a 0.243 sodium fluoride/silica base (Test Dentifrice) with two commercially available dentifrices: Aquafresh Whitening Toothpaste with Fluoride and Crest Regular Fluoride Toothpaste. After a baseline examination for extrinsic tooth stain, qualifying adult males and females from Manchester, United Kingdom and from Mississauga, Ontario, Canada were randomly assigned into three test groups. Each group was balanced for gender, tobacco habits and levels of tooth stain. Subjects were to brush their teeth twice daily with a soft-bristled toothbrush using the assigned toothpaste. One-hundred and twenty-eight (128) subjects complied with instructions and completed the trial. Subjects using the Test Dentifrice exhibited statistically less stain area and less stain intensity than did either the Aquafresh or Crest groups. Crest Regular Fluoride toothpaste was statistically less effective than Aquafresh Whitening toothpaste in removing stain. Results in this trial support the conclusion that a new dentifrice formulation containing pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate and a copolymer, in a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica base, effectively removes extrinsic tooth stain.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2000; 11(3):84-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the 6-week effect on natural extrinsic dental stain from the use of a dentifrice containing 10% aluminum oxide, 1500 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in a precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) base or a second dentifrice containing 0.5% calcium peroxide (CP), 1500 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in a PCC base compared to a fluoride placebo dentifrice without stain removal ingredients. A total of 94 subjects were entered in the study, and stratified into three balanced groups according to their baseline mean Lobene Stain Index scores. The three groups were randomly assigned to use one of the two test dentifrices or the placebo dentifrice. The three groups were well balanced with regard to their mean baseline stain index scores, gender and tobacco habits. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for 1 minute with their assigned dentifrice and a commercially available soft bristled toothbrush. Extrinsic dental stain examinations, which included mean stain area and mean stain intensity, were conducted at baseline and 6 weeks. Examinations were conducted by the same dental examiner (F.A.) on the subjects at each examination. After 6 weeks' use of their assigned products, those subjects in the aluminum oxide/PCC dentifrice group and those subjects in the CP/PCC dentifrice group demonstrated statistically significant improvements, as compared to the fluoride placebo dentifrice group without stain removal ingredients.
    American journal of dentistry 09/1999; 12(4):164-6. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to investigate the tooth whitening efficacy of a new dentifrice (Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Fluoride Toothpaste) for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain, through a comparison with two commercially available dentifrices, Aquafresh Whitening Toothpaste with Fluoride, and Crest Regular Fluoride Toothpaste. Following a baseline examination for extrinsic tooth stain area and intensity, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Mississauga, Ontario, Canada area were randomized into three treatment groups which were balanced for age, gender, and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain were repeated after six weeks' use of the study dentifrices. One hundred twenty-two (122) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. At the six-week examination, subjects assigned to the Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening treatment group and subjects assigned to the Aquafresh Whitening treatment group exhibited statistically lower levels (p < 0.0001) of extrinsic tooth stain area and intensity than did those subjects assigned to the Crest Regular Fluoride treatment group. Further, subjects assigned to the Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening treatment group exhibited significantly lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain area and intensity than did those assigned to the Aquafresh Whitening treatment group (p < 0.0001).
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/1999; 10(3 Spec No):103-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect on plaque removal and gingivitis of using a pre-brush rinse containing 0.03 per cent triclosan (Irgacare MP, Ciba-Geigy Corp.) and 0.125 per cent of a copolymer of polyvinylmethyl ether and maleic acid over a six-month period, versus using a matching placebo pre-brush rinse, was assessed in this clinical study. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths for one minute, twice daily (morning and evening), with 15 mL of their assigned pre-brush rinse. Immediately after rinsing, subjects brushed their teeth for 30 seconds using the dentifrice and toothbrush supplied to them at the outset. Subjects were instructed to refrain from any other oral hygiene procedures throughout the duration of the study. Plaque and gingivitis examinations were conducted after three months and again after six months. At the conclusion of the study (six months), the triclosan/copolymer pre-brush rinse demonstrated an advantage of 24.8 per cent for plaque removal and a 22.1 per cent reduction in gingivitis, when compared to the matching placebo pre-brush rinse. These advantages in plaque removal and gingivitis reduction were statistically significant. The six-month effect of the triclosan/copolymer pre-brush rinse was even greater on "the more difficult to brush" surfaces of the teeth, as determined by the use of the Plaque Severity Index and the Gingivitis Severity Index.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal (Canadian Dental Association) 02/1995; 61(1):53-6, 59-61. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate, 1.3% soluble pyrophosphate, 1.5% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Sensitive/Tartar Control) on dentinal hypersensitivity over a twelve-week period was compared to a commercially available dentifrice containing 5% potassium nitrate and 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate in a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate base (Sensodyne-F). A total of ninety-seven subjects were entered into the study, and stratified into two balanced groups according to their baseline mean air sensitivity score and baseline mean tactile (Yeaple Probe) sensitivity score. The two groups were randomly assigned to use either the Sensitive/Tartar Control dentifrice or the commercially available hypersensitivity control dentifrice with potassium nitrate. The two groups were balanced with regard to their mean baseline air and tactile sensitivity scores, sex and age. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice and a commercially available soft-bristled toothbrush. Dentinal hypersensitivity examinations, which included tactile sensitivity, cold air blast, and a visual analog scale were conducted at baseline, six weeks, and twelve weeks. All examinations were conducted by the same dental examiner. After six weeks' use of the assigned dentifrices, there were no statistically significant differences between dentifrice groups in any of the parameters assessed (tactile, cold air blast and visual analog scale). After twelve weeks' use of the assigned products, there were no statistically significant differences between dentifrice groups in any of the parameters assessed (tactile, cold air blast and visual analog scale). Thus it can be concluded from this study that the use of a dentifrice containing 5.0% potassium nitrate, 1.3% soluble pyrophosphate, 1.5% PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base provides a clinically effective method of reducing dentinal hypersensitivity which is comparable in efficacy to a commercially available hypersensitivity control dentifrice containing 5% potassium nitrate and 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate in a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate base.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/1994; 5 Spec No:97-101.
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    ABSTRACT: A six-month, double-blind clinical study was entered into by three hundred twenty-five (325) male and female adult subjects to assess the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan (Irgacare MP, Ciba-Geigy Corp.) and 2.0% of a copolymer of methoxyethylene and maleic acid (Gantrez, ISP Corp.) on supragingival plaque formation and gingivitis, compared to a placebo dentifrice over a six-month period. Each dentifrice, the triclosan and the placebo, contained 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base. Only those subjects who were free of periodontal disease (no pockets > 4 mm), demonstrated a level of at least mild gingivitis (modified Loe-Silness score > or = 1.0) and had a modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index score of > or = 1.5 were admitted into the study. Baseline plaque and gingivitis scores were used to stratify the subjects into two balanced groups. A thorough oral prophylaxis was administered to all subjects. They were then assigned either the triclosan/copolymer dentifrice or the placebo dentifrice to use for the next six months. Evaluation for gingivitis and supragingival plaque formation was made after three and six months. Evaluations made after six (6) months demonstrated a 17.0% statistically significant (at the 99% level of confidence) reduction in supragingival plaque formation was provided by the triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, compared to the placebo dentifrice. An 18.6% statistically significant (at the 99% level of confidence) reduction in plaque formation on the tooth surfaces with the highest plaque formation was provided by the triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, compared to the placebo dentifrice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/1992; 3(4):125-31.