[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for colorectal liver metastases. Local control, patient survival and toxicity were assessed in an experience of SBRT for colorectal liver metastases.
SBRT was delivered with curative intent to 20 consecutively treated patients with colorectal hepatic metastases who were candidates for neither resection nor radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The median number of metastases was 1 (range 1-3) and median size was 2.3 (range 0.7-6.2) cm. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0. Local control rates were derived on tumour-based analysis.
Median follow-up was 26 (range 6-57) months. Local failure was observed in nine of 31 lesions after a median interval of 22 (range 12-52) months. Actuarial 2-year local control and survival rates were 74 and 83 per cent respectively. Hepatic toxicity grade 2 or less was reported in 18 patients. Two patients had an episode of hepatic toxicity grade 3.
SBRT is a treatment option for patients with colorectal liver metastases who are not candidates for resection or RFA.
British Journal of Surgery 03/2010; 97(3):377-82. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To quantify systematic and random patient set-up errors in head and neck irradiation and to investigate the impact of an off-line correction protocol on the systematic errors.
Electronic portal images were obtained for 31 patients treated for primary supra-glottic larynx carcinoma who were immobilised using a polyvinyl chloride cast. The observed patient set-up errors were input to the shrinking action level (SAL) off-line decision protocol and appropriate set-up corrections were applied. To assess the impact of the protocol, the positioning accuracy without application of set-up corrections was reconstructed.
The set-up errors obtained without set-up corrections (1 standard deviation (SD)=1.5-2mm for random and systematic errors) were comparable to those reported in other studies on similar fixation devices. On an average, six fractions per patient were imaged and the set-up of half the patients was changed due to the decision protocol. Most changes were detected during weekly check measurements, not during the first days of treatment. The application of the SAL protocol reduced the width of the distribution of systematic errors to 1mm (1 SD), as expected from simulations. A retrospective analysis showed that this accuracy should be attainable with only two measurements per patient using a different off-line correction protocol, which does not apply action levels.
Off-line verification protocols can be particularly effective in head and neck patients due to the smallness of the random set-up errors. The excellent set-up reproducibility that can be achieved with such protocols enables accurate dose delivery in conformal treatments.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 01/2002; 61(3):299-308. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo dosimetry using thermoluminiscence detectors (TLD) is routinely performed in our institution to determine dose inhomogeneities in the match line region during chest wall irradiation. However, TLDs have some drawbacks: online in vivo dosimetry cannot be performed; generally, doses delivered by the contributing fields are not measured separately; measurement analysis is time consuming. To overcome these problems, the Joined Field Detector (JFD-5), a detector for match line in vivo dosimetry based on diodes, has been developed. This detector and its characteristics are presented.
The JFD-5 is a linear array of 5 p-type diodes. The middle three diodes, used to measure the dose in the match line region, are positioned at 5-mm intervals. The outer two diodes, positioned at 3-cm distance from the central diode, are used to measure the dose in the two contributing fields. For three JFD-5 detectors, calibration factors for different energies, and sensitivity correction factors for non-standard field sizes, patient skin temperature, and oblique incidence have been determined. The accuracy of penumbra and match line dose measurements has been determined in phantom studies and in vivo.
Calibration factors differ significantly between diodes and between photon and electron beams. However, conversion factors between energies can be applied. The correction factor for temperature is 0.35%/ degrees C, and for oblique incidence 2% at maximum. The penumbra measured with the JFD-5 agrees well with film and linear diode array measurements. JFD-5 in vivo match line dosimetry reproducibility was 2.0% (1 SD) while the agreement with TLD was 0.999+/-0.023 (1 SD).
The JFD-5 can be used for accurate, reproducible, and fast on-line match line in vivo dosimetry.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 12/2001; 61(2):185-92. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To commission commercially available equipment for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC).
First, the stability in leaf positioning and in realized IMRT profiles on a Varian 2300 C/D machine were determined as a function of time and gantry angle, and as a result of treatment interrupts. Second, dose distributions calculated with the CadPlan (Varian) treatment planning system, using leaf trajectories calculated with the leaf motion calculator (LMC) algorithm, were compared with distributions realized at the 2300 C/D unit.
Day-to-day and gantry angle variations in leaf positioning and dose delivery were very small (less than 0.1-0.2 mm and 2%). The effect of treatment interrupts on measured dose distributions was less than 2%. The agreement between the final dose distribution calculated by CadPlan and the measured dose was generally within 2%, or 2 mm at steep dose gradients, using a leaf transmission value of 1.8% and a leaf separation value of 2 mm in LMC. For narrow peaks, deviations of up to 6% were observed. LMC does not synchronize adjacent leaf trajectories resulting in tongue-and-groove underdosages of up to 29% for extreme cases.
The 2300 C/D machine is suitable for accurate and reproducible DMLC treatments. The agreement between dose predictions with LMC and CadPlan, and realized doses at this unit is clinically acceptable for most cases. However, differences between calculated and actual dose values may exist in peaked fluences or due to tongue-and-groove effects. Therefore, pretreatment dosimetric verification for each patient is recommended.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2001; 60(2):215-24. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate a new off-line patient setup correction protocol that minimizes the required number of portal images and perform a comparison with currently applied protocols.
We compared two types of off-line protocols: (a) the widely applied shrinking action level (SAL) protocol, in which the setup error, averaged over the measured treatment fractions, is compared with a threshold that decreases with the number of measurements, to decide if a correction is necessary; and (b) a new "no-action-level" (NAL) protocol, which simply calculates the mean setup error over a fixed number of fractions, and always corrects for it. The performance of the protocols was evaluated by applying them to (a) a database of measured setup errors from 600 prostate patients (with, on average, 10 imaged fractions/patient) and (b) Monte Carlo-generated setup error distributions for various values of the population systematic and random errors.
The NAL protocol achieved a significantly higher accuracy than the SAL protocol for a similar workload in terms of image acquisition and analysis, as well as in setup corrections. The SAL protocol required approximately three times more images than the NAL protocol to obtain the same reduction of systematic errors. Application of the NAL protocol to measured setup errors confirmed its efficacy in systematic error reduction in a real patient population.
The NAL protocol performed much more efficiently than the SAL protocol for both actually measured and simulated setup data. The resulting decrease in required portal images not only reduces workload, but also dose to healthy tissue, if dedicated large fields are required for portal imaging (double exposure).
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2001; 50(5):1350-65. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For cervix cancer patients, treatment fields may extend up to vertebra L1. In clinical practice, set-up verification is based on measured displacements of the pelvic rim as visible in the caudal part of the treatment fields. The implications of this procedure for the positions of bony structures in the cranial part of the fields were investigated.
Twelve patients had four repeat simulator sessions. Both during treatment simulation (the reference) and the repeat sessions, anterior radiographs were acquired covering the whole treatment field. The films were used to investigate differences between the cranial and the caudal parts of the treatment field in day-to-day bony anatomy displacements.
Both in the transversal and the longitudinal directions, these differences were significant (3.5 mm, 1 SD). Indications were found that large differences in the cranio-caudal direction may be correlated with (non-rigid) internal pelvic rim rotations around a lateral axis. In the longitudinal direction, the position of L1 correlated much better with the position of vertebra S1 than with the position of the pelvic rim, which is usually used for set-up verification.
Due to the non-rigid bony anatomy of the studied patients, the usual set-up verification and correction procedure can result in set-up errors of 10 mm and more for structures in the cranial part of the treatment field, even in the case of a perfect set-up of the pelvic rim. Possibly, other patient set-up and immobilization procedures may result in a better day-to-day reproducibility of the 3D bony anatomy shape. (Remaining) Differences in anatomy position changes between the caudal and cranial field ends may be accounted for by using non-uniform clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margins, or by an adapted patient set-up verification and correction protocol.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 08/2001; 60(1):25-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the magnitude of the errors made in (a) the setup of patients with lung cancer on the simulator relative to their intended setup with respect to the planned treatment beams and (b) in the setup of these patients on the treatment unit. To investigate how the systematic component of the latter errors can be reduced with an off-line decision protocol for setup corrections.
For 39 patients with CT planning, digitally-reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were calculated for anterior-posterior and lateral beams. Retrospectively, the position of the visible anatomy relative to the planned isocenter was compared with the corresponding position on the digitized simulator radiographs using contour match software. The setup accuracy at the treatment unit relative to the simulator setup was measured for 40 patients for at least 5 fractions per patient in 2 orthogonal beams with the aid of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Setup corrections were applied, based on an off-line decision protocol, with parameters derived from knowledge of the random setup errors in the studied patient group.
The standard deviations (SD) of the simulator setup errors relative to the CT planning setup in the lateral, longitudinal, and anterior-posterior directions were 4.0, 2.8, and 2.5 mm, respectively. The SD of rotations around the anterior-posterior axis was 1.6 degrees and around the left-right axis 1.3 degrees. The setup error at the treatment unit had a small random component in all three directions (1 SD = 2 mm). The systematic components were larger, particularly in the longitudinal direction (1 SD = 3.6 mm), but were reduced with the decision protocol to 1 SD < 2 mm with, on average, 0.6 setup correction per patient.
Setup errors at the simulator, which become systematic errors if the simulation defines the reference setup, were comparable to the systematic setup errors at the treatment unit in case no off-line protocol would have been applied. Hence, the omission of a separate simulation step can reduce systematic errors as efficiently as the application of an off-line correction protocol during treatment. The random errors were sufficiently small to make an off-line protocol feasible.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 03/2001; 49(3):857-68. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we have published a method for the calculation of required leaf trajectories to generate optimized intensity modulated x-ray beams by means of dynamic multileaf collimation [Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1171-1184 (1998)]. For the MM50 Racetrack Microtron it has been demonstrated that the dosimetric accuracy of this method, in combination with the dose calculation algorithm of the Cadplan 3D treatment planning system, is adequate for a clinical application (within 2% or 0.2 cm). Prior to initiating patient treatment with dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC), tests have been performed to investigate the stability of DMLC fields generated at the MM50, (i) in time, (ii) subject to gantry rotation and (iii) in case of treatment interrupts, e.g., caused by an error detected by the treatment machine. The stability of relative dose profiles, normalized to a reference point in a relatively flat part of the modulated beam profile, was assessed from measurements with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), with a linear diode array attached to the collimator and with film. The dose in the reference point was monitored using an ionization chamber. Tests were performed for several intensity modulated fields using 10 and 25 MV photon beams. Based on film measurements for sweeping 0.1 cm leaf gaps it was concluded that in an 80 days period the variation in leaf positioning was within 0.05 cm, without requiring any recalibration. For a uniform 10x10 cm2 field, realized dynamically by a scanning 0.4x10 cm2 slit beam, a maximum variation in slit width of 0.01 cm was derived from ionization chamber measurements, both in time and for gantry rotation. For a clinical example, the dose in the reference point reproduced within 0.2% (1 SD) over a period of 100 days. Apart from regions with very large dose gradients, variations in the relative beam profiles measured with the EPID were generally less than 1% (1 SD). For different gantry angles the dose profiles also reproduced within 1%, showing that gravity has a negligible influence. No significant deviations between uninterrupted and interrupted treatments could be observed, indicating that the effects of acceleration and deceleration of the leaves are negligible and that a DMLC treatment can be finished correctly after a treatment interrupt. Our previous and present studies have demonstrated that the dosimetric accuracy and stability of intensity modulated beams, generated at the MM50 by means of dynamic multileaf collimation, are adequate for clinical use. Patient treatment using dynamic multileaf collimation has been started in our clinic.
Medical Physics 01/2001; 27(12):2701-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the treatment technique for chest wall irradiation, using the multileaf collimator (MLC) of the MM50 Racetrack Microtron to shape both photon and electron beams, and to check the dose delivery in the match-line region of these fields for the routine and improved technique.
Using diode and film phantom measurements, the optimal number of photon beam segments and their positions relative to the electron beam were determined. On phantoms, and during actual patient treatment using in vivo dosimetry, the dose homogeneity in the match-line region was determined for both the routine and improved techniques.
Three photon beam segments (9-mm gap, perfect match, and 9-mm overlap) were used to match the electron beam, resulting in minimum-maximum dose values in the match-line region of 88-109%, compared to 80-115% for the routine technique (2 photon beam segments). During patient treatment, the average minimum and maximum dose values were 95% and 115%, respectively, compared to 78% and 127%, respectively, for the routine technique. The interfraction variation in dose delivery was reduced from 11.0% (1 SD) to 4.6% (1 SD). The actual treatment time was reduced from 10 to 4.5 min.
Using the MLC of the MM50 to shape both photon and electron beams, an improved treatment technique for chest wall irradiation was developed, which is less labor intensive, faster, and yields a more homogeneous, and better reproducible dose delivery.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/2000; 48(4):1205-17. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phase space evolution (PSE) model is a dose calculation model for electron beams in radiation oncology developed with the aim of a higher accuracy than the commonly used pencil beam (PB) models and with shorter calculation times than needed for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. In this paper the accuracy of the PSE model has been investigated for 25 MeV electron beams of a MM50 racetrack microtron (Scanditronix Medical AB, Sweden) and compared with the results of a PB model. Measurements have been performed for tests like non-standard SSD, irregularly shaped fields, oblique incidence and in phantoms with heterogeneities of air, bone and lung. MC calculations have been performed as well, to reveal possible errors in the measurements and/or possible inaccuracies in the interaction data used for the bone and lung substitute materials. Results show a good agreement between PSE calculated dose distributions and measurements. For all points the differences--in absolute dose--were generally well within 3% and 3 mm. However, the PSE model was found to be less accurate in large regions of low-density material and errors of up to 6% were found for the lung phantom. Results of the PB model show larger deviations, with differences of up to 6% and 6 mm and of up to 10% for the lung phantom; at shortened SSDs the dose was overestimated by up to 6%. The agreement between MC calculations and measurement was good. For the bone and the lung phantom maximum deviations of 4% and 3% were found, caused by uncertainties about the actual interaction data. In conclusion, using the phase space evolution model, absolute 3D dose distributions of 25 MeV electron beams can be calculated with sufficient accuracy in most cases. The accuracy is significantly better than for a pencil beam model. In regions of lung tissue, a Monte Carlo model yields more accurate results than the current implementation of the PSE model.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 11/2000; 45(10):2931-45. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a recent treatment planning study, a previously published technique for superior-inferior field length reduction for prostate cancer patients, based on penumbra enhancement using static beam intensity modulation (BIM) with a multileaf collimator, was investigated for lung cancer treatments. For the patient group studied, the field lengths could be reduced by 1.4 cm and an average dose escalation of 6 Gy (maximum 16 Gy) appeared to be possible without any increase in the calculated risk of radiation pneumonitis. However, this planning study was performed with a treatment planning system that does not correctly account for the increased lateral secondary electron transport in lung tissue, resulting in too steep beam penumbrae. Therefore, prior to clinical implementation, an extensive dosimetric study was performed to evaluate and optimize BIM for penumbra enhancement and superior-inferior field length reduction in lung cancer treatments.
Film dosimetry was performed in several phantoms consisting of water equivalent and lung equivalent materials, both for a 6 and a 10 MV photon beam. Measured dose distributions were used to (i) adapt the BIM technique to properly account for increased lateral secondary electron transport, (ii) compare BIM dose distributions in lung material with dose distributions of standard treatment fields, and (iii) investigate the use of our treatment planning system for the design of BIM plans for lung cancer patients.
Compared with our treatment planning study the superior and inferior boost fields, used in the BIM technique for penumbra enhancement, had to be longer and of a higher weight to compensate for the increased lateral secondary electron transport in lung tissue. With these modifications in the BIM technique, field lengths could indeed be reduced by 1.4 cm compared with treatment with standard fields, without the appearance of underdosages in the most superior and inferior target areas, whilst better sparing the healthy lung tissue. Practical rules were derived to use our treatment planning system for the design of BIM treatment plans.
In spite of the increased lateral secondary electron transport in lung tissue, static BIM with a multileaf collimator may effectively be used for penumbra enhancement and superior-inferior field length reduction in lung cancer treatments.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2000; 56(2):181-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of midline tumors in the head and neck by conventional radiotherapy almost invariably results in xerostomia. This study analyzes whether a simple three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique with beam intensity modulation (BIM) (using a 10-MV beam of the MM50 Racetrack Microtron) can spare parotid and submandibular glands without compromising the dose distribution in the planning target volume (PTV).
For 15 T2 tumors of the tonsillar fossa with extension into the soft palate (To) and 15 T3 tumors of the supraglottic larynx (SgL), conventional treatment plans, consisting of lateral parallel opposed beams, were used for irradiation of both the primary tumor (70 Gy) and the elective neck regions (46 Gy). Separately, for each tumor a 3-D conformal treatment plan was developed using the 3-D computer planning system, CadPlan, and Optimize, a noncommercial program to compute optimal beam profiles. Beam angles were selected with the intention of optimal sparing of the salivary glands. The intensity of the beams was then modulated to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution in the target for the given 3D-CRT techniques. The dose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of target and salivary glands, tumor control probabilities (TCPs), salivary gland volumes absorbing a biologically equivalent dose of greater than 40 or 50 Gy, and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of each treatment plan were computed. The parameters of the 3D-CRT plans were compared with those of the conventional plans.
In comparison with the conventional technique, the dose homogeneity in the target volume was improved by the conformal technique for both tumor sites. In addition, for the SgL conformal technique, the average volumes of the parotid glands absorbing a BED of greater than 40 Gy (V40) decreased by 23%, and of the submandibular glands by 7% (V40) and 6% (V50). Consequently, the average NTCPs for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 7% and 6%, respectively. For the To conformal techniques, the V40 of the parotid glands was decreased on average by 31%, resulting in an average reduction of the NTCP by 49%. Both the average V50 and the NTCP of the submandibular glands were decreased by 7%.
For primary tumors of the oropharynx, the parotid glands could be spared to a considerable degree with the 3D-CRT technique. However, particularly the ipsilateral submandibular gland could not be spared. For primary tumors of the larynx, the 3D-CRT technique allows sparing of all salivary glands to a considerable and probably clinically relevant degree. Moreover, the conformal techniques resulted in an increased dose homogeneity in the PTV of both tumor sites.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2000; 47(5):1299-309. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has indicated that the appearance of large gas pockets in portal images of prostate cancer patients might imply internal prostate motion. This was verified with simulations based on multiple computed tomography (CT) data for 15 patients treated in supine position. Apart from the planning CT scan, three extra scans were made during treatment. The clinical target volume (CTV) and the rectum were outlined in all scans. Lateral portal images were simulated from the CT data and difference images were calculated for all possible combinations of CT scans per patient; each scan was used both as reference and repeat scan but gas pockets in the reference scan were removed. Gas pockets in a repeat CT scan then show up as black areas in a difference image. Due to gravity, they normally appear in the ventral part of the rectum. The distances between the ventral edge of a gas pocket in a difference image and the projection of the delineated ventral rectum wall in the reference scan were calculated. These distances were correlated with the "true" rectum wall shifts (determined from direct comparison of the rectum delineations in reference and repeat scan) and with CTV movements determined by three-dimensional chamfer matching. Gas pockets occurred in 23% of cases. Nevertheless, about 50% of rectum wall shifts larger than 5 mm could be detected because they were associated with gas pockets with a lateral diameter > 2 cm. When gas pockets were visible in the repeat scan, rectum wall shifts could be accurately detected by the ventral gas pocket edge in the difference images (r= 0.97). The shift of the rectum wall as detected from gas pockets also correlated significantly with the anterior-posterior shift of the center of mass of the CTV (r=0.88). In conclusion, the simulations showed that lateral pelvic images contain more information than the bony structures that are normally used for setup verification. If large gas pockets appear in those images, a quantitative estimate of the position of prostate and rectum wall can be obtained by determination of the ventral edge of the gas pocket.
Medical Physics 03/2000; 27(3):452-61. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of a newly developed fluoroscopic (CCD-camera based) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in portal dosimetry is investigated. A description of the EPID response to dose is presented in terms of stability, linearity and optical cross-talk inside the mechanical structure. The EPID has a relatively large distance (41 cm on-axis) between the fluorescent screen and the mirror (high-elbow), which results in cross-talk with properties quite different from that of the low-elbow fluoroscopic EPIDs that have been studied in the literature. In contrast with low elbow systems, the maximum cross-talk is observed for points of the fluorescent screen that have the largest distance to the mirror, which is explained from the geometry of the system. An algorithm to convert the images of the EPID into portal dose images (PDIs) is presented. The correction applied for cross-talk is a position dependent additive operation on the EPID image pixel values, with a magnitude that depends on a calculated effective field width. Deconvolution with a point spread function, as applied for low-elbow systems, is not required. For a 25 MV beam, EPID PDIs and ionization chamber measurements in the EPID detector plane were obtained behind an anthropomorphic phantom and a homogeneous absorber for various field shapes. The difference in absolute dose between the EPID and ionization chamber measurements, averaged over the four test fields presented in this paper, was 0.1 +/- 0.5% (1 SD) over the entire irradiation field, with no deviation larger than 2%.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 02/2000; 45(1):197-216. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison of predicted portal dose images (PDIs) with PDIs measured with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) may be used to detect errors in the dose delivery to patients. However, these comparisons cannot reveal errors in the MU calculation of a beam, since the calculated number of MU is used both for treatment (and thus affects the PDI measurement) and for PDI prediction. In this paper a method is presented that enables "in vivo" verification of the MU calculation of the treatment beams. The method is based on comparison of the intended on-axis patient dose at 5 cm depth for each treatment beam, D5, with D5 as derived from the portal dose Dp measured with an EPID. The developed method has been evaluated clinically for a group of 115 prostate cancer patients.
The patient dose D5 was derived from the portal dose measured with a fluoroscopic EPID using (i) the predicted beam transmission (i.e., the ratio of the portal dose with and without the patient in the beam) calculated with the planning CT data of the patient, and (ii) an empirical relation between portal doses Dp and patient doses D5. For each beam separately, the derived patient dose D5 was compared with the intended dose as determined from the relative dose distribution as calculated by the treatment planning system and the prescribed isocenter dose (2 Gy). For interpretation of observed deviating patient doses D5, the corresponding on-axis measured portal doses Dp were also compared with predicted portal doses.
For three beams, a total of 7828 images were analyzed. The mean difference between the predicted patient dose and the patient dose derived from the average measured portal dose was: 0.4+/-3.4% (1 SD) for the anterior-posterior (AP) beam and -1.5+/-2.4% (1 SD) for the lateral beams. For 7 patients the difference between the predicted portal dose and the average measured portal dose for the AP beam and the corresponding difference in patient dose were both greater than 5%. All these patients had relatively large gas pockets (3-3.5 cm in AP direction) in the rectum during acquisition of the planning CT, which were not present during (most) treatments.
An accurate method for verification of the MU calculation of an x-ray beam using EPID measurements has been developed. The method allows the discrimination of errors that are due to changes in patient anatomy related to appearance or disappearance of gas pockets in the rectum and errors due to a deviating cGy/MU-value.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/1999; 45(5):1297-303. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dose distributions can often be significantly improved by modulating the two-dimensional intensity profile of the individual x-ray beams. One technique for delivering intensity modulated beams is dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC). However, DMLC is complex and requires extensive quality assurance. In this paper a new method is presented for a pretreatment dosimetric verification of these intensity modulated beams utilizing a charge-coupled device camera based fluoroscopic electronic portal imaging device (EPID). In the absence of the patient, EPID images are acquired for all beams produced with DMLC. These images are then converted into two-dimensional dose distributions and compared with the calculated dose distributions. The calculations are performed with a pencil beam algorithm as implemented in a commercially available treatment planning system using the same absolute beam fluence profiles as used for calculation of the patient dose distribution. The method allows an overall verification of (i) the leaf trajectory calculation (including the models to incorporate collimator scatter and leaf transmission), (ii) the correct transfer of the leaf sequencing file to the treatment machine, and (iii) the mechanical and dosimetrical performance of the treatment unit. The method was tested for intensity modulated 10 and 25 MV photon beams; both model cases and real clinical cases were studied. Dose profiles measured with the EPID were also compared with ionization chamber measurements. In all cases both predictions and EPID measurements and EPID and ionization chamber measurements agreed within 2% (1 sigma). The study has demonstrated that the proposed method allows fast and accurate pretreatment verification of DMLC.
Medical Physics 12/1999; 26(11):2373-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For application in radiotherapy, intensity modulated high-energy electron and photon beams were mixed to create dose distributions that feature: (a) a steep dose fall-off at larger depths, similar to pure electron beams, (b) flat beam profiles and sharp and depth-independent beam penumbras, as in photon beams, and (c) a selectable skin dose that is lower than for pure electron beams. To determine the required electron and photon beam fluence profiles, an inverse treatment planning algorithm was used. Mixed beams were realized at a MM50 racetrack microtron (Scanditronix Medical AB, Sweden), and evaluated by the dose distributions measured in a water phantom. The multileaf collimator of the MM50 was used in a static mode to shape overlapping electron beam segments, and the dynamic multileaf collimation mode was used to realize the intensity modulated photon beam profiles. Examples of mixed beams were generated at electron energies of up to 40 MeV. The intensity modulated electron beam component consists of two overlapping concentric fields with optimized field sizes, yielding broad, fairly depth-independent overall beam penumbras. The matched intensity modulated photon beam component has high fluence peaks at the field edges to sharpen this penumbra. The combination of the electron and the photon beams yields dose distributions with the characteristics (a)-(c) mentioned above.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/1999; 44(9):2171-81. · 2.70 Impact Factor