[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that a graft volume (GV) > 30% of the recipient's standard liver volume (SLV) can meet the recipient's metabolic demands. Here we report our experience with adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using left side grafts < 35% of the recipient's SLV. Of 143 adult living donor liver transplants, 13 auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplants, 8 right side grafts, and 2 retransplantation cases were excluded. The resulting 120 cases were divided into 2 groups: group S consisted of 33 patients who received liver grafts < 35% of their SLV, and group L consisted of 87 patients who received liver grafts > or = 35% of their SLV. Patient characteristics, postoperative liver function, duration of hospital stay, and recipient survival rates were compared between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences between groups in recipient or donor background characteristics. The mean GV/SLV ratio of group S was 31.8%, whereas that of group L was 42.5%. There were no significant differences in the postoperative serum total bilirubin levels, prothrombin time international normalized ratio, daily ascites volume, or duration of postoperative hospital stay between the groups. The 1- and 5-year survival rates in group S were 80.7% and 64.2%, respectively, whereas those of group L were 90.8% and 84.9%, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. In conclusion, graft size was not considered to be the only cause of so-called small-for-size graft syndrome, and left side grafting appears to be the procedure of choice for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation because of the lower risk to donors in comparison with right lobe grafting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Japanese Liver Transplantation Society presented its first report on donor morbidity in 2003. The Society has been continuing to survey outcomes in living liver donors in Japan.
By using a uniform comprehensive medical record review process, data were collected on 3565 living liver donors who had donated grafts by the end of December 2006 at 38 Japanese centers.
Preoperative problems were reported in 2 donors, intraoperative problems in 27, and postoperative complications in 270. In total, 299 donors (8.4%) suffered complications related to liver donation. Postoperative complications included biliary complications in 3.0%, reoperation in 1.3%, severe after-effects in two (0.06%), and death (apparently related to donor surgery) in one donor (0.03%). The incidence of postoperative complications in left and right lobe donors was 8.7% and 9.4%, respectively.
The accumulated experience indicates a reduction in the incidence of donor complications, especially for right lobe resection. One donor death and two cases of severe after effects related to liver donation have been reported during 18 years of living donor liver transplantation experience in Japan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial liver transplantation using a graft from a living donor (PLT) has been carried out for children with incurable hepatic disorders. We have extended this technique to 5 adult patients (4 female and 1 male) with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). All were proven to have a TTR Met30 mutation. Four of these 5 patients are alive 5 to 28 months after operation, and 3 patients with a shorter duration of illness (less than jive years) showed remarkable clinical improvement. Periodic nausea and vomiting ceased and other autonomic symptoms including orthostatic hypotension, abnormal bowel movements and dysuria were also improving soon after PLT. Somatic motor and sensory neuropathic symptoms tended to improve very gradually. on the other hand. further progression of FAP symptoms was observed in one severely disabled patient with a 7 year-history of this disease. One other patient with a similar condition died 3 months after PLT. The donors who consisted of 2 sisters and 3 husbands recovered without complications mid returned to their previous social lives 2 months after operation. Recently, it has been shown that liver transplantation corrects the metabolic abnormality in FAP and therefore liver transplantation has been widely accepted as a treatment for FAR Since cadaveric donors are seldom available in Japan, we started to perform PLT for FAP patients and have demonstrated good results. PLT can safely be done on adult patients and this treatment seems to be more effective for FAP patients at an early stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic arterial reconstruction is one of the critical issues in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Herein we have reported an LDLT case whose celiac arterial trunk tributaries were insufficient as host arteries because of extensive subintimal dissection proceeding to all tributaries of the celiac arterial trunk.
A 45-year-old woman with fulminant hepatic failure underwent LDLT. After reperfusion of the hepatic and portal veins, subintimal dissection of the recipient right and left hepatic arteries was found to extend to all tributaries of the celiac arterial trunk, preventing an anastomosis using the more proximal part of these arteries. Therefore, a jejunal arterial arcade of Roux-en-Y limb mobilized for biliary reconstruction was anastomosed to the donor left hepatic artery in end-to-end fashion.
Arterial blood flow to the grafted liver was established successfully, and the patient's postoperative recovery was excellent. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated sufficient hepatic arterial blood flow. The patient is doing well 4 years after transplantation.
The method of hepatic graft arterialization described herein is an important option for LDLT recipients when tributaries of the celiac arterial trunk are insufficient as host arteries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purification is one of the most important steps in human islet isolation. Although Ficoll-based density gradients are widely used, OptiPrep-based density gradients are used in few centers. Cytokine/chemokine production from human islet preparations varies widely. Some cytokines/chemokines have been reported to have adverse effects on human islet preparations. Control of cytokine/chemokine production may be a key to improve islet quality and quantity, leading to better transplantation outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects on islet preparations of purification methods using various density gradients on viability, cellular composition, and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. After the digestion phase, the extracts were divided into 2 groups for purification using a semiautomated cell processor with Ficoll-based or OptiPrep-based density gradients. Islet preparations cultured for 2 days were assessed regarding islet cell viability (fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide [FDA/PI]), fractional beta-cell viability by FACS, and beta-cell content using iCys. Cytokine/chemokine production from islet preparations was also measured by Bio-plex. After purification, the purity, islet equivalents (IEQ), and islet recovery rates were comparable between the 2 groups. Although FDA/PI and fractional beta-cell viability showed no significant difference, survival of beta cells during culture was significantly higher in the OptiPrep compared with the Ficoll-based density gradient group. There were significantly lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-6, and MIP-1beta productions from the OptiPrep-based density gradient group. OptiPrep-based density gradients reduced cytokine/chemokine production by islet preparations. In addition, OptiPrep-based density gradient purification significantly reduced the loss of beta-cell mass during pretransplantation culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis for patients with fulminant hepatic failure has improved since the introduction of liver transplantation. However, the death rate of patients awaiting liver transplantation is high, possibly because of the difficulty in obtaining grafts in a timely manner, given the relative shortage of cadaveric donors. Under these circumstances, living donor liver transplantation is an alternative therapeutic option for patients with fulminant hepatic failure. The present review provides recent updates on the clinical and therapeutic aspects of living donor liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sirolimus plays a critical role in facilitating steroid-free immunosuppression, in conjunction with low dose tacrolimus, in current islet transplantation. Although several studies have investigated the effects of sirolimus on islet cells, conflicting results have been reported. In this study, we assessed the effects of sirolimus supplementation in culture media on human islet preparations, focusing on the anti-proinflammatory aspects.
Human islet preparations were divided into four groups: pure (purity >90%) sirolimus (30 ng/mL); pure control (0 ng/mL); impure (purity 40%-60%) sirolimus; and impure control. All groups were cultured for 3 days and assessed regarding glucose stimulated insulin release, fractional beta-cell viability, beta-cell, and macrophage content. Cytokine and chemokine production from islet preparations and sorted pancreatic ductal cells were also examined.
Stimulated insulin release in the impure sirolimus group was significantly increased (P=0.024), as previously reported. Although fractional beta-cell viability showed no significant differences, beta-cell survival during culture significantly increased in impure sirolimus group when compared with the impure control group (P=0.015). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta production from the impure sirolimus group significantly decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta production from sorted ductal cells significantly decreased in the sirolimus group (P<0.05). The number of macrophages contained in islet preparations significantly decreased in the impure sirolimus group when compared with the impure control group (P<0.05).
Sirolimus improved not only stimulated insulin release, but also beta-cell survival during culture. The antiinflammatory effects of sirolimus also appear beneficial to islet cells in culture and may be a useful strategy in improving islet transplantation outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since first being described in 1998, de novo autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) after liver transplantation has been reported in several cases suffering from non-autoimmune liver diseases and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1 genotype mismatches between donor and recipient have also been suggested to constitute a risk factor for de novo AIH. Here, we report a 33-yr-old woman who presented complaining of marked fatigue and jaundice four yr after living-donor liver transplantation for PBC. On examination, transaminase levels were highly elevated and ANA and antimitochondrial antibody M2 were positive. Histological findings showed zonal necrosis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration closely resembling AIH. She had pretreatment AIH score of 16 and 19 points after relapse of de novo AIH. Two color fluorescence in situ hybridization with X and Y chromosome-specific probes clearly revealed that the hepatocytes were of donor origin and lymphocytes were of patient origin. The GSTT1 genotype of the patient and the donor were the same null type, suggesting that mechanisms other than GSTT1 mismatches may exist in de novo AIH development. In conclusion, recipient immune cells attacked the allogeneic transplanted liver of the patient via de novo AIH, although the exact participation of autoimmune mechanisms is unclear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary complications remain a significant cause of morbidity following living donor liver transplantation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the outcome of nonsurgical management for hepatojejunostomy stricture in our institution. We reviewed 22 patients with hepatojejunostomy stricture among the 231 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation between June 1990 and December 2005. Hepatojejunostomy stricture was confirmed by percutaneous transhepatic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Anastomotic strictures were treated by balloon dilatation. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed on 15 of the 22 patients. Two of 15 patients, with complete obstruction of the anastomosis, were treated successfully by Yamanouchi magnet compression anastomosis. Although another two patients died of infectious disease that was unlikely to have been related to biliary complications, anastomotic patency was maintained in the other 13 patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed on seven of the 22 patients. None of the 22 patients required re-operation or died of biliary complications. The 5-year graft survival rate of 85.6% in the 22 patients with stricture was equivalent to that of the patients without stricture (82.9%, P = 0.98). Advances in intervention techniques have enabled wider application of nonsurgical approaches for this complication, and fair results have been obtained.
Transplant International 05/2008; 21(4):320-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2007.00609.x · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a form of hereditary generalized amyloidosis. Liver tissue explanted from FAP patients has normal structure and function, except for the production of amyloidogenic variant transthyretin (TTR), and domino liver transplantation (DLT) using grafts from FAP patients was first performed in 1995. FAP symptoms usually develop in genetically determined individuals after the age of 20, but it is difficult to estimate when FAP symptoms will appear in domino recipients. Concerning this problem, histological findings showing amyloid deposition have recently been obtained in a few domino recipients of FAP livers. This study investigated the presence of de novo amyloid deposition in the gastroduodenal mucosa of domino recipients transplanted at our institution. Biopsy of gastroduodenal mucosa was carried out in 5 recipients of FAP livers and TTR-derived amyloid deposits were detected in 2 patients, both of whom had undergone DLT 47 months previously. In FAP liver recipients, de novo systemic amyloid deposition may begin much sooner than previously supposed. Therefore, careful follow-up of domino recipients of FAP livers is required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in vitro system for liver organogenesis from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells has been recently established. This system is expected to be applied to the development of a new drug metabolism assay system that uses ES cells as a substitute for animal experiments. The objective of this study was to elucidate the drug metabolism profiles of the murine ES cell-derived hepatic tissue system compared with those of primary cultures of murine adult and fetal hepatocytes. The expression of the genes of the cytochrome P450 (P450) family, such as Cyp2a5, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp2d9, Cyp3a11, and Cyp7a1, was observed in the murine ES cell-derived hepatic tissue system at 16 days and 18 days after plating (A16 and A18). To investigate the activities of these P450 family enzymes in the murine ES cell-derived hepatic tissue system at A16 and A18, testosterone metabolism in this system was analyzed. Testosterone was hydroxylated to 6beta-hydroxytestosterone (6beta-OHT), 16alpha-OHT, 2alpha-OHT, and 2beta-OHT in this system, and was not hydroxylated to 15alpha-OHT, 7alpha-OHT, and 16beta-OHT. This metabolism profile was similar to that of fetal hepatocytes and different from that of adult hepatocytes. Furthermore, pretreatment with phenobarbital resulted in a 2.5- and 2.6-fold increase in the production of 6beta-OHT and 16beta-OHT. Thus, evidence for drug metabolic activities in relation to P450s has been demonstrated in this system. These results in this system would be a stepping stone of the research on the development and differentiation to adult liver.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition 05/2006; 34(4):696-701. DOI:10.1124/dmd.105.007674 · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the risk factors contributing to hepatic artery thrombosis in living-donor liver transplantation.
Two hundred and twenty-two recipients (113 adults and 109 children) of living-donor liver transplantation were the subjects of this study. The diagnosis of hepatic artery thrombosis was made by color-Doppler ultrasonography and/or hepatic angiography. Parameters for this study were: (1) donor sex, age, and body weight; (2) recipient sex, age, body weight, liver disease, preoperative prothrombin time, and type of arterial reconstruction; and (3) previous liver transplantation.
Hepatic artery thrombosis occurred in 12 patients (5.4%) at 3 to 15 days posttransplant. Recipient female sex and metabolic disorder as the original disease were found to be significantly associated with hepatic artery thrombosis. The 5-year patient survival rate in recipients with hepatic artery thrombosis (58.3%) was significantly lower than that in recipients without this complication (84.4%).
Female sex and metabolic disease may be factors contributing to hepatic artery thrombosis after living-donor liver transplantation. More intensive anticoagulation therapy for this patient population might decrease the incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis and, thus, posttransplant recipient mortality.
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery 02/2006; 13(2):105-9. DOI:10.1007/s00534-005-1015-y · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of Fas-Fas ligand (Fas-FasL)-mediated apoptosis in the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) have not been well defined. This clinical study was carried out to assess which cells expressed Fas-FasL and to determine their involvement.
The subjects were 24 patients with FHF who underwent liver transplantation at our institution. For comparison, nine chronic hepatitis (CH) patients and six living liver donors (LD) were also enrolled. Liver tissues were obtained for histological (hematoxylin-eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling [TUNEL], immunohistochemistry, and double immunofluorescence staining) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR; cytokines and chemokines) analysis.
The numbers of TUNEL-, FasL-, and CD68-positive cells in the livers of patients with FHF were significantly larger than in those with CH or with normal livers. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that FasL was expressed predominantly on liver macrophages and rarely on CD8-positive lymphocytes. RT-PCR study showed increased expression of FasL; interferon-gamma; interleukin-18; macrophage inhibitory protein-1beta; and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted in the livers of patients with FHF compared with those of LD.
Macrophages and their expression of FasL may play roles in the pathogenesis of FHF.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2005; 100(11):2551-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00265.x · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We summarize 10 years of experience with liver transplantation for FAP patients in Japan and review the current opinions regarding this treatment for FAP.
All basic report data on patients at the time of transplantation were registered with the Japanese Liver Transplantation Society (JLTS). Based on the JLST report data, more detailed information on FAP patients was requested from each center.
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for FAP patients was first performed in Japan in 1993. LDLT has since been performed in 41 FAP patients, including nine cases of temporary auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT). Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) from cadaveric donors for FAP patients began in 1999, but only one FAP patient has subsequently undergone this procedure. Of these total of 43 FAP patients, 36 are currently alive: the one-year survival rate of patients after transplantation was 93%, and the five-year survival rate of these cases was 77%. Preoperative clinical severity and the nutritional status of patients are correlated with their outcome after liver transplantation. Domino (sequential) liver transplantation has been carried out in 20 domino recipients with end-stage liver diseases. Of the 20 domino recipients, 12 are currently alive.
For FAP patients, these outcomes after the operation were very similar to those of OLT from cadaveric donors reported in other countries. Therefore, we concluded that for the treatment of FAP, LDLT from a living donor is equally effective as OLT from a cadaveric donor.
Internal Medicine 12/2005; 44(11):1151-6. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.44.1151 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies in the field of regenerative medicine have exploited the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate a variety of cell lineages. However, the target has always been only a single lineage, which was isolated from other differentiated cell populations. In the present study, we selected sublines with a high capability for differentiation to contracting cardiomyocytes and also produced germ-line chimeric mice from a parent ES line. We also succeed in establishing embryoid bodies prepared from the ES cells that differentiated into not only hepatocytes but also at least two mesodermal lineages: cardiomyocytes that supported liver development and endothelial cells corresponding to sinusoids. This allowed the development of an in vitro system using murine ES cells that approximated the events of liver development in vivo. The expression of albumin was significantly higher in cardiomyocytes that had arisen in differentiated ES cells than in those that had not. Our in vitro system for liver organogenesis consists of a blood/sinusoid vascular-like network and hepatocyte layers and shows higher levels of hepatic function, such as albumin production and ammonia degradation, than hepatic cell lines and primary cultures of murine adult hepatocytes. This innovative system will lead to the development of second-generation regenerative medicine techniques using ES cells and is expected to be useful for the development of bioartificial liver systems and drug-metabolism assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) during hepatectomy and liver transplantation is a major cause of liver dysfunction in which the pathologic role of free radicals is a major concern. To assess the effect of MCI-186 (edaravone) on hepatic IRI, male Wistar rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia for 60 min after pretreatment with vehicle (group C) or MCI-186 (group M), or after both MCI-186 pretreatment and additional administration of MCI-186 12 h after reperfusion (group MX). Groups M and MX showed significantly lower levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipid peroxidation than group C, and also significantly lower expression levels of mRNA for cytokines, chemokines and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. There were fewer tissue monocytes and neutrophils in groups M and MX than in group C. These effects were more marked in group MX than in group M. Our findings suggest that treatment with MCI-186 attenuates hepatic IRI in this rat in vivo model.
Transplant International 08/2005; 18(7):844-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2005.00094.x · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Domino liver transplantation (DLT) has been developed as a method to expand the donor pool. In living donors DLT, the prime concern is to avoid any disadvantage to the donor and the first recipient. Seven DLTs were performed among 211 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation. The domino recipients included six with hepatocellular carcinoma and one with citrullinemia. The domino grafts were obtained from patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) including the left liver in three cases and the right liver in four. Among the seven domino recipients, a 64-year-old woman with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma died of lung metastasis. The other six domino recipients are alive without FAP symptoms. In living donor liver transplantation, because the vessels of the graft from the first donor are not long enough for anastomosis, the hepatic vessels must be left as long as possible when removing the liver from the FAP patients in order to ensure sufficient safety for vascular reconstruction. With careful decision making during the procedure, such as where to divide the vessels in the FAP patients, DLT may help address the shortage of liver grafts.