[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a demand for technologies that allow the interrogation of large numbers of SNP polymorphisms, both in whole-genome panels and in smaller custom designed sets, to attempt to elucidate the nature of complex disease through linkage and association studies. The Illumina BeadArray technology offers a flexible platform for such analyses through two assays: GoldenGate, as described in this chapter, and Infinium II. Both assays utilize the BeadArray technology, where targeted regions of DNA are immobilized on beads randomly arranged into arrays, and the SNPs visualized through fluorescent tags, which differentiate among alleles. The platform is scalable such that mid- to high-throughput projects can be designed and completed in either a manual or automated mode. Small amounts of starting material are required, and in the case of GoldenGate, some level of sample degradation can be tolerated. The assays are efficient and reliable giving high pass rates and concordance levels.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2008; 439:53-74.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Array-based technologies have been used to detect chromosomal copy number changes (aneuploidies) in the human genome. Recent studies identified numerous copy number variants (CNV) and some are common polymorphisms that may contribute to disease susceptibility. We developed, and experimentally validated, a novel computational framework (QuantiSNP) for detecting regions of copy number variation from BeadArray SNP genotyping data using an Objective Bayes Hidden-Markov Model (OB-HMM). Objective Bayes measures are used to set certain hyperparameters in the priors using a novel re-sampling framework to calibrate the model to a fixed Type I (false positive) error rate. Other parameters are set via maximum marginal likelihood to prior training data of known structure. QuantiSNP provides probabilistic quantification of state classifications and significantly improves the accuracy of segmental aneuploidy identification and mapping, relative to existing analytical tools (Beadstudio, Illumina), as demonstrated by validation of breakpoint boundaries. QuantiSNP identified both novel and validated CNVs. QuantiSNP was developed using BeadArray SNP data but it can be adapted to other platforms and we believe that the OB-HMM framework has widespread applicability in genomic research. In conclusion, QuantiSNP is a novel algorithm for high-resolution CNV/aneuploidy detection with application to clinical genetics, cancer and disease association studies.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2007; 35(6):2013-25. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of the association between Crohn's disease (CD) and NOD2 (CARD15) confirmed both the heritability of CD and highlighted the role of the nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway in disease pathogenesis. Other susceptibility loci exist. TUCAN (CARD8) is located beneath a CD peak of linkage on chromosome 19q. TUCAN is expressed in the gut and is a negative regulator of NFkappaB, making it an excellent candidate gene for gastrointestinal inflammation.
Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across TUCAN were genotyped in 365 controls, 372 patients with CD, and 373 patients with ulcerative colitis. A diagnostic panel for CD was constructed using smoking status and TUCAN, NOD2, IBD5, NOD1, and TNFSF15 data.
We demonstrate significant association between a TUCAN SNP and CD (OR 1.35, P = .0083). The association was more pronounced with disease affecting sites other than the colon (odds ratio, 1.52) and NOD2-negative CD (odds ratio, 1.50). Combination of these data with smoking and NOD2, IBD5, NOD1, and TNFSF15 status demonstrated very strong associations with CD and high sensitivities (96.3%), specificities (99.4%), and likelihood ratios (12.8) for CD, although further work will be needed before this model can be translated into direct clinical utility.
We have shown an association between a likely functional polymorphism in TUCAN and CD. The combination of these data in a genetic panel suggests that clinicians may soon be able to translate genetic advances into direct benefits for patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the digestive tract. The pathogenesis of IBD is complicated, and it is widely accepted that immunologic, environmental and genetic components contribute to its etiology. To identify genetic susceptibility factors in CD, we performed a genome-wide association study in Japanese patients and controls using nearly 80,000 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and investigated the haplotype structure of the candidate locus in Japanese and European patients. We identified highly significant associations (P = 1.71 x 10(-14) with odds ratio of 2.17) of SNPs and haplotypes within the TNFSF15 (the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 15) genes in Japanese CD patients. The association was confirmed in the study of two European IBD cohorts. Interestingly, a core TNFSF15 haplotype showing association with increased risk to the disease was common in the two ethnic groups. Our results suggest that the genetic variations in the TNFSF15 gene contribute to the susceptibility to IBD in the Japanese and European populations.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2005; 14(22):3499-506. · 7.69 Impact Factor