[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77203. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077203 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endogenous bacteria have been hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of critical illness, although their role in sepsis is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how commensal bacteria alter the host response to sepsis. Conventional and germ-free (GF) C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. All GF mice died within 2 days, whereas 44% of conventional mice survived for 7 days (P = 0.001). Diluting the dose of bacteria 10-fold in GF mice led to similar survival in GF and conventional mice. When animals with similar mortality were assayed for intestinal integrity, GF mice had lower levels of intestinal epithelial apoptosis but similar levels of proliferation and intestinal permeability. Germ-free mice had significantly lower levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with conventional mice without changes in systemic cytokine production. Under conventional conditions, sepsis unmasks lymphocyte control of intestinal epithelial apoptosis, because sepsis induces a greater increase in gut apoptosis in Rag-1 mice than in wild-type mice. However, in a separate set of experiments, gut apoptosis was similar between septic GF Rag-1 mice and septic GF wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that the endogenous bacteria play a protective role in mediating mortality from pneumonia-induced sepsis, potentially mediated through altered intestinal apoptosis and the local proinflammatory response. In addition, sepsis-induced lymphocyte-dependent increases in gut epithelial apoptosis appear to be mediated by the endogenous bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and killed 24 h later. Septic animals had a marked increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis by both hematoxylin-eosin and active caspase 3 staining. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus-induced intestinal apoptosis was associated with an increase in the expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Bax and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the mitochondrial pathway. In the receptor-mediated pathway, MRSA pneumonia induced an increase in Fas ligand but decreased protein levels of Fas, FADD, pFADD, TNF-R1, and TRADD. To assess the functional significance of these changes, MRSA pneumonia was induced in mice with genetic manipulations in proteins in either the mitochondrial or receptor-mediated pathways. Both Bid-/- mice and animals with intestine-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 had decreased intestinal apoptosis compared with wild-type animals. In contrast, Fas ligand-/- mice had no alterations in apoptosis. To determine if these findings were organism-specific, similar experiments were performed in mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced gut apoptosis, but unlike MRSA, this was associated with increased Bcl-2 and TNF-R1 and decreased Fas. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus pneumonia thus induces organism-specific changes in intestinal apoptosis via changes in both the mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, although the former may be more functionally significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality in the ICU frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally-distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intraabdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed three days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival while animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% seven-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) concentrations of MRSA compared to sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased BAL levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and G-CSF compared to those given intratracheal saline while CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared to those subjected to sham laparotomy while this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared to animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality in the intensive care unit frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intra-abdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed 3 days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival, whereas animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% 7-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of MRSA compared with sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with those given intratracheal saline, whereas CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared with those subjected to sham laparotomy, whereas this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count, or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared with animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte apoptosis is thought to have a major role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. However, there is a disconnect between animal models of sepsis and patients with the disease, because the former use subjects that were healthy prior to the onset of infection while most patients have underlying comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis prevention is effective in preventing mortality in septic mice with preexisting cancer. Mice with lymphocyte Bcl-2 overexpression (Bcl-2-Ig) and wild type (WT) mice were injected with a transplantable pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line. Three weeks later, after development of palpable tumors, all animals received an intratracheal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite having decreased sepsis-induced T and B lymphocyte apoptosis, Bcl-2-Ig mice had markedly increased mortality compared with WT mice following P. aeruginosa pneumonia (85 versus 44% 7-d mortality; p = 0.004). The worsened survival in Bcl-2-Ig mice was associated with increases in Th1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased production of the Th2 cytokine IL-10 in stimulated splenocytes. There were no differences in tumor size or pulmonary pathology between Bcl-2-Ig and WT mice. To verify that the mortality difference was not specific to Bcl-2 overexpression, similar experiments were performed in Bim(-/-) mice. Septic Bim(-/-) mice with cancer also had increased mortality compared with septic WT mice with cancer. These data demonstrate that, despite overwhelming evidence that prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis is beneficial in septic hosts without comorbidities, the same strategy worsens survival in mice with cancer that are given pneumonia.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2011; 187(4):1950-6. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1003391 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2011; 186(6):3718-25. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1003652 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-15 is a pluripotent antiapoptotic cytokine that signals to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system and is regarded as a highly promising immunomodulatory agent in cancer therapy. Sepsis is a lethal condition in which apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and subsequent immunosuppression are thought to contribute to morbidity and mortality. This study tested the ability of IL-15 to block apoptosis, prevent immunosuppression, and improve survival in sepsis. Mice were made septic using cecal ligation and puncture or Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The experiments comprised a 2 x 2 full factorial design with surgical sepsis versus sham and IL-15 versus vehicle. In addition to survival studies, splenic cellularity, canonical markers of activation and proliferation, intracellular pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein expression, and markers of immune cell apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cytokine production was examined both in plasma of treated mice and splenocytes that were stimulated ex vivo. IL-15 blocked sepsis-induced apoptosis of NK cells, dendritic cells, and CD8 T cells. IL-15 also decreased sepsis-induced gut epithelial apoptosis. IL-15 therapy increased the abundance of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 while decreasing proapoptotic Bim and PUMA. IL-15 increased both circulating IFN-gamma, as well as the percentage of NK cells that produced IFN-gamma. Finally, IL-15 increased survival in both cecal ligation and puncture and P. aeruginosa pneumonia. In conclusion, IL-15 prevents two immunopathologic hallmarks of sepsis, namely, apoptosis and immunosuppression, and improves survival in two different models of sepsis. IL-15 represents a potentially novel therapy of this highly lethal disorder.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2009; 184(3):1401-9. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0902307 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas most septic patients have an underlying comorbidity, most animal models of sepsis use mice that were healthy before the onset of infection. Malignancy is the most common comorbidity associated with sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice with cancer have a different response to sepsis than healthy animals.
Prospective, randomized controlled study.
Animal laboratory in a university medical center.
Animals received a subcutaneous injection of either 250,000 cells of the transplantable pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Pan02 (cancer) or phosphate-buffered saline (healthy). Three weeks later, mice given Pan02 cells had reproducible, nonmetastatic tumors. Both groups of mice then underwent intratracheal injection of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa (septic) or 0.9% NaCl (sham). Animals were killed 24 hrs postoperatively or followed-up 7 days for survival.
Mice with cancer and healthy mice appeared similar when subjected to sham operation, although cancer animals had lower levels of T- and B-lymphocyte apoptosis. Septic mice with cancer had increased mortality compared to previously healthy septic mice subjected to the identical injury (52% vs. 28%; p = .04). This was associated with increased bacteremia but no difference in local pulmonary infection. Septic mice with cancer also had increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis. Although sepsis induced an increase in T- and B-lymphocyte apoptosis in all animals, septic mice with cancer had decreased T- and B-lymphocyte apoptosis compared to previously healthy septic mice. Serum and pulmonary cytokines, lung histology, complete blood counts, and intestinal proliferation were similar between septic mice with cancer and previously healthy septic mice.
When subjected to the same septic insult, mice with cancer have increased mortality compared to previously healthy animals. Decreased systemic bacterial clearance and alterations in intestinal epithelial and lymphocyte apoptosis may help explain this differential response.
Critical care medicine 12/2009; 38(3):886-93. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181c8fdb1 · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities.
Prospective, randomized controlled study.
Animal laboratory in a university medical center.
Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points.
The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs.
Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of sepsis.
Critical care medicine 09/2009; 38(1):223-41. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b4a76b · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with increased inflammation following sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a fundamental age-based difference in the host response or is secondary to the increased mortality seen in aged hosts.
Prospective, randomized controlled study.
Animal laboratory in a university medical center.
Young (6-12 weeks) and aged (20-24 months) FVB/N mice.
Mice were subjected to 2 x 25 or 1 x 30 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).
Survival was similar in young mice subjected to 2 x 25 CLP and aged mice subjected to 1 x 30 CLP (p = 0.15). Young mice subjected to 1 x 30 CLP had improved survival compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). When injury was held constant but mortality was greater, both systemic and peritoneal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were elevated 24 hours after CLP in aged animals compared with young animals (p < 0.05). When mortality was similar but injury severity was different, there were no significant differences in systemic cytokines between aged mice and young mice. In contrast, peritoneal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 were higher in aged mice subjected to 1 x 30 CLP than young mice subjected to 2 x 25 CLP despite their similar mortalities (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in either bacteremia or peritoneal cultures when animals of different ages sustained similar injuries or had different injuries with similar mortalities.
Aged mice are more likely to die of sepsis than young mice when subjected to an equivalent insult, and this is associated with increases in both systemic and local inflammation. There is an exaggerated local but not systemic inflammatory response in aged mice compared with young mice when mortality is similar. This suggests that systemic processes that culminate in death may be age independent, but the local inflammatory response may be greater with aging.
Critical care medicine 04/2009; 37(3):1018-23. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181968f3a · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.
The FASEB Journal 02/2009; 23(6):1817-25. DOI:10.1096/fj.08-119024 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted IL-10 therapy improves survival in preclinical models of critical illness, and intestine-specific IL-10 decreases inflammation in models of chronic Inflammatory disease. We therefore sought to determine whether intestine-specific overexpression of IL-10 would improve survival in sepsis. Transgenic mice that overexpress IL-10 in their gut epithelium (Fabpi-IL-10 mice) and wild-type (WT) littermates (n = 127) were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture with a 27-gauge needle. The 7-day survival rate was 45% in transgenic animals and 30% in WT animals (P < or = 0.05). Systemic levels of IL-10 were undetectable in both groups of animals under basal conditions and were elevated to a similar degree in septic animals regardless of whether they expressed the transgene. Local parameter of injury, including gut epithelial apoptosis, intestinal permeability, peritoneal lavage cytokines, and stimulated cytokines from intraepithelial lymphocytes, were similar between transgenic and WT mice. However, in stimulated splenocytes, proinflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (189 +/- 43 vs. 40 +/- 8 pg/mL) and IL-6 (116 +/- 28 vs. 34 +/- 9 pg/mL) were lower in Fabpi-IL-10 mice than WT littermates despite the intestine-specific nature of the transgene (P < 0.05). Cytokine levels were similar in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between the 2 groups, as were circulating LPS levels. Transgenic mice also had lower white blood cell counts associated with lower absolute neutrophil counts (0.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.2 10(3)/mm3; P < 0.05). These results indicate that gut-specific overexpression of IL-10 improves survival in a murine model of sepsis, and interactions between the intestinal epithelium and the systemic immune system may play a role in conferring this survival advantage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF after the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2 x 23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive injection of either 150 microg kg(-1) d(-1) (i.p.) EGF or 0.9% saline (i.p.). Circulating EGF levels were decreased after CLP compared with sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased after CLP and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF receptor was increased after CLP, whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF receptor. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Fas-associated death domain, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 cip1/waf Epidermal growth factor treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, Fas-associated death domain, and p21 cip1/waf . To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed 7 days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Thus, EGF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sac7d and Sso7d are homologous, hyperthermophile proteins with a high density of charged surface residues and potential ion pairs. To determine the relative importance of specific amino acid side-chains in defining the stability and function of these Archaeal chromatin proteins, pK(a) values were measured for the acidic residues in both proteins using (13)C NMR chemical shifts. The stability of Sso7d enabled titrations to pH 1 under low-salt conditions. Two aspartate residues in Sso7d (D16 and D35) and a single glutamate residue (G54) showed significantly perturbed pK(a) values in low salt, indicating that the observed pH-dependence of stability was primarily due to these three residues. The pH-dependence of backbone amide NMR resonances demonstrated that perturbation of all three pK(a) values was primarily the result of side-chain to backbone amide hydrogen bonds. Few of the significantly perturbed acidic pK(a) values in Sac7d and Sso7d could be attributed to primarily ion pair or electrostatic interactions. A smaller perturbation of E48 (E47 in Sac7d) was ascribed to an ion pair interaction that may be important in defining the DNA binding surface. The small number (three) of significantly altered pK(a) values was in good agreement with a linkage analysis of the temperature, pH, and salt-dependence of folding. The linkage of the ionization of two or more side-chains to protein folding led to apparent cooperativity in the pH-dependence of folding, although each group titrated independently with a Hill coefficient near unity. These results demonstrate that the acid pH-dependence of protein stability in these hyperthermophile proteins is due to independent titration of acidic residues with pK(a) values perturbed primarily by hydrogen bonding of the side-chain to the backbone. This work demonstrates the need for caution in using structural data alone to argue the importance of ion pairs in stabilizing hyperthermophile proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sso10b (or Alba) family of proteins is a conserved group of archaeal and eukaryotic proteins which are thought to play a role in both chromatin organization and RNA metabolism. We describe here the solution structure and properties of Sso10b2 from Sulfolobus solfataricus. NMR data including residual dipolar couplings and (15)N relaxation data demonstrated that the protein adopts a beta(1)alpha(1)beta(2)alpha(2)beta(3)beta(4) topology with an IF-3-like fold. The protein dimerizes in solution at 30 degrees C via a hydrophobic surface defined by the C-terminal alpha(2)beta(3)beta(4) elements with a structure similar to one of the putative dimers indicated by previous crystal structures. DSC and circular dichroism data demonstrated an unusual two-state structural transition near the growth temperature which led to an increase in beta-sheet content without dissociation of the dimer. The cooperativity of the transition exceeded that of a dimer at pH 7, demonstrating the presence of higher order oligomers near the growth temperature at pH 7. Reverse titrations of Sso10b2 with nucleic acid showed that the protein binds single-stranded DNA (K(d) of 3 x 10(-)(7) M) with higher affinity than RNA (1.3 x 10(-)(6) M) or double-stranded DNA (1.5 x 10(-)(5) M) in 10 mM KH(2)PO(4) (pH 7.0, 20 degrees C). NMR chemical shift perturbation data indicated that single-stranded DNA and RNA binding occurred across the same dimer interface and encompassed a surface defined by the C-terminal ends of the beta(1), beta(2), and beta(3) strands of each monomer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sso10a is one of a number of DNA-binding proteins from the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus that has been associated with DNA packaging and chromatin regulation. Sequence analysis indicates that it is a member of a conserved group of archaeal transcription regulators (COG3432). We have determined the solution structure of Sso10a and show that it is a homodimer of winged-helix DNA-binding domains. The dimer interface consists of an extended antiparallel coiled coil, with the globular DNA-binding domains positioned at opposite ends of a solvent-exposed coiled-coil rod. NMR structure refinement of the elongated structure benefited not only from the inclusion of residual dipolar couplings from partially aligned samples but also the influence of anisotropic rotational diffusion on heteronuclear relaxation. An analysis of backbone mobility using (15)N relaxation rates indicated that the overall tertiary and quaternary structure is largely inflexible on the nanosecond to picosecond time scale. Amide hydrogen exchange data demonstrated that the most stable region of the protein extends from the core of the winged helices into the coiled coil. The positions of the globular heads relative to the coiled coil in solution deviate only slightly from that observed in a crystal structure. The most significant difference between the solution and crystal structures occurs in the putative DNA-binding helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. This is the region of lowest stability in solution and a point of protein-protein contact in the crystal. Alternative conformations of the HTH motif may permit adjustment of the structure for optimal DNA binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sso10a is a member of a group of DNA-binding proteins thought to be important in chromatin structure and regulation in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. We have determined the structure of Sso10a to 1.47A resolution directly with unlabelled native crystals by a novel approach using sulfur single-wavelength anomalous scattering (SAS) from a chromium X-ray source. The 95 amino acid residue protein contains a winged helix DNA-binding domain with an extended C-terminal alpha-helix that leads to dimerization by forming a two-stranded, antiparallel coiled-coil rod. The winged helix domains are at opposite ends of the extended coiled coil with two putative DNA-recognition helices separated by 55A and rotated by 83 degrees. Formation of stable dimers in solution is demonstrated by both analytical ultracentrifugation and differential scanning calorimetry. With a T0 of 109 degrees C, Sso10a is one of the most stable two-stranded coiled coils known. The coiled coil contains a rare aspartate residue (D69) in the normally hydrophobic d position of the heptad repeat, with two aspartate-lysine (d-g') interhelical ion pairs in the symmetrical dimer. Mutation of D69 to alanine resulted in an increase in thermal stability, indicating that destabilization resulting from the partially buried aspartate residue cannot be offset by ion pair formation. Possible DNA-binding interactions are discussed on the basis of comparisons to other winged helix proteins. The structure of Sso10a provides insight into the structures of the conserved domain represented by COG3432, a group of more than 20 hypothetical transcriptional regulators coded in the genomic sequences of both crenarchaeota and euryarchaeota.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of core hydrophobicity and packing on the structure and stability of the hyperthermophile proteins Sac7d and Sso7d have been studied by calorimetry, circular dichroism, and NMR. Valine 30 is positioned in Sac7d to allow a cavity-filling Val --> Ile substitution which occurs naturally in the homologous more thermostable Sso7d. The cavity-filling mutation in Sac7d has been characterized and compared to the reciprocal Ile --> Val mutation in Sso7d. A detailed analysis of the stability of the proteins was obtained by globally fitting the variation of DSC parameters and circular dichroism intensities as a function of temperature (0-100 degrees C), salt (0-0.3 M), and pH (0-8). A global analysis over such a range of conditions permitted an unusually precise measure of the thermodynamic parameters, as well as the separation of the thermodynamics of the intrinsic unfolding reaction from the linked effects of protonation and chloride binding associated with acid-induced folding. The results indicate differences in the energetics of unfolding Sac7d and Sso7d that would not be apparent from an analysis of DSC data alone using conventional methods. The sign and magnitude of the changes in DeltaG, DeltaH, TDeltaS, and DeltaC(P) of unfolding resulting from core Ile/Val substitutions in the two proteins were consistent with differences in hydrophobicity of Val and Ile and negligible changes in packing (van der Waals) interactions. The benefit of increased hydrophobicity of the core increased with temperature, with maximal effect around 116 degrees C. Increased hydrophobicity of the core achieved not only an increase in the free energy of unfolding, but also a lateral shift of the temperature of maximal stability to higher temperature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enhanced stability of hyperthermophile proteins relative to those of mesophiles is the result of an interplay of many different forces. It would appear that nature uses all means at her disposal. In some thermophile proteins, there is an intrinsic increase in stability through increased numbers of electrostatic interactions and more efficient hydrophobic core packing. However, in some, the intrinsic stability is only marginal at the physiological growth temperature, and these are stabilized by ligand binding and modification of solvent structure through increased salt and osmolyte concentrations. A determination of the relative importance of any one of these factors requires a quantitative measure of its contribution. Calorimetry is often the easiest and most reliable method for determining free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity changes accompanying biochemical reactions. The Gibbs free energy change quantitatively describes protein stability in the case of protein folding and ligand affinity in the case of association. Most importantly for thermophile studies, the state functions also provide the temperature dependence of these processes. The temperature dependence of the free energy is determined by the enthalpy change associated with the reaction through the van't Hoff relation. The enthalpy change is also usually temperature dependent as determined by the change in heat capacity. The chapter describes the practical use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure protein stability and binding constants at high temperature.
Methods in Enzymology 02/2001; 334:389-422. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(01)34483-X · 2.09 Impact Factor