[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C2GnT-I [core2 beta(1,6)-N-acetyglucosaminyltransferase-I] and FucT-VII [alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase-VII] are the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of sialyl-Lewis x determinants on selectin ligands and therefore they represent good drug targets for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and other pathologies involving selectins. In the present study, we examined the importance of N-glycosylation for the ability of C2GnT-I and FucT-VII to generate functional selectin ligands, particularly the PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1). We found that (i) both enzymes have their two N-glycosylation sites occupied, (ii) for C2GnT-I, the N-glycan chain linked to Asn-95 significantly contributes to the synthesis of functional PSGL-1 and is required to localize the enzyme to the cis/medial-Golgi compartment, (iii) all N-glycosylation-deficient proteins of FucT-VII displayr a dramatic impairment of their in vitro enzymatic activities, but retain their ability to fucosylate the core2-modified PSGL-I and to generate P- and L-selectin binding, and (iv) the glycomutants of FucT-VII fail to synthesize sialyl-Lewis x or to generate E-selectin binding unless core2-modified PSGL-1 is present. All combined, our results show a differential functional impact of N-glycosylation on C2GnT-1 and FucT-VII and disclose that a strongly reduced FucT-VII activity retains the ability to fucosylate PSGL-1 on the core2-based binding site(s) for the three selectins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During inflammation, E- and P-selectins appear on activated endothelial cells to interact with leukocytes through sialyl-Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis a antigens (sLe(x/a)). These selectins can also interact with tumor cells in a sialyl-Lewis-dependent manner and for this reason, they are thought to play a key role in metastasis. Diverting the biosynthesis of sialyl-Lewis antigens toward nonadhesive structures is an attractive gene therapy for preventing the hematogenous metastatic spread of cancers. We have previously shown that transfection of alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase-I (FUT1) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells had a slight effect on the overall sialylation while the synthesis of sLE(x) was dramatically prevented. We herein delivered the gene of FUT1 by a human immunodeficiency virus-derived lentiviral vector to three human cancer cell lines including pancreatic (BxPC3), hepatic (HepG2), and colonic (HT-29) cancer cells. We found that on FUT1 transduction, all cells exhibited a dramatic decrease in sLe(x) synthesis with a concomitant increase in Le(y) and Le(b) expression, without any detectable effect on the level of cell surface sLe(a) antigens. In parallel, FUT1-transduced HT-29 and HepG2 cells, but not BxPC3 cells, failed to interact with E-selectin as assessed by E-selectin-binding assay or dynamic adhesion to activated endothelial cells. We show also that transduced FUT1 efficiently fucosylates the P-selectin ligand PSGL-1 without altering P-selectin binding. These results have important implications for understanding cell-specific reactions underlying the synthesis of selectin ligands in cancer cells and may provide a basis for the development of anti-metastatic gene therapy.
American Journal Of Pathology 03/2004; 164(2):371-83. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta 1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) has been recently mapped to the cis/medial-Golgi compartment. To analyze the Golgi-targeting determinants of C2GnT, we constructed various deletion mutants of the enzyme fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and localized these proteins by fluorescence microscopy in living cells. We found that the N-terminal peptide encompassing amino acids 1 to 32 represents the minimal Golgi-targeting signal sufficient to localize EGFP to the same compartment as the full-length C2GnT. This peptide makes up the cytoplasmic and the transmembrane domains of the enzyme and was referred to as CTd (cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains). We compared the Golgi-targeting efficiency of the C2GnT-derived CTd with its homologous domains from other glycosyltransferases, including the H-type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FucTI), the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-I (GalNAcT-I), the alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase VII (FucTVII), and the alpha(2,6)-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I) and found that the Golgi-targeting determinants of these glycosyltransferases were also composed of their cytosolic and transmembrane domains. To investigate whether the CTd of C2GnT could serve as a cis to medial Golgi-specific signal, we tested its ability to mislocalize two late-Golgi acting glycosyltransferases FucTI and FucTVII. We show that fusing the C2GnT-derived CTd with the catalytic domain of FucTVII resulted in a complete mislocalization of the enzyme to the C2GnT compartment, with a parallel alteration of sialyl-Lewis x synthesis and P-selectin binding. The intracellular distribution and activity of FucTI, however, were not affected. Thus, CTds of either early or late-Golgi acting glycosyltransferases represent the Golgi-targeting domains of these enzymes. In addition, we show that C2GnT-derived CTd can function as a cis/medial Golgi-targeting determinant.