J P Kusnierz

Institut de Biologie de Lille, Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France

Are you J P Kusnierz?

Claim your profile

Publications (37)137.05 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunologic parameters, known to be grossly abnormal in HIV-1-infected subjects, were analyzed in 22 patients with sustained viral load suppression (<200 copies/ml) following long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Responses were compared with those from 18 HIV-seronegative healthy controls. Persistent phenotypic alterations in patients' blood mononuclear cells were minimal, though the percentages of lymphocytes that could be activated to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) remained severely depressed. Using lymphoproliferative assays, a striking deficit in the capacity of patients to respond to the common mycobacterial antigens and particularly to recombinant heat-shock proteins paralleled the absence of responses to virus p24 antigen. In view of the important immunoregulatory role of stress proteins, these findings reveal profound functional deficiencies and persistent immune dysregulation in HIV-1 patients, despite successful HAART and a considerable recovery of CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Rational immunotherapeutic approaches should be aimed to correct the characterized immune abnormalities.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 12/2000; 20(6):458-65. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in certain immunopathogenetic mechanisms during the course of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We have evaluated the levels of NO release and lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from HIV-1 infected subjects and healthy controls. We have also examined these 2 parameters in parallel cultures maintained under conditions where either NO synthesis was inhibited or high level of NO was present. Nitrite contents in culture supernatants were measured as the stable end products of the released NO. Levels of spontaneous apoptosis and activation-induced cell death (AICD) by anti-CD3 or by phytohemagglutinin were evaluated using flow cytometry. Additional experiments were also aimed at addressing a potential link between NO synthesis and HIV-1 replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Acutely infected MDMs with HIV-1Bal were maintained in culture, without any additional activation signal, for a period of 14 days. Nitrites in the supernatants and mRNA accumulation of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in infected cells were assessed over the whole culture period. In addition, the effect of blocking NO synthesis during and after infection of MDMs, using an inhibitor of NO, was evaluated on the level of viral replication as measured by the presence of P24 antigen in the supernatants. Similarly, the effect on HIV replication of high NO levels in MDM cultures, supplied by a donor of NO during the 24 h period of infection, was also studied. We conclude that no elevation in NO release could be detected in PBMC cultures from HIV-1 infected subjects and that modulation of NO content may slightly regulate the level of spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis but not that of AICD. Infection of MDMs with HIV-1 does not seem to induce detectable NO release or iNOS mRNA accumulation. Similarly, neither inhibition of NO synthesis nor the presence of high NO levels during the infection period could modify the outcome of virus replication in macrophages.
    International Journal of Immunopharmacology 08/1997; 19(7):387-97.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The expression of the Schistosoma mansoni 28 kDa glutathione S-transferase (Sm28) was studied using molecular (PCR, in situ hybridization), and immunocytochemical techniques. The presence of Sm28 was demonstrated in all developmental stages of the parasite except the intra-uterine immature egg. In the parenchyma of male and female adult worms the distribution of Sm28 was limited to a subpopulation of parenchymal cells and to the dorsal tubercles of the male. The tegument, the muscles, the digestive tract, the neural mass, the vitelline glands, and mature gametes were not immunoreactive. Immature germinal cells in both sexes, and the ootype in the female genital system, were found to express Sm28. Deposits of immunoreactive material on host skin following cercarial penetration, exfoliation from the male tubercles, and especially emission of Sm28 from eggs in hepatic granulomas are suspected to be a source of antigen during the parasite infection. The reduction in worm fecundity previously observed in immunization experiments may result from an antibody response directed against Sm28 present in the ootype. There was no cross-reactivity observed, under the experimental conditions used, between the anti-Sm28 sera and either vertebrate or invertebrate host tissue.
    Parasitology 01/1995; 109 ( Pt 5):565-72. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that neutrophils may be involved in the late-phase reaction of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent hypersensitivity states. However, the identity of neutrophil-associated molecules inducing the release of mediators remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that human neutrophils from normal donors or from patients with inflammatory disorders could bind myeloma IgE proteins, especially after desialylation. Northern blot, immunoprecipitation, and flow cytometry analyses revealed that neutrophils did not express Fc epsilon RII/CD23, but rather Mac-2/epsilon binding protein (BP), belonging to the S-type lectin family. Similarly to IgA used as positive control, myeloma IgE proteins, as well as polyclonal IgE antibodies with or without antibody specificity, were both capable of inducing a neutrophil respiratory burst. Anti-Mac-2 but not anti-CD23 mAb strongly decreased the IgE-dependent activation of neutrophils, induced either by the specific antigen or by anti-IgE antibodies. These findings open new perspectives on the functional role of neutrophils in IgE-associated diseases including allergic states or parasitic infections.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/1993; 177(1):243-8. · 13.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the levels of mRNAs encoding cationic proteins in peripheral blood eosinophils (PBE) purified from patients with eosinophilia and in eosinophils differentiated from cord blood cells (CBC) by culture with recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3), rhGM-CSF, and rhIL-5. Messenger RNAs encoding eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were detected by Northern blot hybridization with the respective specific oligonucleotide probes. In mature PBE, MBP mRNA appeared to be absent, whereas EPO mRNA was barely detectable in only 5 of the 19 patients. In contrast, EDN and ECP mRNAs were observed in the PBE of all patients. In CE, EPO, and MBP, mRNAs were abundant in immature eosinophils and their amounts decreased after differentiation toward eosinophils. ECP and EDN mRNAs followed the same patterns, but mRNAs were less abundant at all timepoints studied. Study of mRNA t1/2 during the time course of differentiation indicated that changes in the stability of the different mRNAs were not responsible for the variations observed in the steady-state levels. Together, these results suggest that regulation of expression differs among EPO, MBP, EDN, and ECP mRNAs during the time course of eosinophil differentiation.
    Blood 06/1992; 79(10):2592-7. · 9.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that human interferon-gamma (Hu-IFN-gamma) induces platelets to become efficient effector cells, capable of killing young larvae of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Recently, binding sites for IFN-gamma on platelets have been characterized. We show here the presence of high-affinity receptors for IFN-gamma on the surface of the human megakaryocytic Dami cell line. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of about 11,000 binding sites per cell, with a kd of 3 +/- 0.5 x 10(-10) mol/L; the apparent molecular weight of the receptor was 90 Kd. Receptor-bound 125I Hu-recombinant IFN-gamma was rapidly internalized and degraded when the temperature was increased from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C. The half-life of this receptor was about 7 hours, and pretreatment of cells with IFN-gamma or phorbol myristate acetate had very little effect on the surface receptor number and no detectable effect on IFN-gamma receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The receptor was functional, because 24 hours of treatment with IFN-gamma led to the increase of HLA class I mRNA expression and to the initiation of HLA class II mRNA expression. These effects were selective because platelet glycoprotein Ib, IIb, or IIIa mRNA expression and cell proliferation were unaffected.
    Blood 11/1991; 78(8):2062-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated, with optical and transmission electron microscopy, that Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes infect and multiply inside T lymphocytes. The infection rate we have observed in T cells was similar to that seen in the case of macrophage or polymorphonuclear cell infection. Flow cytofluorometric analysis of T lymphocytes purified from mice in the acute phase of the disease, revealed the presence of parasite-derived antigens on their surface. These antigens appear to be specific to T. cruzi and they could be the result of intracellular parasite antigens as well as adsorption of T. cruzi antigens on the surface of noninfected T cells. Antibodies recognizing these surface antigens were present in both T. cruzi-infected mouse and human sera. They were able to induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the presence of nonimmune mononuclear cells both in autologous and in heterologous combinations. Consequently, we provided evidence suggesting that T lymphocytes could be destroyed during the acute phase of Chagas' disease either by cell infection or by an ADCC mechanism against cells bearing parasite antigens on their surface. Thus, the ability of trypomastigotes to invade T cells may play a crucial role in the immunopathogenesis characteristic of Chagas' disease.
    European Journal of Immunology 10/1991; 21(9):2145-52. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We reported three additional cases of a newly described syndrome called episodic angioedema with hypereosinophilia. In order to investigate its pathophysiological mechanisms, four parameters were concurrently investigated, including blood eosinophil density, serum chemoattractant activity, serum major basic protein (MBP) levels and the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies. Distribution of eosinophils through a metrizamide density gradient showed a preferential sedimentation of blood eosinophils in intermediate layers, clearly different from the hypodense cells (low-density layers) identified in a group of seven patients with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). In two of the three patients with cyclic angioedema, a chemotactic activity towards eosinophils was detected in the serum (30 +/- 6 and 42 +/- 12 eosinophils per high-power field; P less than 0.05 compared with a control group). Serum MBP levels were at 1524, 619 and 1200 pg/ml. All three patients had circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies, predominantly of the IgG isotype, in contrast to controls (P less than 0.01) or to patients with HES (P less than 0.01). Specificity of the antibody for endothelial cells was demonstrated in the three patients studied by the absence of binding to various blood cells, including monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and platelets. In one case (patient 2), the levels of anti-endothelial cell antibodies, as well as the serum chemoattractant activity to eosinophils varied according to the successive acute phases of the disease. Although further investigations are needed to clarify the exact pathophysiology of this syndrome, and especially the possible participation of the anti-endothelial cell antibodies in the cutaneous lesions, these data suggest that angioedema observed in this syndrome could result from the combined effects of activated eosinophils and of immunologically induced endothelial lesions.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 11/1990; 82(1):38-43. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We reported three additional cases of a newly described syndrome called episodic angioedema with hypereosinophilia. In order to investigate its pathophysiological mechanisms, four parameters were concurrently investigated, including blood eosinophil density, serum chemoattractant activity, serum major basic protein (MBP) levels and the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies. Distribution of eosinophils through a metrizamide density gradient showed a preferential sedimentation of blood eosinophils in intermediate layers, clearly different from the hypodense cells (low-density layers) identified in a group of seven patients with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). In two of the three patients with cyclic angioedema. a chemotactic activity towards eosinophils was detected in the serum (30 ± 6 and 42 ± 12 eosinophils per high-power field; P < 0.05 compared with a control group). Serum MBP levels were at 1524, 619 and 1200 pg/ml. All three patients had circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies, predominantly of the IgG isotype, in contrast to controls (P < 0.01) or to patients with HES (P < 0.01). Specificity of the antibody for endothelial cells was demonstrated in the three patients studied by the absence of binding to various blood cells, including monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and platelets. In one case (patient 2), the levels of anti-endothelial cell antibodies, as well as the serum chemoattractant activity to eosinophils varied according to the successive acute phases of the disease. Although further investigations are needed to clarify the exact pathophysiology of this syndrome, and especially the possible participation of the anti-endothelial cell antibodies in the cutaneous lesions, these data suggest that angioedema observed in this syndrome could result from the combined effects of activated eosinophils and of immunologically induced endothelial lesions.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 09/1990; 82(1):38 - 43. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The expression by Trypanosoma cruzi developmental stages of an 85-kDa polypeptide epitope defined by the 155D3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been investigated. Immunoprecipitation revealed the presence of an 85-kDa antigen in the NP-40 soluble extract of parasites freshly released from infected fibroblasts; this antigen was not found in epimastigote and Leishmania infantum promastigote. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that the mAb 155D3 failed to react with trypomastigotes, whereas extracellular amastigotes were heavily stained. Positive organisms displayed either surface or polar fluorescence. Since the same mAb immunoprecipitated the 85-kDa antigen in both radioactive iodine- and methionine-labeled trypomastigote detergent soluble extracts, the reactive epitope is likely to be hidden in a cryptic site in trypomastigotes. An alternative explanation for the negative immunofluorescence on trypomastigotes and the positive immunoprecipitation is the presence, in the extracts, of a small population of parasites already expressing the 155D3 epitope. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the target epitope is heterogenously distributed among the populations of differentiating parasites. Two types of immunogold labeling were observed: (a) mAb revealed a high amount of reactive material associated with the periphery of the parasites and (b) a label was observed on the inner surface of peripheral vacuoles that might correspond to cross sections of inflated flagellar pockets and in association with vesicles which were released by the parasites. The surface expression of the epitope recognized by the 155D3 mAb was followed by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. The results showed that the epitope is increasingly accessible during trypomastigote differentiation in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that the epitope reacting with the 155D3 mAb is heavily expressed on extracellular amastigotes after the transformation process and, thus, appears to be developmentally regulated.
    Experimental Parasitology 09/1990; 71(2):207-17. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been shown that platelets, through a receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE, could be specially triggered by venom allergens in hypersensitivity to hymenoptera, generating cytocidal mediators toward Schistosoma mansoni larvae, and oxygen metabolites measured by chemiluminescence. After rush immunotherapy, a depressed platelet response was demonstrated to be associated with the production of lymphokine(s). Here we report the characterization of a factor present in supernatants of antigen-stimulated T cells from patients after hymenoptera venom desensitization which is able to inhibit platelet cytotoxic functions in a dose-dependent manner. The optimal inhibition was observed with supernatants obtained after T lymphocyte stimulated with 10(-5) micrograms venom allergen/ml. Once specifically produced the platelet-suppressive effect of lymphocyte supernatants was not antigen specific. The producing T cell subpopulation was identified as CD8+. This lymphokine had an approximate molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.8. It was heat and acid stable and sensitive to trypsin and proteinase K but not to neuraminidase. This platelet inhibitory activity was absorbed by platelet membrane suggesting its binding to a receptor. These properties were very similar to a previously described platelet activity suppressive lymphokine, suggesting the participation of this lymphokine in the mechanisms of rush desensitization.
    European Journal of Immunology 07/1990; 20(6):1201-7. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Parasitology Research 02/1990; 76(7):638-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mast cells and basophils express the high affinity IgE receptor (FcERI) whereas the low affinity receptor for monomeric IgE (FcE RII) is present on macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils, platelets and Langerhans cells. Recent studies confirmed that the two receptors were totally distinct. The present work shows that a monoclonal antibody (BB10), able to bind to FcE RII on different cell populations, interacts with FcE RI expressing cells: rat peritoneal mast cells and a rat basophilic leukemia cell line (RBL 2 H 3). The structure recognized by BB10 is distinct from FcE RI and modulates the IgE-dependent histamine release. In conclusion, it appears that a common epitope with FcE RII is present on mast cells and basophils and that a functional relation might exist between this structure and FcE RI.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 02/1990; 310(5):139-46.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The in vivo functional activities of two highly proliferating helper rat T cell clones (E23 and G5) specific for the excretory-secretory antigens of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms were investigated. When injected into infected immunocompetent rats, both clones increased the antibody response against the 30-40-kDa schistosomulum surface antigens, but failed to induce an immune protection. In contrast, when the same clones were injected into infected nude rats, a high degree of protection was obtained. In this latter case the absence of detectable specific antibody response, whether of IgE or IgG isotype, suggested that parasites were destroyed by an antibody-independent mechanism, i.e. macrophages activation by lymphokines. Indeed supernatants obtained from T cell clones specifically restimulated with schistosome antigens expressed a macrophage activated activity similar to interferon-gamma. Following incubation with these supernatants or with the active fractions, macrophages exhibited a significant schistosomulicidal activity and both clones were shown to transfer an antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to normal rats. Taken together these results demonstrate that, depending on the immune status of the host, antigen-specific T cell clones can function differently and consequently that one function associated with one type of lymphokine could be favored.
    European Journal of Immunology 09/1989; 19(8):1457-62. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using immunofluorescence techniques and flow microfluorometry analysis, we have demonstrated that the binding of a monoclonal antibody (VD5/25) produced against GP65, the major surface antigen of Leishmania braziliensis, increased on the surface of stationary-phase promastigotes from all the New World Leishmania species causing mucocutaneous or cutaneous disease as compared with the log-phase parasites. In addition, a sequential development of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes from a non-infective to an infective stage was demonstrated. Indeed, promastigotes in the stationary phase (days 6-7) were found to be far more infective than those in the logarithmic phase of growth (day 3) both in vitro for mouse peritoneal macrophages and in vivo for BALB/c mice. The intracellular survival and multiplication of L. amazonensis were significantly inhibited when infective promastigotes were treated with the VD5/25 monoclonal antibody. The increasing expression of GP65 on the promastigote surface may thus contribute to Leishmania infectivity. This seems to represent a characteristic mechanism applicable to all New World Leishmania species studied.
    Parasite Immunology 06/1989; 11(3):197-209. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • P Velge, A Ouaissi, J P Kusnierz, A Capron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which the causative agent of Chagas' disease impair its host's immune response are of paramount importance but poorly understood. Results presented in this paper show for the first time that Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes infect T lymphocytes in vitro and more interestingly in vivo, and that trypomastigotes released from infected cells are infectious. In addition treatment of purified human T lymphocytes with McAb against CD3 and HLA-DR antigens significantly inhibited parasite infection. T. cruzi antigens were detected on the membrane of infected T cells and could therefore represents targets for cytotoxic mechanisms. These results might have important consequences for the understanding of the dramatic disruption of immune response observed during Chagas' disease and more generally provide additional information on T lymphocyte infection by pathogens.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 02/1989; 309(4):93-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of receptors for IgE on eosinophils has drawn the attention on their direct participation in IgE-dependent hypersensitivity reactions. Surface IgE antibodies were detected on eosinophils from allergic patients. The addition of the specific allergen or anti-IgE antibodies to such purified eosinophils induced the release of eosinophil peroxidase, but not of eosinophil cationic protein. These findings associated with results obtained by using electron microscopy and immunogold staining of the various antibodies directed against the granule proteins allowed us to suggest a selectivity in the mediators released by eosinophils. In addition, preliminary results concerning the existence and the functional role of a receptor for IgA on eosinophils are reported, leading to the concept of a particular interaction of eosinophils with immunoglobulins present in the tissues and their participation in local immune responses.
    International archives of allergy and applied immunology 02/1989; 88(1-2):54-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In contrast to euthymic adult Fischer rats, immunocompromised Nu/Nu animals develop a lethal infection when inoculated with the RH strain of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. However, a significant period of survival is obtained when Nu/Nu rats are passively transferred with sera from 28-day infected Fischer +/+ (euthymic) animals. Specific IgE are involved since IgE-depleted sera are unable to afford such a protection. Only excreted/secreted Ag or living tachyzoites are able to induce a significant protective IgE response in intact animals. In addition, platelets or, to a lesser extent, eosinophil-rich populations from Toxoplasma infected or excreted-secreted Ag-immunized euthymic animals bear surface IgE and are cytotoxic for the parasite in vitro. Also, adoptive transfer of immune platelets confers a significant degree of protection to Toxoplasma-infected Nu/Nu animals. Our results clearly show the key role of Ag present in both living parasites and excreted-secreted Ag to induce, in this model, a protective IgE response. In addition, as in other parasitic infections, platelets and probably eosinophils are the effector cells involved in controlling parasitic dissemination during Toxoplasma infection in immunocompromised rats.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/1988; 141(3):978-83. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) significantly increased the expression of receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RII) on blood platelets. Fc epsilon RII was measured by specific binding of 125I-labeled IgE or flow cytometry experiments. Scatchard analysis of 125I-labeled IgE binding curves revealed that treatment with IFN-gamma increased the number of Fc epsilon RII but did not change the value of the association constant of Fc epsilon RII for 125I-labeled IgE. IFN-alpha had no effect on the expression or affinity of Fc epsilon RII. In addition to Fc epsilon RII, IFN-gamma also modified the expression of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex on the platelet membrane.
    European Journal of Immunology 06/1988; 18(5):829-32. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The binding of synthetic peptides modeled from the sequence of the cell attachment site of fibronectin to T. cruzi trypomastigote surface receptors was investigated by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis using fluorescein-labeled peptides. Peptides with the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser bound to the parasite surface. A low percentage of fresh parasites recently liberated from infected fibroblasts had the capacity to bind the peptide. In contrast, these parasites showed a time-dependent several-fold increase in their ability to bind the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-containing peptides during extracellular incubation. From these observations, it appears that the expression of surface receptors on a particular, mature stage of the parasite parallels its ability to adhere to and infect host cells.
    The Journal of protozoology 03/1988; 35(1):111-4.

Publication Stats

599 Citations
137.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–1995
    • Institut de Biologie de Lille
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 1986–1991
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France