[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engagement with care for those living with HIV is aimed at establishing a strong relationship between patients and their health care provider and is often associated with greater adherence to therapy and treatment (Flickinger, Saha, Moore, and Beach, 2013). Substance use behaviors are linked with lower rates of engagement with care and medication adherence (Horvath, Carrico, Simoni, Boyer, Amico, and Petroli, 2013). This study is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional design from a larger randomized controlled trial (n = 775) that investigated the efficacy of a self-care symptom management manual for participants living with HIV. Participants were recruited from countries of Africa and the US. This study provides evidence that substance use is linked with lower self-reported engagement with care and adherence to therapy. Data on substance use and engagement are presented. Clinical implications of the study address the importance of utilizing health care system and policy factors to improve engagement with care.
AIDS research and treatment 04/2014; 2014:675739. DOI:10.1155/2014/675739
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral neuropathy is a common and vexing symptom for people living with HIV infection (PLWH). Neuropathy occurs in several different syndromes and is identified in the literature as distal sensory polyneuropathy or distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. More recently, the HIV literature has focused on the syndrome as painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, addressing the symptom rather than the underlying pathophysiology. Assessment of neuropathy in PLWH is critical and must be incorporated into nursing practice for each visit. Neuropathy has been attributed to the direct effects of HIV, exposure to antiretroviral medications (particularly the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), advanced immune suppression, and comorbid tuberculosis infection and exposure to antituberculosis medications. Evidence supports the importance of addressing neuropathy in PLWH with pharmacologic treatment regimens and complementary/alternative approaches. This paper examines the pathophysiology, evidence, and approaches to managing peripheral neuropathy. A case study has been included to illustrate a patient's experience with neuropathy symptoms.
The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 03/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2014.01.002 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study represents an initial effort at examining the association between the construct of self-compassion and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related anxiety in a multinational population with HIV disease.
Previous studies have found that self-compassion is a powerful predictor of mental health, demonstrating positive and consistent linkages with various measures of affect, psychopathology and well-being, including anxiety.
Cross-sectional data from a multinational study conducted by the members of the International Nursing Network for HIV Research (n = 1986) were used. The diverse sample included participants from Canada, China, Namibia, the United States of America and the territory of Puerto Rico. Study measures included the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 instrument, the Brief Version Self-Compassion Inventory and a single item on anxiety from the Revised Sign and Symptom Checklist.
Study findings show that anxiety was significantly and inversely related to self-compassion across participants in all countries. We examined gender differences in self-compassion and anxiety, controlling for country. Levels of anxiety remained significantly and inversely related to self-compassion for both males (P = 0.000) and females (P = 0.000). Levels of self-compassion and anxiety varied across countries.
Self-compassion is a robust construct with cross-cultural relevance. A culturally based brief treatment approach aimed at increasing self-compassion may lend itself to the development of a cost effective adjunct treatment in HIV disease, including the management of anxiety symptoms.
International Nursing Review 12/2013; 60(4):477-486. DOI:10.1111/inr.12056 · 0.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients' quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client's choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients' engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p < 0.001) and that PLHIV in China had the least engagement (OR -7.03, p < 0.0001) compared to the PLHIV in the Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = -5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = -3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL.
Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 11/2013; 4(11):256. DOI:10.4172/2155-6113.1000256 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p < 0.001) in depressive symptoms was predicted by the combination of age, education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.
AIDS Care 10/2013; 26(7). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2013.841842 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rights approaches to manage HIV and efforts to decriminalize HIV exposure/transmission globally offer hope to persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, among vulnerable populations of PLWH, substantial human rights and structural challenges (disadvantage and injustice that results from everyday practices of a well-intentioned liberal society) must be addressed. These challenges span all ecosocial context levels and in North America (Canada and the United States) can include prosecution for HIV nondisclosure and HIV exposure/transmission. Our aims were to: 1) Determine if there were associations between the social structural factor of criminalization of HIV exposure/transmission, the individual factor of perceived social capital (resources to support one's life chances and overcome life's challenges), and HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among PLWH and 2) describe the nature of associations between the social structural factor of criminalization of HIV exposure/transmission, the individual factor of perceived social capital, and HIV ART adherence among PLWH.
We used ecosocial theory and social epidemiology to guide our study. HIV related criminal law data were obtained from published literature. Perceived social capital and HIV ART adherence data were collected from adult PLWH. Correlation and logistic regression were used to identify and characterize observed associations.
Among a sample of adult PLWH (n = 1873), significant positive associations were observed between perceived social capital, HIV disclosure required by law, and self-reported HIV ART adherence. We observed that PLWH who have higher levels of perceived social capital and who live in areas where HIV disclosure is required by law reported better average adherence. In contrast, PLWH who live in areas where HIV transmission/exposure is a crime reported lower 30-day medication adherence. Among our North American participants, being of older age, of White or Hispanic ancestry, and having higher perceived social capital, were significant predictors of better HIV ART adherence.
Treatment approaches offer clear advantages in controlling HIV and reducing HIV transmission at the population level. These advantages, however, will have limited benefit for adherence to treatments without also addressing the social and structural challenges that allow HIV to continue to spread among society's most vulnerable populations.
BMC Public Health 08/2013; 13(1):736. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-736 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to extend the psychometric evaluation of a brief version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). A secondary analysis of data from an international sample of 1967 English-speaking persons living with HIV disease was used to examine the factor structure, and reliability of the 12-item Brief Version Self-Compassion Inventory (BVSCI). A Maximum Likelihood factor analysis and Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization confirmed a two-factor solution, accounting for 42.58% of the variance. The BVSCI supported acceptable internal consistencies, with 0.714 for the total scale and 0.822 for Factor I and 0.774 for Factor II. Factor I (lower self-compassion) demonstrated strongly positive correlations with measures of anxiety and depression, while Factor II (high self-compassion) was inversely correlated with the measures. No significant differences were found in the BVSCI scores for gender, age, or having children. Levels of self-compassion were significantly higher in persons with HIV disease and other physical and psychological health conditions. The scale shows promise for the assessment of self-compassion in persons with HIV without taxing participants, and may prove essential in investigating future research aimed at examining correlates of self-compassion, as well as providing data for tailoring self-compassion interventions for persons with HIV.
AIDS Care 03/2013; 25(12). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2013.780119 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies concerning persons living with HIV (PLWH) report that stressful life events (SLEs) contribute to an exacerbation of symptoms and reduced antiretroviral (ARV) adherence and quality of life (QOL). Little is known about whether these findings are site-specific. Our study's aims were to characterize the type and frequency of SLEs for PLWH in Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the United States, and to assess the impact of SLEs by national site, symptoms, and ARV adherence concerns on QOL. The sample consisted of 704 participants. The total number of SLEs correlated significantly with the total number of symptoms, adherence concerns, and QOL (p ≤ .001). Overall, 27.2% of the variance in QOL was explained by the aforementioned variables. Although SLEs were of concern to PLWH, worries about ARV adherence were of even greater concern. Routine assessment of ARV concerns and SLEs can promote ongoing ARV adherence and improved QOL.
The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 03/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2012.11.005 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment self-efficacy is the confidence held by an individual in her or his ability to follow treatment recommendations, including specific HIV care such as initiating and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mediating role of treatment adherence self-efficacy in the relationships between Social Cognitive Theory constructs and self- reported ART adherence.
Design: Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011 and included 1,414 participants who lived in the United States or Puerto Rico and were taking antiretroviral medications.
Methods: Social cognitive constructs were tested specifically: behaviors (three adherence measures each consisting of one item about adherence at 3-day and 30-day along with the adherence rating scale), cognitive or personal factors (the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess for depressive symptoms, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to assess physical functioning, one item about physical condition, one item about comorbidity), environmental influences (the Social Capital Scale, one item about social support), and treatment self-efficacy (HIV Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale). Analysis included descriptive statistics and regression.
Results: The average participant was 47 years old, male, and a racial or ethnic minority, had an education of high school or less, had barely adequate or totally inadequate income, did not work, had health insurance, and was living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome for 15 years. The model provided support for adherence self-efficacy as a robust predictor of ART adherence behavior, serving a partial mediating role between environmental influences and cognitive or personal factors.
Conclusions: Although other factors such as depressive symptoms and lack of social capital impact adherence to ART, nurses can focus on increasing treatment self-efficacy through diverse interactional strategies using principles of adult learning and strategies to improve health literacy.
Clinical Relevance: Adherence to ART reduces the viral load thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality and risk of transmission to uninfected persons. Nurses need to use a variety of strategies to increase treatment self-efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Educating nurses for the 21st century requires a broad understanding of the health needs of local and global communities. With an increasingly diverse population, nursing students in the United States can gain a unique perspective on health disparities and challenges in providing healthcare for diverse populations. Nursing education has the opportunity to engage students in our global village by providing clinical and theory-based educational opportunities for undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Some nursing educational settings in schools of nursing provide global nursing opportunities to explore the social responsibility of nursing. This paper details a specific framework and opportunities for engaging undergraduate and graduate nursing students in caring for the underserved in our global village. Opportunities in the Fulbright Student Exchange Program and Fulbright Senior Scholar Award mechanisms are discussed, and partnerships with international nursing programs are explored.
MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing 11/2012; 37(6):367-372. DOI:10.1097/NMC.0b013e318258a9e1 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and are associated with poorer health outcomes. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of the HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual self-care symptom management strategies compared with a nutrition manual on depressive symptoms in an international sample of PLWH. The sample consisted of a sub-group (N=222) of participants in a larger study symptom management study who reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms of the intervention (n=124) and control (n=98) groups were compared over three months: baseline, one-month, and two-months. Use and effectiveness of specific strategies were examined. Depressive symptom frequency at baseline varied significantly by country (χ (2) 12.9; p=0.04). Within the intervention group there were significant differences across time in depressive symptom frequency [F(2, 207) = 3.27, p=0.05], intensity [F(2, 91) = 4.6, p=0.01], and impact [F(2, 252) = 2.92, p= 0.05), and these were significantly lower at one month but not at two months, suggesting that self-care strategies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, however effects may be short term. Most used and most effective self-care strategies were distraction techniques and prayer. This study suggests that people living with HIV can be taught and will employ self-care strategies for management of depressive symptoms and that these strategies are effective in reducing these symptoms. Self-care strategies are noninvasive, have no side-effects, and can be readily taught as an adjunct to other forms of treatment. Studies are needed to identify the most effective self-care strategies and quantify optimum dose and frequency of use as a basis for evidence-based practice.
AIDS Care 08/2012; 25(4). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2012.712662 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stressful life events (SLE) on medication adherence (3 days, 30 days) as mediated by sense of coherence (SOC), self-compassion (SCS), and engagement with the healthcare provider (eHCP) and whether this differed by international site. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 2082 HIV positive adults between September 2009 and January 2011 from sites in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand, and US. Statistical tests to explore the effects of stressful life events on antiretroviral medication adherence included descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, and path analysis. An examination by international site of the relationships between SLE, SCS, SOC, and eHCP with adherence (3 days and 30 days) indicated these combined variables were related to adherence whether 3 days or 30 days to different degrees at the various sites. SLE, SCS, SOC, and eHCP were significant predictors of adherence past 3 days for the United States (p = < 0.001), Canada (p = 0.006), and Namibia (p = 0.019). The combined independent variables were significant predictors of adherence past 30 days only in the United States and Canada. Engagement with the provider was a significant correlate for antiretroviral adherence in most, but not all, of these countries. Thus, the importance of eHCP cannot be overstated. Nonetheless, our findings need to be accompanied by the caveat that research on variables of interest, while enriched by a sample obtained from international sites, may not have the same relationships in each country.
AIDS Care 07/2012; 25(3). DOI:10.1080/09540121.2012.701723 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: General self-efficacy (GSE), the expectation that one is able to perform a behavior successfully, may differentiate those who are able to successfully utilize self-care symptom management strategies (SCSMS). This subanalysis (n=569) of an international 12 site longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n=775), investigated GSE as an important factor determining symptom burden, SCSMS, engagement with the provider, and medication adherence over time, and identified differences in those with high and low GSE ratings concerning these variables. Parametric and nonparametric repeated-measures tests were employed to assess GSE and the perceived effectiveness of SCSMS for anxiety, depression, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, and neuropathy. Symptom burden, engagement with the provider, and antiretroviral adherence were analyzed with regard to GSE. Our data indicated that there were differences in the perceived symptom burden over time of HIV infected individuals by GSE. Those individuals with higher GSE had fewer symptoms and these symptoms were perceived to be less intense than those experienced by the low GSE group. There were few meaningful differences in the SCSMS used by those with high versus low GSE other than the use of illicit substances in the low GSE group. The low GSE group was also significantly (p= < 0.001) less engaged with their healthcare providers. Given the difference in substance use by perceived GSE, and the importance of engagement with the healthcare provider, more attention to the resolution of the concerns of those with low GSE by healthcare providers is warranted.
AIDS patient care and STDs 05/2012; 26(6):335-43. DOI:10.1089/apc.2011.0404 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose/Aim: We explored the relationship between intrapersonal, psychosocial and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behavior among an ethnically diverse population of HIV-positive persons. Study participants (N= 1773) were recruited from 18 distinct sites in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This is a subset of data from a 22-site international project developed by the International Nursing Network for HIV/AIDS. Conceptual Basis: Framed in Social Action Theory, HIV-positive persons are viewed as being challenged with limiting the transmission of the virus to others. Intrapersonal, psychosocial and environmental factors can moderate personal perceptions and beliefs, and health-related behaviors including condom use. A review of the literature indicates that sexual risk taking behavior is multi-factorial. Factors considered for this analysis include demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), contextual factors (study region, substance use, years HIV positive) and psychosocial mediators (self-efficacy for condom use, and chronic disease management, stigma, treatment optimism and social support). Self-efficacy is a self-evaluative belief that one can effectively perform a specific behavior (condom use) under different environmental conditions (new sex partner). Methods: Using a cross sectional descriptive design, a convenience sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS was recruited through active outreach at HIV/AIDS health care and social service sites, specialty clinics, through private practice and at select residential living facilities. The study was approved by the institutional boards of each study site. A proxy variable of high risk sex included participants who reported engaging in sex with two or more partners during a three month recall period and reported not using condoms. Results: Participants included mostly African American (43%), Caucasian (25%), Hispanic (24%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (3.0%) men (72%), with nearly half (48%) reporting the transmission risk of men having sex with men. Over half of the men (56%) and the vast majority of women (90%) reported engaging in sex within the past 3 months. One quarter (25%) reported engaging in sex without condoms. Thirteen percent of the participants (n = 237) reported having multiple sex partners. Using linear regression (backward selection model), condom use self-efficacy, and race were significant predictors of having multiple SPs without consistent condom use. Lower condom use self-efficacy scores were associated with less condom use (β = -.08; p = 0.012), and compared to Caucasians, Asian Pacific Islanders were less likely to engage in sex with multiple partners without a condom (β = -3.4; p = 0.015). Implications: Nurses must routinely discuss client HIV transmission-risk behaviors, and offer behavioral strategies that can enhance HIV-positive persons’ intentions to use condoms. Encouraging open communication between sex partners about condom use is essential. Further research is needed on the impact of race/ethnicity on sexual risk behaviors.
2013 Western Institute of Nursing Annual Communicating Nursing Research Conference; 04/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vulnerability of children in Haiti has increased dramatically since the earthquake in January 2010. Prior to the earthquake, the prevalence of orphans and at-risk children was high but since the earthquake, more than 1 million people-with more than 380,000 children remaining displaced and living in over 1200 displacement sites. These existing conditions leave orphans and at-risk children vulnerable to exploitation, abuse, and increased risk of HIV/AIDS. This article will focus on the complex issues affecting orphans and at-risk children and the intersection with HIV/AIDS and human rights. Specific recommendations by United Nations Children's Fund are discussed. Nursing in Haiti must address the policy-related and population-specific approaches for the care of children living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.
ANS. Advances in nursing science 04/2012; 35(2):182-9. DOI:10.1097/ANS.0b013e318253f005 · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social capital refers to the resources linked to having a strong social network. This concept plays into health outcomes among People Living with HIV/AIDS because, globally, this is a highly marginalized population. Case studies show that modifying social capital can lead to improvements in HIV transmission and management; however, there remains a lack of description or definition of social capital in international settings. The purpose of our paper was to describe the degree of social capital in an international sample of adults living with HIV/AIDS.
We recruited PLWH at 16 sites from five countries including Canada, China, Namibia, Thailand, and the United States. Participants (n = 1,963) completed a cross-sectional survey and data were collected between August, 2009 and December, 2010. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and correlational analysis.
Participant's mean age was 45.2 years, most (69%) identified as male, African American/Black (39.9%), and unemployed (69.5%). Total mean social capital was 2.68 points, a higher than average total social capital score. Moderate correlations were observed between self-reported physical (r = 0.25) and psychological condition (r = 0.36), social support (r = 0.31), and total social capital. No relationships between mental health factors, including substance use, and social capital were detected.
This is the first report to describe levels of total social capital in an international sample of PLWH and to describe its relationship to self-reported health in this population.
BMC Public Health 03/2012; 12(1):188. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-188 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since HIV infection can be spread through sexual contact, it is important to understand how sexual behavior is expressed in
different age groups. The purpose of this article was to conduct a secondary analysis of a multi-site study to explore sexual
function in a sample of younger /older HIV+persons living in the United States (N = 558) and Puerto Rico (N = 98). Data were
collected using a demographic survey and the Sexual Function subscale of the HIV Assessment Tool (HAT)-Quality of Life instrument.
Independent sample t-tests found significant differences (p = .002) in sexual function for younger/adult HIV+person in the US but not in PR (p = .770). Regional variations in sexual function need to be explored in order to tailor the most effective primary and secondary
HIV prevention messages.
KeywordsAging with HIV/AIDS–Sexual function–Health-related quality of life
Ageing International 09/2011; 36(3):334-345. DOI:10.1007/s12126-011-9120-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify the baseline prevalence and effectiveness of anxiety self-management strategies in a convenience sample of persons living with HIV (PLWH; n = 343) in the United States, Puerto Rico, Kenya, and South Africa who reported HIV-related anxiety symptoms. Relationships between demographics and anxiety characteristics were determined, as was the effectiveness of self-care activities/behaviors to reduce anxiety. We found that the use of anxiety self-management strategies varied by gender and that ratings of effectiveness varied by country. Highest anxiety intensity scores were found in participants who were taking antiretroviral medications and who had undetectable viral loads. Forty-five percent of the persons with a diagnosis of AIDS reported anxiety symptoms. As HIV increases in areas of the world where self-care is the primary approach to managing HIV, additional research will be needed to address the effectiveness of cross-cultural differences in strategies for self-managing HIV-related anxiety.
The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 08/2011; 23(2):111-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2011.05.004 · 1.27 Impact Factor