[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 13-month-old girl of first cousin parents who presented with a combination of short stature, bilateral microtia, proportionate short stature, distinctive facial features (bitemporal narrowing, long philtrum), and agenesis of the left kidney and a small right kidney. Clinical findings did not match any previously described syndromes with the anomalies seen in the patient. We performed SNP array analysis to characterize the observation as a novel syndrome and this was normal. We propose that this represents a new syndrome, likely of autosomal recessive inheritance.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2012; 158A(8):1837-40. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old man sought care for aggressive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which developed 8 years after he had received chemotherapeutic treatment for nephrotic syndrome. The sole cytogenetic abnormality observed in bone marrow-derived metaphases was a t(4;11)(q21;q23), which is a frequently occurring translocation in ALL. However, subsequent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the expected mixed lineage leukemia [trithorax homolog, Drosophila] (MLL)-AFF1 fusion transcript was negative. Further fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis narrowed the 4q21 breakpoint down to a 250-kb region proximal of AFF1. This comprised four genes, of which septin11 (SEPT11) was further analyzed. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of a chimeric MLL-SEPT11 transcript, thus identifying what is to our knowledge a hitherto undescribed translocation in ALL. Sequence analysis of cDNA showed in-frame fusion of MLL exon 11 to SEPT11 exon 2. This MLL-SEPT11 fusion is cytogenetically indistinguishable from the recurrent t(4;11)(q21;q23). Thus, it is crucial to characterize cytogenetic aberrations in leukemia by molecular methods, even in cases where a known recurrent translocation is presumed. This report expands the spectrum of ALL-related translocations and hypothesizes on the mechanism leading to the MLL-SEPT11 fusion. Five septins have been identified thus far as MLL fusion partners in leukemia. Their putative oncogenic role may be related to forced MLL dimerization by the septin coiled coil and GTP-binding domains, which could convert MLL to an oncogene.
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 08/2010; 201(1):48-51. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BON-1 is a human serotonin-producing endocrine pancreatic tumor (EPT) cell line, which has been used for various studies of tumorigenesis and treatment. Because its genotype, phenotype and degree of differentiation may underlie events that are instrumental to the development of endocrine tumors and, moreover, may vary between labs and over time, we decided to comprehensively characterize the chromosomal constitution of BON-1 by applying conventional GTG-banding, spectral karyotyping (SKY), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). BON-1 cells proved to be hyperdiploid containing a modal chromosome number of 57 (range 56-64). SKY identified a stemline containing 6 clonal aberrations including del(1p), t(9;12)del(9p)x2, der(10)t(5;10), der(19)t(8;19), der(14)t(9;14)t(9;10), and a sideline harboring an additional del(12q). CGH and FISH confirmed the SKY results and, in addition, highlighted the chromosomal regions involved in the rearrangements. Moreover, they identified a homozygous deletion of the key tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B at 9p21.3, in accordance with absence of p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) expression as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Apart from deregulation of the cell cycle and p53 pathway this finding indicates escape from replicative senescence (induced by mutated NRAS) and detachment-induced apoptosis as molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenesis of BON-1 cells. Immunostaining results for p53, MDM2 and pRb expression were consistent with previously published data using Western analysis. In conclusion, we provide here a comprehensive cytogenetic profile of BON-1. This cell line harbors both numerical and structural genomic alterations indicative for malignant EPTs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotypic and phenotypic data are presented on three adult siblings with mild to moderate mental retardation and mild dysmorphic features. All three siblings showed a chromosome 20 gain at the q-telomere and loss at the p-telomere in routine subtelomeric MLPA screening. Analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes did not detect any abnormalities, but subtelomeric fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed cryptic partial monosomy of chromosome region 20p13 --> 20pter and cryptic partial trisomy of chromosome region 20q13.33 --> 20qter. Furthermore, FISH analysis in the mother showed a cryptic inv(20)(p13q13.33). This explained the cytogenetic mechanism underlying the chromosomal imbalance in the three children, that is, the meiotic formation of a recombinant chromosome 20 due to crossing-over in the inverted segment. All three children thus carried a rec(20)dup(20q)inv(20)(p13q13.33)mat chromosome. SNP array analysis enabled rapid and detailed imbalance sizing and showed a 1.06 Mb loss in 20p13 and a 2.51 Mb gain in 20q13.33, comprising 21 and 78 genes, respectively. The maternal inversion is the largest described thus far for chromosome 20, comprising 94.4% of its length. Such large inversions result in a particularly high risk for live-born unbalanced offspring because the partial monosomy and trisomy segments are small. Moreover, the inversion size is directly related to the percentage of unbalanced gametes due to high crossing-over change within the inverted segment. The fact that all three children carry an identical chromosomal rearrangement has consequences for genetic counseling for carriers of large pericentric inversions, as the recurrence risk is very high.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2009; 149A(10):2226-30. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes was performed after an increased foetal nuchal translucency thickness was detected by ultrasound in week 17 of a pregnancy. Analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes showed a small marker chromosome in six of the 12 colonies analysed. The supernumerary abnormal chromosome appeared to be positive with DA/DAPI staining and C-banding. The parents' karyotypes were normal. Using microFISH and FISH with band-specific probes, we found the marker appeared to be derived from chromosome region (16)(p13.1-->q12.2). Accurate identification of the marker chromosome was important for prenatal counselling: the marker chromosome contained euchromatic sequences, the foetus was carrying mosaic trisomy 16, and based on the literature the prognosis for the foetus was unfavourable and the pregnancy was terminated.
European Journal of Medical Genetics 07/2006; 49(4):306-12. · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to characterise a marker chromosome in cultured amniocytes of a fetus with a mos 47,XX,+mar/46,XX karyotype.
The indication for prenatal cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes was advanced maternal age. Classic banding techniques (GTG- and C-banding) were performed. Microdissection combined with reverse painting was used to disclose the exact origin of the marker; the result was confirmed by chromosome painting and FISH with band-specific probes.
Analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes showed a small marker chromosome in 3 of the 17 colonies analysed. Subsequently, C-banding showed no alphoid sequences, suggesting the presence of a neocentromere. The parent's karyotypes were normal. After normal ultrasound findings, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy. Chromosome analysis in peripheral blood after birth demonstrated that the marker chromosome was present in 50% of the lymphocytes. Using microFISH, the marker was further characterised and appeared to be derived from chromosome region (8)(p22 --> pter).
Accurate identification of the marker chromosome was very important for prenatal counselling. Combining the results of GTG- and C-banding analysis with the results of the (micro)FISH, we concluded that the patient's karyotype is: mos 47,XX,+mar.rev ish der(8)(p22 --> pter)/46,XX.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a patient with a de novo 15q24q26.1 interstitial deletion. She presented with developmental delay, behavioral characteristics, and mild dysmorphism with very blue irises. We review the limited literature of interstitial 15q deletions. There was no distinct phenotypic overlap between these two cases in literature and the present patient. Additional reports are necessary in order to establish a possible recognizable deletion 15q24q26.1 phenotype.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 10/2004; 129A(3):312-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the group of patients with terminal 11q deletion reported up to now. Jacobson syndrome has been delineated as a distinct clinical entity. In the present report we describe the clinical findings in a 3-year old girl with de novo deletion 11q24.2-->11qter, and compare the findings with Jacobson syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a family with direct transmission of a duplication of 8p12-->8p21.1. The phenotype of affected relatives included mild mental retardation but no minor anomalies. The duplication was identified by means of GTG-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe specific for 8p12 generated by microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction. Assay of glutathione reductase, which has been localised to 8p21.1, was significantly increased when compared with controls with normal chromosomal constitution. To the best of our knowledge, a proximal direct duplication of 8p restricted to subbands p12-->p21.1 has not been reported so far. The reported aberration is compared with other partial duplications of 8p, in particular to inversion duplications 8p and to small direct distal duplications involving 8p23.1. Am. J. Med. Genet. 94:306-310, 2000.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 10/2000; 94(4):306-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a 6-year-old girl referred because of mild motor delay and hyperextensible joints, chromosome analysis disclosed a derivative chromosome consisting of end-to-end fusion of chromosomes 2 and 14. Two cell lines existed in which this telomere association was present, one with a 45,XX,tas(2;14)(q37;p11) karyotype and one with a 45,XX,tas(2;14) (q37;q32) karyotype. The cell line with the telomeric fusion of 2q and 14p was present in 90% of the cells; a telomeric fusion of 2q and 14q was seen in the remaining 10% of the cells. In both association complexes, only the centromere of chromosome 14 was active. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere and subtelomere probes disclosed no deletion of chromosomal material. Microsatellite analysis showed that the patient had a normal biparental contribution of chromosomes 14.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 07/2000; 92(5):318-21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome analysis was performed in a 34-year-old man who was phenotypically normal except for oligoasthenozoospermia. In this patient, analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes showed in one chromosome 8 additional chromosomal material of unknown origin. To characterize the aberrant chromosome more precisely, a paint specific for chromosome region 8pter-->8p23.1 was generated by microdissection and degenerated oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and used as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) paint. After reverse painting, hybridization signals were only found on the short arm of the two chromosomes 8, with an enlarged signal on the derivative chromosome 8. The duplication was characterized further with band-specific FISH probes. We concluded that (part of) chromosome region 8p23.1-->p23.3 was duplicated. Chromosome analysis of the parents showed that the dup(8) was of maternal origin and that the fertile brother of the index patient also was a carrier of the chromosome aberration. There was no history of miscarriages. We suggest that duplication of region 8p23.1-->p23.3 can be regarded as euchromatic variant or duplication with no phenotypic effect.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 03/2000; 91(1):18-21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroFISH was used to elucidate the chromosomal origin of a prenatally detected marker chromosome. Five copies of the marker chromosome were collected from GTG-banded metaphases and amplified by means of DOP-PCR. The PCR product was labeled with blotine-14-dATP and used as a FISH probe for hybridization to metaphase chromosomes of the fetus (reverse painting). The marker appeared to be derived from the short arm of (an) acrocentric chromosome(s). After FISH with centromere-specific and band-specific probes complete characterization was possible and the marker chromosome appeared to consist of two short arms of chromosome 22. The pregnancy was continued and one year after birth the patient is developing normal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic analysis was performed on bone marrow cells from a 28-year-old woman who was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Her karyotype was: 46,XX,t(9;22)(q34;q11)/47, XX,+8,t(9;22)(q34;q11)/47,XX,+8,t(9;22)(q34;q11),del(20)(q11)/46, XX,t(9;22)(q34;q11),del(q11)/45,XX,der(9)t(9;22)(q34;q11),-20,-22 , +mar1/45,XX,der(9)t(9;22)(q34;q11),-20,-22,+mar2. Both marker chromosomes are dicentric and have the same size and banding pattern but different primary constrictions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that both markers were derived from chromosomes 9, 20, and 22. FISH with the bcr/abl probe showed fusion of the BCR gene with the ABL gene; however, this fusion signal was present in duplicate on both marker chromosomes. To our knowledge, duplication of the BCR/ABL fusion signal on a single chromosome arm has not been reported before, except for the extensive amplification of BCR/ABL fusion signals in the leukemic cell line K-562. These data demonstrate that the marker chromosomes are the result of complex genomic rearrangements. At the molecular level, the BCR/ABL fusion gene encodes the p190 fusion protein. Similar findings have never been observed in any case of ALL.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 02/2000; 116(2):119-23. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptic unbalanced chromosome rearrangements in the telomeric bands of the chromosomes may constitute a significant cause of unexplained mental retardation with or without congenital anomalies. We report on a boy with a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13, combined with a partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 20, owing to a cryptic balanced translocation in his father. The karyotype of the father was 46XY,t(13;20)(q34;p13). The propositus presented with severe mental and growth retardation, microcephaly, facial anomalies including ptosis of the right upper eyelid, a high nasal bridge, small palpebral fissures, and bilateral epicanthus, hypospadias, and scoliosis. A younger brother died at birth and had a low birth weight, hypospadias, and a horseshoe kidney. Repeated chromosome analyses with high resolution banding in the propositus and his parents were apparently normal. Chromosome painting eventually disclosed the cryptic translocation in the father with unbalanced karyotype in the propositus. The importance of additional FISH analysis in patients with unexplained mental retardation, physical anomalies, and apparently normal chromosomes is emphasized.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 11/1999; 86(4):385-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a patient presenting with mental retardation and obesity and a proximal duplication of chromosome 15. The patient shared some clinical signs with Prader-Willi syndrome. With a region-specific paint, generated by microdissection, a duplication in region 15q11.2-q13 was shown to be present. Subsequently, FISH with probes localized to chromosome region 15q11.2-q12 and microsatellite analysis was used to characterize this chromosome aberration further and an insertion duplication within the region frequently deleted in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome was demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Characterization of a partial trisomy 16 q with FISH: Report of a patient and literature review: We report on a 28-year-old male patient with severe growth and mental retardation, severe behavioural problems, especially automutilation, and a spastic quadriplegia. He showed no specific dysmorphism. The karyotype was 46, XY, dir dup(16) (q11.2-q13). The clinical and cytogenetical findings are compared with 3 previously reported cases with proximal duplication 16q.