Gyu Hwan Park

Keimyung University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

Are you Gyu Hwan Park?

Claim your profile

Publications (16)33.61 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the potential of BST204, a purified dry extract of ginseng, to inhibit or induce human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in vitro to assess its safety. In vitro drug interactions of four bioactive ginsenosides of BST204, S-Rg3, R-Rg3, S-Rh2, and R-Rh2, were also evaluated. We demonstrated that BST204 slightly inhibited CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2B6 activities with IC50 values of 17.4, 26.8, 31.5, and 49.7 μg/mL, respectively. BST204 also weakly inhibited UGT1A1, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 activities with IC50 values of 14.5, 26.6, and 31.5 μg/mL, respectively. The potential inhibition by BST204 of the three UGT activities might be attributable to S-Rg3, at least in part, as its inhibitory pattern was similar to that of BST204. However, BST204 showed no time-dependent inactivation of the nine CYPs studied. In addition, BST204 did not induce CYP1A2, 2B6, or 3A4/5. On the basis of an in vivo interaction studies, our data strongly suggest that BST204 is unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions mediated via inhibition or induction of most CYPs or UGTs involved in drug metabolism in vivo. Our findings offer a clearer understanding and possibility to predict drug-drug interactions for the safe use of BST204 in clinical practice.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes pro-inflammatory responses via diverse mechanisms including oxidative stress. Codium fragile is a green alga of Codiales family and has been reported to exhibit anti-edema, anti-allergic, anti-protozoal and anti-mycobacterial activities. In this study, we have investigated a novel anti-inflammatory potential of Codium fragile using in vitro cell culture as well as in vivo animal models. In HaCaT cells, buthanol and ethylacetate fractions of 80% methanol Codium fragile extract (CFB or CFE) and a single compound, clerosterol (CLS) isolated fromCFE attenuated UVB (60mJ/cm(2))-induced cytotoxicity and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory proteins including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α). Moreover, CFB, CFE and CLS effectively suppressed UVB-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO). In another experiment, topical application of CFB, CFE or CLS prior to UVB irradiation (200mJ/cm(2)) on BALB/c mice, inhibited the UVB-elevated protein levels of COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α. Furthermore, CFB, CFE and CLS suppressed oxidative damages caused by UVB irradiation for example lipid peroxidation and/or protein carbonylation, which seemed to be mediated by up-regulation of antioxidant defense enzymes. These results suggest that Codium fragile could be an effective therapeutic agent providing protection against UVB-induced inflammatory and oxidative skin damages.
    Fitoterapia 02/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), a major component of senile plaques, plays important roles in neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An array of in vitro and in vivo data indicates that Aβ-induced neuronal death is mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of sulforaphane (SUL), an isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables, on Aβ-induced oxidative cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Cells treated with Aβ 25-35 exhibited decreased cell viability and underwent apoptosis as determined by MTT assay and TUNEL, respectively. Aβ 25-35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic characteristics such as activation of c-JNK, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, altered expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, and DNA fragmentation were effectively attenuated by SUL pretreatment. The antiapoptotic activity of SUL seemed to be mediated by inhibition of intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damages. SUL exerted antioxidant potential by upregulating expression of antioxidant enzymes including γ -glutamylcysteine ligase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, and heme oxygenase-1 via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2). The protective effect of SUL against Aβ 25-35-induced apoptotic cell death was abolished by siRNA of Nrf2. Taken together, the results suggest that pharmacologic activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway by SUL might be a practical prevention and/or protective treatment for the management of AD.
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2013; 2013:313510.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been reported to induce cutaneous inflammation such as erythema and edema via induction of proinflammatory enzymes and mediators. Sargassum fulvellum is a brown alga of Sargassaceae family which has been demonstrated to exhibit antipyretic, analgesic, antiedema, antioxidant, antitumor, fibrinolytic, and hepatoprotective activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of ethylacetate fraction of ethanol extract of Sargassum fulvellum (SFE-EtOAc) in HaCaT keratinocytes and BALB/c mice. In HaCaT cells, SFE-EtOAc effectively inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity (60 mJ/cm(2)) and the expression of proinflammatory proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, SFE-EtOAc significantly reduced UVB-induced production of proinflammatory mediators including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). In BALB/c mice, topical application of SFE-EtOAc prior to UVB irradiation (200 mJ/cm(2)) effectively suppressed the UVB-induced protein expression of COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α and subsequently attenuated generation of PGE2 and NO as well. In another experiment, SFE-EtOAc pretreatment suppressed UVB-induced reactive oxygen species production and exhibited an antioxidant potential by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that SFE-EtOAc could be an effective anti-inflammatory agent protecting against UVB irradiation-induced skin damages.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:747846. · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A simple, robust, and rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of U0126 and validated in rat plasma. Plasma samples (20 μL) were deproteinized using 200 μL ACN containing 30 ng/mL of chlorpropamide, internal standard. Chromatographic separation performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C(18) column (4.6 × 50 mm, 2.7 μm particle size) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a 70:30 v/v mixture of ACN and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. Each sample was run at 0.6 mL/min for a total run time of 2 min per sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive ESI at m/z 381 → 123.9 for U0126 and m/z 277 → 175 for the internal standard. The standard curve was linear over a concentration range of 20-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9965. Precision, both intra- and interday, was less than 10.1% with an accuracy of 90.7-99.4%. No matrix effects were observed. U0126 in rat plasma degraded approximately 41.3% after 3-h storage at room temperature. To prevent degradation, sample handling should be on an ice bath and all solutions kept at 4°C. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of U0126 at various doses in rats.
    Journal of Separation Science 12/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a catecholaminergic neurotoxin widely used to produce experimental models of PD and has been reported to cause oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. In this study, we have investigated 6-OHDA-induced nitrosative cell death and its self-defense mechanism in C6 glioma cells. Treatment of C6 cells with 6-OHDA increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore 6-OHDA treatment led to peroxynitrite generation and nitrotyrosine formation. 6-OHDA-induced nitrosative stress ultimately caused apoptotic cell death as determined by decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), which were attenuated by peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron(III) (FeTPPS). In another experiment, exposure of C6 glioma cells to 6-OHDA resulted in an increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity was effectively suppressed by the HO-1 inducer SnCl(2) and aggravated by HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), supporting the cytoprotective role of HO-1. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying 6-OHDA-mediated HO-1 induction, we have examined the possible involvement of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. 6-OHDA treatment increased nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of Nrf2, which seemed to be partly mediated by activation of upstream kinases such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). Taken together these findings suggest that HO-1 up-regulation via Nrf2 activation may mediate the cellular adaptive survival response to 6-OHDA-induced nitrosative cell death in C6 glioma cells.
    Toxicology 03/2011; 283(2-3):118-28. · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: β-Amyloid (Aβ) is involved in the formation of senile plaques, the typical neuropathological marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been reported to cause apoptosis in neurons via oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect and molecular mechanism of [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger against Αβ(25-35)-induced oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. [6]-Gingerol pretreatment protected against Aβ(25-35)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death such as DNA fragmentation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3. To elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism of [6]-gingerol, we have examined Aβ(25-35)-induced oxidative and/or nitrosative stress and cellular antioxidant defense system against them. [6]-Gingerol effectively suppressed Aβ(25-35)-induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and restored Aβ(25-35)-depleted endogenous antioxidant glutathione levels. Furthermore, [6]-gingerol treatment up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate limiting enzymes in the glutathione biosynthesis and the degradation of heme, respectively. The expression of aforementioned antioxidant enzymes seemed to be mediated by activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). These results suggest that [6]-gingerol exhibits preventive and/or therapeutic potential for the management of AD via augmentation of antioxidant capacity.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2011; 49(6):1261-9. · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of protease-activated receptor (PARs) in the regulation of microglial activation process is increasingly evident. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PAR-2, which can be activated by trypsin-like proteases, in microglial activation and neuronal cell death. In cultured rat primary microglia, activation of PAR-2 induced nitrite production by PKC- and MAPKs-dependent mechanism. Among the three members of MAPK pathway, ERK and JNK but not p38 mediated PAR-2-induced microglial activation. The down-stream regulator of PAR-2-PKC-MAPK pathway-induced microglial activation was NF-kappaB pathway. Besides nitrite, PAR-2 activation increased production of a variety of inflammatory mediators such as ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The addition of culture spent media from PAR-2 activated microglia induced neuronal cell death in primary rat cortical neuron cultures with apoptotic features such as increased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive neurons, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and activation of caspase-3 in neurons. Interestingly, the increased production of cytoactive molecules as well as the neuronal cell death was normalized by PAR-2 or trypsin inhibitor or an NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester. Taken together, these results suggest that overt PAR-2 activation may induce microglial activation, which contributes to neuronal cell death.
    Nitric Oxide 10/2009; 22(1):18-29. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protease-activated receptors (PARs) play important roles in the regulation of brain function such as neuroinflammation by transmitting the signal from proteolytic enzymes such as thrombin and trypsin. We and others have reported that a member of the family, PAR-2 is activated by trypsin, whose involvement in the neurophysiological process is increasingly evident, and is involved in the neuroinflammatory processes including morphological changes of astrocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of PAR-2 in the production of nitric oxide (NO) in rat primary astrocytes. Treatment of PAR-2 agonist trypsin increased NO production in a dose-dependent manner, which was mediated by the induction of inducible nitric-oxide synthase. The trypsin-mediated production of NO was mimicked by PAR-2 agonist peptide and reduced by either pharmacological PAR-2 antagonist peptide or by siRNA-mediated inhibition of PAR-2 expression, which suggests the critical role of PAR-2 in this process. NO production by PAR-2 was mimicked by PMA, a PKC activator, and was attenuated by Go6976, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. PAR-2 stimulation activated three subtypes of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. NO production by PAR-2 was blocked by inhibition of ERK, p38, and JNK pathways. PAR-2 stimulation also activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding and transcriptional activity as well as IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Inhibitors of NF-kappaB pathway inhibited PAR-2-mediated NO production. In addition, inhibitors of MAPK pathways prevented transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB reporter constructs. These results suggest that PAR-2 activation-mediated NO production in astrocytes is transduced by the activation of MAPKs followed by NF-kappaB pathways.
    Nitric Oxide 07/2009; 21(2):110-9. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: beta-Amyloid (Abeta) peptide, a major component of senile plaques has been regarded to play a crucial role in the development and neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing data from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Abeta-induced damages in neurons and glia are mediated via nitrosative as well as oxidative stress. Therefore, recent researches have been focused on searching for dietary and herbal manipulations to protect against the Abeta-induced oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of these candidates is a major polyphenolic compound present in green tea and has been reported to exhibit potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of EGCG against Abeta-induced oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death in BV2 microglia. Abeta treatment led to apoptosis in BV2 cells as revealed by DNA fragmentation, perturbation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and alterations in the expression of apoptosis-regulator Bcl-2 family proteins. EGCG pretreatment effectively ameliorated Abeta-induced cytotoxicity and manifestation of proapoptotic signals. Furthermore, BV2 cells exposed to Abeta underwent nitrosative stress as shown by the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite, which were effectively suppressed by EGCG pretreatment. To elucidate a molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of EGCG, we have examined the cellular metabolism of reduced glutathione (GSH) with antioxidant properties. EGCG treatment fortified cellular GSH pool through elevated mRNA expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), the rate limiting enzyme in the glutathione biosynthesis. These results suggest that EGCG may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in AD patients by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense capacity and attenuating Abeta-mediated oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2009; 32(6):869-81. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thrombin plays an important role in diverse neurological processes such as proliferation, cell migration, differentiation and neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of thrombin on matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) expression in rat primary astrocytes. Thrombin (1-10U/ml) induced a significant increase in MMP-9 activity as measured by gelatin zymography. Thrombin also increased MMP-9 mRNA expression. Among three isotypes of thrombin receptor, i.e. protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1, -3 and -4, PAR1 agonist (1-100muM) but not PAR3 and PAR4 agonist induced MMP-9 expression. Inhibition of thrombin-induced MMP-9 production by SCH 79797 (10-50nM), a selective PAR1 receptor antagonist, confirmed that PAR1 is a main receptor for thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression. In astrocytes, thrombin activated Erk1/2, and it was inhibited by PD98059. In this study, thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression was inhibited by PD98059. PAR1 agonist activated Erk1/2 and PD98059 inhibited PAR1 agonist-induced MMP-9 expression. MMP-9 promoter reporter assay confirmed the positive effect of ERK1/2 on MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that the activation of PAR1 mediates thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression through the regulation of Erk1/2.
    Brain research bulletin 08/2008; 76(4):368-75. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In spite of their pathophysiological importance in neuro-inflammatory diseases, little is known about the signal transduction pathways that lead to the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the central nervous system. We reported previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced MMP-9 expression through ERK1/2 pathway in rat primary astrocytes (Glia 41:15-24, 2003). Here, we investigated the role of other MAPK pathways, including p38 and JNK/SAPK, on the regulation of MMP-9 expression in LPS-stimulated rat primary astrocytes. LPS activated both p38 and JNK in astrocytes. Treatment with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not JNK inhibitor SP600125, increased the LPS-stimulated MMP-9 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma and IL-4, activated p38 MAPK and decreased MMP-9 production in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. When p38 MAPK activation was blocked by SB203580, the inhibitory effects of these cytokines on MMP-9 induction were abolished. Finally, direct injection of SB203580 into the lateral ventricle of rat brain increased the LPS-induced MMP-9 activity in cerebral cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that p38 activation down-regulates the inflammatory stimulation-induced overexpression of MMP-9, both in primary astrocytes and in cerebral cortex. The elaborate interplay between ERK1/2 and p38 pathways provides a more sophisticated mechanism for regulating MMP-9 activity in neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 06/2007; 30(5):624-33. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin play a key role in the development and repair processes in the central nervous system. Molecular actions of serine proteases include multiple cellular events like activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). PARs belong to a family of G protein-coupled receptors that can be stimulated through their proteolytic cleavage by ligands. PAR-2 has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including astrogliosis. Although recent studies have shown that low concentration of trypsin activates PAR-2, its role in morphological changes in primary astrocytes has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PAR-2 in astrocyte stellation in rat primary astrocyte culture. Both trypsin (0.1-1 U/ml) and a PAR-2-activating peptide SLIGRL-NH2 (1-50 microM) significantly reversed the stellation induced by serum deprivation in rat astrocytes. Treatment of astrocytes with trypsin or SLIGRL-NH2 resulted in a transient rise of the intracellular Ca2+ level and trypsin-induced morphological changes were blocked by BAPTA, a Ca2+ chelator. In addition, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide significantly inhibited the trypsin-induced morphological changes, whereas activation of PKC by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate acted as trypsin. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of PAR-2 by trypsin caused reversal of stellation in cultured astrocytes, in part, via the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and activation of PKC.
    Neuroscience Research 02/2006; 54(1):15-23. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxynitrite is a potent neurotoxic molecule produced from a reaction between NO and superoxide and induces NO-mediated inflammation under neuropathological conditions. Previously, we reported that glucose deprivation induced ATP depletion and cell death in immunostimulated astrocytes, which was mainly due to peroxynitrite. In this study, the role of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK1SAPK) signal pathway in the SIN-1/glucose deprivation-induced death of astrocytes was examined. A combined treatment with glucose deprivation and 50 microM SIN-1, an endogenous peroxynitrite generator, rapidly and markedly increased the death in rat primary astrocytes. Also, SIN-1/glucose deprivation resulted in the activation of MAPKs, which was significantly blocked by the treatment with 20 microM MAPKs inhibitors (ERK1/2, PD98059; p38MAPK, SB203580; JNK/SAPK, SP600125). Interestingly, SIN-1/glucose deprivation caused the loss of intracellular ATP level, which was significantly reversed by MAPKs inhibitors. These results suggest that the activation of MAPKs plays an important role in SIN-1/glucose deprivation-induced cell death by regulating the intracellular ATP level.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2005; 28(8):942-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have shown that astrocytes deprived of glucose became highly vulnerable to peroxynitrite, and adenosine and its metabolites attenuated the gliotoxicity via the preservation of cellular ATP level. Here, we found that adenosine and related metabolites prevented the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) in glucose-deprived rat primary astrocytes exposed to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite releasing agent. Exposure to glucose deprivation and SIN-1 (2 h) significantly disrupted MTP in astrocytes, and adenosine prevented it in dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 5.08 microM. Adenosine also partially prevented the cell death by myxothiazol, a well-known inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration. Blockade of adenosine deamination or intracellular transport with erythro-9-(-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenosine (EHNA) or S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), respectively, completely reversed the protective effect of adenosine. Other purine nucleos(t)ides including inosine, guanosine, ATP, ADP, AMP, ITP, and GTP also showed similar protective effects. This study indicates that adenosine and related purine nucleos(t)ides may protect astrocytes from peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 08/2005; 28(7):810-5. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
    Food and Chemical Toxicology. 51:457.

Publication Stats

105 Citations
33.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Keimyung University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2011
    • CHA University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2011
    • Daegu Haany University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Neurology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Seoul National University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea