O Kanagawa

RIKEN, Wako, Saitama-ken, Japan

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Publications (150)1280.43 Total impact

  • Bunseki kagaku 01/2009; 58(6):447-460. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides an opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, it has been suggested that the "resurrection" of frozen extinct species (such as the woolly mammoth) is impracticable, as no live cells are available, and the genomic material that remains is inevitably degraded. Here we report production of cloned mice from bodies kept frozen at -20 degrees C for up to 16 years without any cryoprotection. As all of the cells were ruptured after thawing, we used a modified cloning method and examined nuclei from several organs for use in nuclear transfer attempts. Using brain nuclei as nuclear donors, we established embryonic stem cell lines from the cloned embryos. Healthy cloned mice were then produced from these nuclear transferred embryonic stem cells by serial nuclear transfer. Thus, nuclear transfer techniques could be used to "resurrect" animals or maintain valuable genomic stocks from tissues frozen for prolonged periods without any cryopreservation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2008; 105(45):17318-22. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaede is a photoconvertible fluorescence protein that changes from green to red upon exposure to violet light. The photoconversion of intracellular Kaede has no effect on cellular function. Using transgenic mice expressing the Kaede protein, we demonstrated that movement of cells with the photoconverted Kaede protein could be monitored from lymphoid organs to other tissues as well as from skin to the draining lymph node. Analysis of the kinetics of cellular movement revealed that each subset of cells in the lymph node, such as CD4(+) T, CD8(+) T, B, and dendritic cells, has a distinct migration pattern in vivo. Thus, the Kaede transgenic mouse system would be an ideal tool to monitor precise cellular movement in vivo at different stages of immune response to pathogens as well as in autoimmune diseases.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2008; 105(31):10871-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that are genetically deficient in either IFN-gamma or beta chain of the IFN-gammaR develop diabetes with similar kinetics to wild-type NOD mice. In the current study, we demonstrated that treatment of IFN-gamma signaling-deficient NOD mice with cyclophosphamide (CY) not only fails to induce acute diabetes but also confers permanent protection from diabetes. Protection was mediated by the preferential generation of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) that are capable of suppressing the diabetogenic process, with no change in the total number and function of Treg cells. Moreover, CY treatment of IFN-gamma signaling-deficient NOD mice reversed the ongoing pathogenic process and eliminated cellular infiltrates of pancreatic islets. While these results have been derived using a genetically modified mouse model of diabetes, they indicate that knowledge of host genetic factors and environmental factors influencing the development of Type I diabetes mellitus may provide a rational approach to develop a means to reverse the development of Type I diabetes in human.
    International Immunology 09/2008; 20(9):1231-7. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gads is a Grb2-like adaptor protein expressed in hematopoietic cells. We demonstrated that mast cells from Gads(-/-) mice have selective functional defects. Bone marrow-derived mast cells from Gads(-/-) mice failed to induce Ca(2+) mobilization, degranulation and cytokine production upon cross-linking of FcepsilonRI. In vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was also greatly impaired in Gads(-/-) mice. In contrast, Gads was dispensable for Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine production in mast cells. Accordingly, mast cell-dependent resistance to acute peritoneal bacterial infection is not reduced in Gads(-/-) mice in vivo. Moreover, mature T and B cell responses and antibody production upon immunization were apparently normal in Gads(-/-) mice. Thus, inhibition of Gads in vivo would suppress the IgE-mediated allergic reaction with minimum adverse effects on both innate and acquired immune responses, and Gads could be an ideal target for the control of allergic responses.
    International Immunology 08/2008; 20(10):1289-97. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. IL-15 is unique among cytokines due to its participation in a trans signaling mechanism in which IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ralpha) from one subset of cells presents IL-15 to neighboring IL-2Rbeta/gammac-expressing cells. Here we present the crystal structure of IL-15 in complex with the sushi domain of IL-15Ralpha. The structure reveals that the alpha receptor-binding epitope of IL-15 adopts a unique conformation, which, together with amino acid substitutions, permits specific interactions with IL-15Ralpha that account for the exceptionally high affinity of the IL-15.IL-15Ralpha complex. Interestingly, analysis of the topology of IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha at the IL-15.IL-15Ralpha interface suggests that IL-15 should be capable of participating in a cis signaling mechanism similar to that of the related cytokine IL-2. Indeed, we present biochemical data demonstrating that IL-15 is capable of efficiently signaling in cis through IL-15Ralpha and IL-2Rbeta/gammac expressed on the surface of a single cell. Based on our data we propose that cis presentation of IL-15 may be important in certain biological contexts and that flexibility of IL-15Ralpha permits IL-15 and its three receptor components to be assembled identically at the ligand-receptor interface whether IL-15 is presented in cis or trans. Finally, we have gained insights into IL-15.IL-15Ralpha.IL-2Rbeta.gammac quaternary complex assembly through the use of molecular modeling.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2008; 282(51):37191-204. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. IL-15 is unique among cytokines due to its participation in a trans signaling mechanism in which IL-15 receptorα (IL-15Rα) from one subset of cells presents IL-15 to neighboring IL-2Rβ/γc-expressing cells. Here we present the crystal structure of IL-15 in complex with the sushi domain of IL-15Rα. The structure reveals that theα receptor-binding epitope of IL-15 adopts a unique conformation, which, together with amino acid substitutions, permits specific interactions with IL-15Rα that account for the exceptionally high affinity of the IL-15·IL-15Rα complex. Interestingly, analysis of the topology of IL-15 and IL-15Rα at the IL-15·IL-15Rα interface suggests that IL-15 should be capable of participating in a cis signaling mechanism similar to that of the related cytokine IL-2. Indeed, we present biochemical data demonstrating that IL-15 is capable of efficiently signaling in cis through IL-15Rα and IL-2Rβ/γc expressed on the surface of a single cell. Based on our data we propose that cis presentation of IL-15 may be important in certain biological contexts and that flexibility of IL-15Rα permits IL-15 and its three receptor components to be assembled identically at the ligand-receptor interface whether IL-15 is presented in cis or trans. Finally, we have gained insights into IL-15·IL-15Rα·IL-2Rβ·γc quaternary complex assembly through the use of molecular modeling.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2007; 282(51):37191-37204. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although a huge amount of mammalian genomic data does become publicly available, there are still hurdles for biologists to overcome before such data can be fully exploited. One of the challenges for gaining biological insight from genomic data has been the inability to cross-reference transcriptomic and proteomic data using a single informational platform. To address this, we constructed an open-access database that enabled us to cross-reference transcriptomic and proteomic data obtained from immune cells. The database, named RefDIC (Reference genomics Database of Immune Cells), currently contains: (i) quantitative mRNA profiles for human and mouse immune cells/tissues obtained using Affymetrix GeneChip technology; (ii) quantitative protein profiles for mouse immune cells obtained using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by image analysis and mass spectrometry and (iii) various visualization tools to cross-reference the mRNA and protein profiles of immune cells. RefDIC is the first open-access database for immunogenomics and serves as an important information-sharing platform, enabling a focused genomic approach in immunology. All raw data and information can be accessed from http://refdic.rcai.riken.jp/. The microarray data is also available at http://cibex.nig.ac.jp/ under CIBEX accession no. CBX19, and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ under PRIDE accession numbers 2354-2378 and 2414.
    Bioinformatics 12/2007; 23(21):2934-41. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    Mitsuyo Takase, Edith M Kanagawa, Osami Kanagawa
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between TCR and self-peptide/MHC complex play an important role in homeostasis and Ag reactivity of mature peripheral T cells. In this report, we demonstrate that the interactions between mature peripheral T cells and endogenous Ags have a negative impact on the maintenance of foreign Ag-specific T cells in an age-dependent manner. This is mediated by RAG-dependent secondary rearrangement of the TCR alpha-chain (receptor revision). The TCR revision in mature T cells is readily observed in mouse expressing transgenic TCR alpha-chain inserted into the physiological locus (knockin mouse) but not in conventional transgenic mouse with an identical TCR alpha-chain. Thus, our results suggest that under physiological conditions in which all TCR alpha-chains are susceptible to deletion by secondary rearrangement, TCR revision in mature peripheral T cells is an ongoing process in adult animals and contributes to age-dependent changes in T cell function and repertoire.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2007; 179(4):2163-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CMV infection is one of the most common complications in immunocompromised individuals, such as organ and bone marrow transplant patients. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are required for defense against CMV infection. In murine CMV (MCMV) infection, strains harboring the MCMV-specific NK cell activation receptor, Ly49H (Klra8), are resistant. In contrast, MCMV infection of mice lacking Ly49H gene causes early mortality due to uncontrolled viral replication. In this study, we report the successful protection of mice from lethal MCMV infection with gene-transferred polyclonal CD8 T cells. CD8 T cells expressing a chimeric receptor comprising Ly49H extracellular and CD3zeta cytoplasmic domains are capable of killing target cells expressing the MCMV protein, m157. CD8 T cells expressing the chimeric receptor protect mice in vivo from lethality in the acute phase of MCMV infection, leading to the establishment of long-term protection. These data provide proof-of-principle evidence that a novel strategy for harnessing CD8 cytolytic function through TCR-independent yet pathogen-specific receptor can result in effective protection of hosts from pathogens.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2007; 179(2):1122-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) induces mast cell survival in the absence of antigen (Ag) through the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fcepsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRI). Although we have shown that protein tyrosine kinase Syk and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation are required for IgE-induced mast cell survival, how Syk couples with sustained Erk activation is still unclear. Here, we report that the transmembrane adaptors LAT and NTAL are phosphorylated slowly upon IgE stimulation and that sustained but not transient Erk activation induced by IgE was inhibited in LAT(-/-) NTAL(-/-) bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). IgE-induced survival requires Ras activation, and both were impaired in LAT(-/-) NTAL(-/-) BMMCs. Sos was preferentially required for FcepsilonRI signals by IgE rather than IgE plus Ag. Survival impaired in LAT(-/-) NTAL(-/-) BMMCs was restored to levels comparable to those of the wild type by membrane-targeted Sos, which bypasses the Grb2-mediated membrane recruitment of Sos. The IgE-induced survival of BMMCs lacking Gads, an adaptor critical for the formation of the LAT-SLP-76-phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) complex, was observed to be normal. IgE stimulation induced the membrane retention of Grb2-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in wild-type but not LAT(-/-) NTAL(-/-) BMMCs. These results suggest that LAT and NTAL contribute to the maintenance of Erk activation and survival through the membrane retention of the Ras-activating complex Grb2-Sos and, further, that the LAT-Gads-SLP-76-PLCgamma and LAT/NTAL-Grb2-Sos pathways are differentially required for degranulation and survival, respectively.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 07/2007; 27(12):4406-15. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vav proteins are multidomain signaling molecules critical for mediating signals downstream of several surface receptors, including the antigen receptors of T and B lymphocytes. The catalytic guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of the Vav Dbl homology (DH) domain is thought to be controlled by an intramolecular autoinhibitory mechanism involving an N-terminal extension and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the acidic region (AC). Here, we report that the sequences surrounding the Vav1 AC: Tyr(142), Tyr(160), and Tyr(174) are evolutionarily conserved, conform to consensus SH2 domain binding motifs, and bind several proteins implicated in TCR signaling, including Lck, PI3K p85alpha, and PLCgamma1, through direct interactions with their SH2 domains. In addition, the AC tyrosines regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav1. We also show that Tyr(174) is required for the maintenance of TCR-signaling microclusters and for normal T cell development and activation. In this regard, our data demonstrate that while Vav1 Tyr(174) is essential for maintaining the inhibitory constraint of the DH domain in both developing and mature T cells, constitutively activated Vav GEF disrupts TCR-signaling microclusters and leads to defective T cell development and proliferation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2007; 281(50):38257-65. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Robert J Hayashi, Osami Kanagawa
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    ABSTRACT: Incomplete T cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling induces an unresponsive state known as anergy. Previously, we had shown that anergy can be induced in antigen-primed but not naive T cells. In this report, we found that in vitro primed T cells from IL-2R alpha-deficient mice were resistant to anergy induction in contrast to comparably treated wild-type T cells. This resistance persisted even after proliferation of IL-2R alpha chain-deficient CD4 T cells with high-dose IL-2-IL-2R beta gamma chains interaction. Thus, antigen activation, and/or progression through cell cycle are not sufficient to induce anergy susceptibility in T cells. The high-affinity IL-2-IL-2R interaction appears to play a critical role in this process.
    International Immunology 06/2006; 18(5):645-51. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    Ching-Yu Huang, Barry P Sleckman, Osami Kanagawa
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    ABSTRACT: To become mature alphabeta T cells, developing thymocytes must first assemble a T cell receptor (TCR) beta chain gene encoding a TCRbeta chain that forms a pre-TCR. These cells then need to generate a TCRalpha chain gene encoding a TCRalpha chain, which, when paired with the TCRbeta chain, forms a selectable alphabeta TCR. Newly generated VJalpha rearrangements that do not encode TCRalpha chains capable of forming selectable alphabeta TCRs can be excised from the chromosome and replaced with new VJalpha rearrangements. Such replacement occurs through the process of TCRalpha chain gene revision whereby a Valpha gene segment upstream of the VJalpha rearrangement is appended to a downstream Jalpha gene segment. A multistep, gene-targeting approach was used to generate a modified TCRalpha locus (TCRalpha(sJ)) with a limited capacity to undergo revision of TCRalpha chain genes. Thymocytes from mice homozygous for the TCRalpha(sJ) allele are defective in their ability to generate an alphabeta TCR. Furthermore, those thymocytes that do generate an alphabeta TCR have a diminished capacity to be positively selected, and TCRalpha(sJ/sJ) mice have significantly reduced numbers of mature alphabeta T cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that normal T cell development relies on the ability of developing thymocytes to revise their TCRalpha chain genes.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2005; 102(40):14356-61. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Ching-Yu Huang, Osami Kanagawa
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    ABSTRACT: CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes expressing a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain have decreased capacity to give rise to CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes when compared with wild-type thymocytes. This inefficient CD4(-)CD8(-) to CD4(+)CD8(+) maturation is mediated by the transgenic TCR alpha chain pairing with endogenous TCR beta chain but not with endogenous TCR gamma chain. Comparison between TCR alpha chain-transgenic mice with or without a functional pre-TCR alpha (pT alpha ) chain reveals that the formation of transgenic alpha/endogenous beta TCR on CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes inhibits the formation of pre-TCR, but at the same time mediates CD4(-)CD8(-) to CD4(+)CD8(+) maturation in the absence of pre-TCR, albeit inefficiently. These results indicate that alpha beta TCR and pre-TCR provide different signals for thymocyte development. They also suggest that the precise regulation of the sequential rearrangements of TCR beta and alpha loci and the cellular expansion induced by the pre-TCR may both be evolved to ensure the efficient generation of mature alpha beta T cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 07/2004; 34(6):1532-41. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetogenic BDC2.5 CD4 T cells induce diabetes when injected into NOD.scid mice. However, when co-transferred with the OVA-specific DO11.10 CD4 T cells, BDC2.5 T cells failed to cause diabetes. This inhibition depended upon the stimulation of DO11.10 T cells only with soluble OVA, which skewed their differentiation to a Th2-type pattern of cytokine secretion in vivo. However, in vivo neutralization of IL-4, IL-10 or TGF-beta using monoclonal antibodies did not prevent the inhibition whereas treatment with an antibody against the glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor abrogated the protection from disease. In the protected mice, the diabetogenic T cells could be isolated from their spleens and shown to transfer diabetes when injected into new NOD.scid recipients. Thus, the inhibition took place without the physical or functional elimination of the diabetogenic T cells.
    European Journal of Immunology 03/2004; 34(2):447-54. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Costimulatory signals received by diabetogenic T cells during priming by or upon secondary encounter with autoantigen are decisive in determining the outcome of autoimmune attack. The OX40-OX40 ligand (OX40L) costimulatory pathway is known to influence T cell responses, prompting us to examine its role in autoimmune diabetes. A null allele at OX40L completely prevented diabetes development in nonobese diabetic mice and strongly reduced its incidence in a TCR transgenic model (BDC2.5). However, somewhat paradoxically, the initial activation of T cells responsive to islet beta cell Ag was slightly faster and more efficient in the absence of OX40L, with an increased degree of cell proliferation and survival in the deficient hosts. Activated T cell migration into and retention within the islets was also slightly accelerated. When challenged in vitro, splenocytes from BDC2.5.OX40L(o/o) mice showed no altered reactivity to exogenously added peptide, no bias to the Th1 or Th2 phenotype, and no alteration in T cell survival. Thus, the OX40/OX40L axis has the paradoxical effect of dampening the early activation and migration of autoimmune T cells, but sustains the long-term progression to autoimmune destruction.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2004; 171(12):6954-60. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined that, over a biologic time interval, from 4 to 8 weeks of age, female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop antibodies against pancreatic beta-cell-surface antigens depending upon the presence of both the MHC class II susceptibility allele, I-A(g7), and other NOD background genes. We generated a mAb from a pre-diabetic NOD mouse that binds to the surface of insulinoma cells and isolated mouse beta cells, and identified the target as a retroviral envelope glycoprotein expressed on pancreatic beta cells. The cloned and expressed sequence for this protein was recognized by the mAb. The antibody as well as sera from pre-diabetic NOD mice recognized the recombinant protein. Spontaneous T cell reactivity against a peptide from the cloned protein was found in NOD mice. In conclusion, a beta cell retroviral envelope protein is a target antigen that is selected by the NOD mouse immune system early in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes.
    International Immunology 01/2004; 15(12):1473-83. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunological synapse is a specialized cell-cell junction between T cell and antigen-presenting cell surfaces. It is characterized by a central cluster of antigen receptors, a ring of integrin family adhesion molecules, and temporal stability over hours. The role of this specific organization in signaling for T cell activation has been controversial. We use in vitro and in silico experiments to determine that the immunological synapse acts as a type of adaptive controller that both boosts T cell receptor triggering and attenuates strong signals.
    Science 12/2003; 302(5648):1218-22. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The third complementarity-determining region (CDR) of the TCR alpha and beta chains forms loops that engage amino acid residues of peptides complexed with MHC. This interaction is central to the specific discrimination of antigenic-peptide-MHC complexes by the TCR. The TCRbeta chain CDR3 loop is encoded by the Dbeta gene segment and flanking portions of the Vbeta and Jbeta gene segments. The joining of these gene segments is imprecise, leading to significant variability in the TCRbeta chain CDR3 loop length and amino acid composition. In marked contrast to other pairing antigen-receptor chains, the TCR beta and alpha chain CDR3 loop size distributions are relatively narrow and closely matched. Thus, pairing of TCR alpha and beta chains with relatively similar CDR3 loop sizes may be important for generating a functional repertoire of alpha beta TCR. Here we show that the TCRbeta chain CDR3 loop size distribution is minimally impacted by TCRbeta chain or alpha beta TCR selection during thymocyte development. Rather, this distribution is determined primarily at the level of variable-region gene assembly, and is critically dependent on unique features of the V(D)J recombination reaction that ensure Dbeta gene segment utilization.
    European Journal of Immunology 07/2003; 33(6):1568-75. · 4.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,280.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • RIKEN
      • Laboratory for Immune Regulation
      Wako, Saitama-ken, Japan
  • 2010
    • Japan Research Institute
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2007
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Medicine
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 1990–2007
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Pathology and Immunology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1991–2006
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • The Jikei University School of Medicine
      • Jikei University Hospital
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1989–1990
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1982
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      La Jolla, California, United States