[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii Korean isolate (KI-1) tachyzoites were inoculated intraduodenally to BALB/c mice using a silicon tube, and the course of infection and immune responses of mice were studied. Whereas control mice, that were infected intraperitoneally, died within day 7 post-infection (PI), the intraduodenally infected mice survived until day 9 PI (infection with 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites) or day 11 PI (with 1 x 10(6) tachyzoites). Based on histopathologic (Giemsa stain) and PCR (B1 gene) studies, it was suggested that tachyzoites, after entering the small intestine, invaded into endothelial cells, divided there, and propagated to other organs. PCR appeared to be more sensitive than histopathology to detect infected organs and tissues. The organisms spread over multiple organs by day 6 PI. However, proliferative responses of splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells in response to con A or Toxoplasma lysate antigen decreased significantly, suggesting immunosuppression. Splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes showed decreases in number until day 9 PI, whereas IFN-gamma and IL-10 decreased slightly at day 6 PI and returned to normal levels by day 9 PI. No TNF-alpha was detected throughout the experimental period. The results showed that intraduodenal infection with KI-1 tachyzoites was successful but did not elicit significant mucosal immunity in mice and allowed dissemination of T. gondii organisms to systemic organs. The immunosuppression of mice included reduced lymphoproliferative responses to splenocytes and MLN cells to mitogen and low production of cytokines, such as IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-10, in response to T. gondii infection.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 11/2012; 49:115-23. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relatively little has been studied on the AMA-1 vaccine against Plasmodium vivax and on the plasmid DNA vaccine encoding P. vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1). In the present study, a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding AMA-1 of the reemerging Korean P. vivax has been constructed and a preliminary study was done on its cellular immunogenicity to recipient BALB/c mice. The PvAMA-1 gene was cloned and expressed in the plasmid vector UBpcAMA-1, and a protein band of approximately 56.8 kDa was obtained from the transfected COS7 cells. BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly or using a gene gun 4 times with the vaccine, and the proportions of splenic T-cell subsets were examined by fluorocytometry at week 2 after the last injection. The spleen cells from intramuscularly injected mice revealed no significant changes in the proportions of CD8(+) T-cells and CD4(+) T-cells. However, in mice immunized using a gene gun, significantly higher (P<0.05) proportions of CD8(+) cells were observed compared to UB vector-injected control mice. The results indicated that cellular immunogenicity of the plasmid DNA vaccine encoding AMA-1 of the reemerging Korean P. vivax was weak when it was injected intramuscularly; however, a promising effect was observed using the gene gun injection technique.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 11/2012; 49(1):85-90. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plagiorchis vespertilionis (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) is generally considered a bat parasite, but here it is reported for the first time in a human. The patient was a 34-yr-old male who lived in a coastal village of Haenam-gun (county), Jeollanam-do (province), Republic of Korea. Only 1 worm, 2.6 mm long and 0.7 mm wide, was recovered after praziquantel treatment and purging with magnesium salts. The fluke was characterized by a large body size, a sucker ratio of 1:1, a straight cirrus organ, a short distance between the ventral sucker and ovary, well-developed vitellaria, a uterus with descending and ascending loops, and fully developed eggs with an average size of 32.5 x 17.5 microm. The patient had habitually eaten the raw flesh of snakehead mullet and gobies that had been caught near his village. The present case represents the first record of a human P. vespertilionis infection.
Journal of Parasitology 11/2007; 93(5):1225-7. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The radioresistance of Anisakis simplex third-stage larvae and the possible role of sublethal radiation on superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated. Larvae were isolated from the viscera of the sea eel Anago anago; irradiated with 10, 100, 200, 500, or 1,000 Gy; and then given orally to rats. Worms were recovered at 16 hr postinoculation. Most larvae were found to have invaded the gastric wall, omentum, and abdominal cavity, suggesting that their viability and infectivity were not controlled by irradiation with the doses used. To determine the relationship between SOD activities in parasites and their radiosensitivities, the larvae of A. simplex and the metacercariae of Neodiplostomum seoulense (a radiosensitive control) were irradiated with 0, 30, 100, or 500 Gy, and parasite SOD levels were measured. In nonirradiated A. simplex larvae, the average SOD level was 38.9 U/mg, and this increased to 51.3 U/mg at 500 Gy. However, at all radiation doses applied, SOD activities of N. seoulense metacercariae were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of A. simplex larvae. Our results demonstrate that A. simplex third-stage larvae are radioresistant, and suggest that SOD plays a role in this radioresistance.
Journal of Parasitology 04/2006; 92(2):416-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Faecal examinations for helminth eggs were performed on 1869 people from two riverside localities, Vientiane Municipality and Saravane Province, along the Mekong River, Laos. To obtain adult flukes, 42 people positive for small trematode eggs (Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyid, or lecithodendriid eggs) were treated with a 20-30 mg kg(-1) single dose of praziquantel and purged. Diarrhoeic stools were then collected from 36 people (18 in each area) and searched for helminth parasites using stereomicroscopes. Faecal examinations revealed positive rates for small trematode eggs of 53.3% and 70.8% (average 65.2%) in Vientiane and Saravane Province, respectively. Infections with O. viverrini and six species of intestinal flukes were found, namely, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus caninus, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, and Phaneropsolus bonnei. The total number of flukes collected and the proportion of fluke species recovered were markedly different in the two localities; in Vientiane, 1041 O. viverrini (57.8 per person) and 615 others (34.2 per person), whereas in Saravane, 395 O. viverrini (21.9 per person) and 155207 others (8622.6 per person). Five people from Saravane harboured no O. viverrini but numerous heterophyid and/or lecithodendriid flukes. The results indicate that O. viverrini and several species of heterophyid and lecithodendriid flukes are endemic in these two riverside localities, and suggest that the intensity of infection and the relative proportion of fluke species vary by locality along the Mekong River basin.
Journal of Helminthology 10/2005; 79(3):283-9. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of host immunosuppression after infection with Toxoplasma gondii are unclear. This study was performed to observe cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions by murine splenic lymphocytes infected in vitro with live, nonreplicating (irradiated) RH tachyzoites on stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For lymphocyte cultivation, 3 groups were prepared: coculture with live nonirradiated tachyzoites separated by a transwell (group T), live irradiated tachyzoites without a transwell (group R), and no tachyzoites (group C). Compared with group T, groups R and C, on stimulation with Con A, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IFN-gamma, but not IL-10. The levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, IgA, and IgM were also significantly (P < 0.05) lower in groups R and C than in group T after stimulation with LPS. The results suggest that intracellular infection of murine splenic lymphocytes with T. gondii tachyzoites could impair their capacity to produce cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions.
Journal of Parasitology 05/2005; 91(2):467-70. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The surface ultrastructure of advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma nipponicum was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae were recovered from the grass snake Rhabdophis tigrina in the Republic of Korea. Parasites had a globular head bulb with a pair of lips at the anterior end and 2 labial papillae and an amphid on each lip. The head bulb was characteristically armed with 3 transverse rows of hooklets, averaging 36, 38, and 43 in number, increasing posteriorly. A total of 213-232 minute unidentate cuticular spines were present along the entire length of the larvae, forming the transverse striations. Two pairs of cervical papillae were located between the 8th and 12th transverse striations, and a pair of body papillae was seen laterally on the posterior third of the body. A pair of caudal phasmids was recognized near the posterior extremity. The surface ultrastructure of AL3 of G. nipponicum is unique compared with that of other species.
Journal of Parasitology 01/2004; 89(6):1245-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Role of intestinal goblet cells (GCs) in the expulsion of Gymnophalloides seoi was studied using 4 strains of mice, ICR, C3H/ HeN, BALB/c, and C57BL/6, after infection with 200 metacercariae isolated from oysters. On day 7 postinfection (PI), significantly higher (P < 0.05) worm recovery rates (WRRs) were observed in ICR (29.5 +/- 12.0%) and C3H/HeN (14.8 +/- 8.2%) than in BALB/c (5.7 +/- 5.3%) and C57BL/6 (0.8 +/- 1.1%) mice. Alteration of the GC mucins was marked in C57BL/6 mice. On day 14 PI, 5.2 +/- 5.2% and 0.6 +/- 0.7% of worms were recovered only from ICR and C3H/HeN mice. When C57BL/6 mice were immunosuppressed with prednisolone, WRR on day 7 PI increased to 11.7 +/- 13.9%, whereas the GC hyperplasia and mucin alteration diminished significantly. The results suggest that expulsion of G. seoi from the intestine is dependent on immune responses of the host, and GCs may be an important effector.
Journal of Parasitology 11/2003; 89(5):1080-2. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chicks were experimentally infected with Acanthoparyphium tyosenense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) metacercariae per os, and the growth and development of worms in this host were observed from days I to 38 postinfection (PI). The worms grew rapidly and matured sexually in the small intestine (chiefly in the jejunum) of chicks by day 5 PI. and survived at least up to day 38 Pi, although worm recovery decreased after day 5 PI. Both parenchymal and reproductive organs increased greatly in size from day 2 to day 10 PI and then continued to increase gradually in size up to day 38 PI. The number of uterine eggs reached a peak on days 10 and 15 PI and then decreased gradually. The results suggest that chicks are a fairly suitable definitive host for experimental infection with A. tyosenense.
Journal of Parasitology 03/2003; 89(1):176-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stictodora lari Yamaguti, 1939 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) was originally reported as an avian intestinal parasite and is here reported in humans. The patients were adults, aged 46-69 (2 men and 4 women), who resided in coastal villages in Sachon-gun, Kyongsangnam-do, or Shinan-gun, Chollanam-do. in the Republic of Korea. The worms were recovered after praziquantel treatment and purgation with magnesium salts. A total of 15 S. lari specimens (1-10 per individual) was collected, together with 5 other species of intestinal flukes. The flukes were morphologically characterized by a small body size (0.70-0.86 mm long and 0.27-0.36 mm wide), a ventrogenital sac, and a gonotyl armed with 70-80 spines in the form of a comma or reversed comma lying along their lateral margin. The patients had eaten the raw flesh of mullets and gobies that had been caught in an estuary near their villages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of a human S. lari infection.
Journal of Parasitology 07/2002; 88(3):627-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 01/2002; 39(4):319-21. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection and its seasonality were studied in a small rural village occupied predominantly by aged people in Hwasun-gun, Chollanam-do, Republic of Korea. Fecal samples were collected monthly from November 1996 to October 1997 and examined for enteric parasites. To detect oocysts of C. parvum, the modified acid-fast stain was applied. To determine effects of climatic factors, local weather reports were collected. The overall oocyst prevalence during 1 year was 57.0% (77 of 135), and was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in aged people--those aged 50-59 years (80.0%) and those aged 60-69 years (69.0%)--than in younger groups. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was noted between men and boys (53.6%) and women and girls (59.5%), but significant (P < 0.05) household clustering was recognized. People aged > 50 years tended to be more repeatedly positive than people in the younger group. The rate varied monthly from 7.8 to 20.0% (average, 12.6%), with significantly higher (P < 0.05) rates in spring than in summer and winter months. This seasonality had little relation with temperature (r = 0.04), but a weak correlation was found with rainfall (r = 0.4). It is of special interest that cryptosporidiosis is highly endemic among the aged population.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2001; 65(5):518-22. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraintestinal migration patterns of Pharyngostomum cordatum (Digenea: Neodiplostomidae) were studied in experimental rodents such as mice, rats, and hamsters. When metacercariae isolated from grass snakes were infected orally to rodents, they penetrated the intestinal wall at days 2-3 post-infection (p.i.) and were discovered mainly in the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and vital organ such as the lungs at days 7-28 p.i., without morphological changes. Interestingly, from several rodents which died suddenly at days 2-9 p.i., small to considerable numbers of metacercariae were found, not only in the lungs, but also in the heart and brain. Within the tissues, worms were freely motile until day 7 p.i., but later they were surrounded by host cells, and finally tissue cysts were formed. When metacercariae harvested from the snakes and intercostal muscles of rodents were infected orally to cats, they developed into adult flukes in the small intestine. The results show that P. cordatum undergoes considerable extraintestinal migration including the vital organs of its rodent hosts.
Journal of Helminthology 10/2001; 75(3):285-90. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acanthoparyphium tyosenense Yamaguti, 1939 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), was originally reported as an avian intestinal parasite; here, its presence is reported in 10 humans in the Republic of Korea. The patients were 9 adults aged 35-66 yr (males and females) and a young girl aged 7 yr residing in 2 coastal villages in Puan-gun, Chollabuk-do. The worms were recovered after treatment with praziquantel and purgation with magnesium salts. A total of 158 specimens (1-107 specimens/individual) was collected, together with varying numbers of other intestinal flukes. The patients had eaten various kinds of brackish water mollusks caught in an estuary near their villages. Five bivalves and a gastropod species suspected as sources of human infection were collected and examined. Two bivalves (Mactra veneriformis and Solen grandis) and the gastropod (Neverita bicolor) were found to be infected with the metacercariae of A. tyosenense; adult flukes were confirmed after the experimental infection of chicks. The results show that A. tyosenense infects humans and that brackish water mollusks are the source of human infection.
Journal of Parasitology 09/2001; 87(4):794-800. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993 near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). We reviewed clinical features of 101 symptomatic patients with vivax malaria. Of the patients, 77 patients (76.3%) were veterans who had served near the DMZ; their median age was 23 years. The duration of the minimum latent period was > 6 months in 66.2% (51 of 77) of the patients (median, 278 days). Tertian fever developed in 69 patients (68.3%). Severe thrombocytopenia with platelet counts < 60,000/microL was common (29.6% of patients). The parasite densities ranged 32-52,127 parasites per microliter of blood (geometric mean, 1,287). The only complication was a splenic rupture in one patient. All patients responded promptly to chloroquine therapy. Our data suggest that the clinical features of reemerging vivax malaria may be similar to those of Korean vivax malaria reported in the past.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 08/2001; 65(2):143-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) and human infections are briefly reviewed. This minute intestinal fluke was first discovered from a Korean woman suffering from acute pancreatitis and gastrointestinal troubles. It was described as a new species by Lee, Chai and Hong in 1993. The southwestern coastal village where the patient resided was found to be a highly endemic area, and additional endemic areas have been identified. The parasite is very small, 0.33-0.50 mm long and 0.23-0.33 mm wide, and characterized by the presence of a ventral pit. The first intermediate host remains unknown, but the second intermediate host has been found to be the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Man and the Palearctic oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus have been shown to be natural definitive hosts, and wading birds including the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus are highly susceptible to experimental infection. Gerbils, hamsters, cats, and several strains of mice were also susceptible laboratory hosts. In experimentally infected mice, the parasites inhabit the small intestine, pinching and sucking the root of villi with their large oral suckers, but they did not invade beyond the mucosa in immunocompetent mice. However, they were found to invade the submucosa in immunosuppressed mice. Human G. seoi infections have been found in at least 25 localities; 23 islands on the Yellow Sea or the South Sea, and 2 western coastal villages. The highest prevalence was found in a village on Aphaedo, Shinan-gun (49% egg positive rate); other areas showed 0.8-25.3% prevalence. Infected people complained of variable degrees of gastrointestinal troubles and indigestion. The infection can be diagnosed by recovery of eggs in the feces; however, an expert is needed to identify the eggs. Praziquantel, 10 mg/kg in single dose, is effective for treatment of human infections. Eating raw oysters in endemic areas should be avoided.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 07/2001; 39(2):85-118. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to know the infection status of Cryptosporidium parvum among the residents of Chorwon-gun, Kangwon-do in 1993. Total 461 fecal samples were collected from the inhabitants residing in Chorwon-gun during the period of August 12 to September 14, 1993. Fecal smears were prepared by formalin-ether sedimentation, and examined after modified acid fast staining. Of the 461 fecal samples, 9 (1.9%) were positive for C. parvum oocysts. The positive cases were limited to thirties (4) patients, forties (3), and sixties (2), and no oocyst was detected in other age groups. The oocyst positive rate for male was 1.4% and that of female was 2.6%.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 07/2001; 39(2):201-3. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature.
Journal of Parasitology 05/2001; 87(2):454-6. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal histopathology and in situ postures of Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) were studied using C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice as experimental hosts; the effects of immunosuppression were also observed. The metacercariae isolated from naturally infected oysters, 300 or 1,000 in number, were infected orally to each mouse, and the mice were killed at days 3-21 post-infection (PI). In immunocompetent (IC) mice, only a small number of flukes were found in the mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum during days 3-7 PI, with their large oral suckers pinching and sucking the root of villi. The intestinal mucosa showed mild villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and inflammations in the villous stroma and crypt, with remarkable goblet cell hyperplasia. These mucosal changes were almost restored after days 14-21 PI. In immunosuppressed (IS) mice, displacement as well as complete loss of villi adjacent to the flukes was frequently encountered, otherwise the histopathology was generally mild, with minimal goblet cell hyperplasia. In these mice, numerous flukes were found, and it seemed that they were actively moving and rotating in situ. Several flukes were found to have invaded into the submucosa, almost facing the serosa. These results indicate that in IC mice the intestinal histopathology caused by G. seoi is generally mild, and the flukes do not penetrate beyond the mucosa, however, in IS mice, the flukes can cause severe destruction of neighboring villi, and some of them invade into the submucosa.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 04/2001; 39(1):31-41. · 0.88 Impact Factor