[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistence of myofibroblasts is believed to contribute to the development of fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) irreversibly converts fibroblasts into pathological myofibroblasts, which express smooth muscle alpha-actin (alpha-SMA) and produce extracellular matrix proteins, such as procollagen I (alpha1). Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidases (NOXs) have been shown to regulate cell differentiation. It was hypothesised that NOX could be expressed in parenchymal pulmonary fibroblasts and could mediate TGFbeta1-stimulated conversion of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.
Fibroblasts were cultured from the lung of nine controls and eight patients with IPF. NOX4, alpha-SMA and procollagen I (alpha1) mRNA and protein expression, reactive oxygen species production and Smad2/3 phosphorylation were quantified, in the absence and in the presence of incubation with TGFbeta1. Migration of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced fibroblasts was also assessed.
It was found that (1) NOX4 mRNA and protein expression was upregulated in pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with IPF and correlated with mRNA expression of alpha-SMA and procollagen I (alpha1) mRNA; (2) TGFbeta1 upregulated NOX4, alpha-SMA and procollagen I (alpha1) expression in control and IPF fibroblasts; (3) the change in alpha-SMA and procollagen I (alpha1) expression in response to TGFbeta1 was inhibited by antioxidants and by a NOX4 small interfering RNA (siRNA); (4) NOX4 modulated alpha-SMA and procollagen I (alpha1) expression by controlling activation of Smad2/3; and (5) NOX4 modulated PDGF-induced fibroblast migration.
NOX4 is critical for modulation of the pulmonary myofibroblast phenotype in IPF, probably by modulating the response to TGFbeta1 and PDGF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), produced for industrial purposes, on the human epithelial cell line A549. MWCNT were dispersed in dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL), a component of pulmonary surfactant, and the effects of dispersion in DPL were compared to those in two other media: ethanol (EtOH) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Effects of MWCNT were also compared to those of two asbestos fibers (chrysotile and crocidolite) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, not only in A549 cells but also in mesothelial cells (MeT5A human cell line), used as an asbestos-sensitive cell type. MWCNT formed agglomerates on top of both cell lines (surface area 15-35 microm(2)) that were significantly larger and more numerous in PBS than in EtOH and DPL. Whatever the dispersion media, incubation with 100 microg/ml MWCNT induced a similar decrease in metabolic activity without changing cell membrane permeability or apoptosis. Neither MWCNT cellular internalization nor oxidative stress was observed. In contrast, asbestos fibers penetrated into the cells, decreased metabolic activity but not cell membrane permeability, and increased apoptosis, without decreasing cell number. CB was internalized without any adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MWCNT produced for industrial purposes exert adverse effects without being internalized by human epithelial and mesothelial pulmonary cell lines.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 02/2009; 72(2):60-73. DOI:10.1080/15287390802476991 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, in modulating cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mucus secretion. In both rats and mice, 5-day CS exposure increased HO-1 expression and activity, mucus secretion, MUCIN 5AC (MUC5AC) gene and protein expression, and local inflammation, along with up-regulation of dual oxidase 1 gene expression and both the activity and phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is involved in MUC5AC induction. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 prevented these actions and inhibition of HO-1 expression by a specific siRNA potentiated them. In French participants to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (n = 210, 30 to 53 years of age, 50% males) exposed to CS, a significant increase in the percentage of participants with chronic sputum was observed in those harboring at least one allele with a long (GT)(n) in the HO-1 promoter gene (>33 repeats), which is associated with a low level of HO-1 protein expression, compared with those with a short number of (GT)n repeats (21.7% versus 8.6%, P = 0.047). No such results were observed in those who had never smoked (n = 297). We conclude that HO-1 has a significant protective effect against airway mucus hypersecretion in animals and humans exposed to CS.
American Journal Of Pathology 10/2008; 173(4):981-92. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2008.070863 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, resulting from the increased oxidative burden and decreased level of antioxidant proteins, plays a role in the pathophysiology of smoking-related pulmonary emphysema. Expression of several antioxidant proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), results from an equilibrium created by positive or negative regulation by the transcription factors Nrf2, Keap1 and Bach1, respectively. However, whether the expression of these transcription factors is altered in emphysema and could account for decreased expression of antioxidant proteins is not known. A study was undertaken to investigate the expression and subcellular localisation of Nrf2, Keap1 and Bach1 as potential regulators of HO-1, GPX2 and NQO1 in alveolar macrophages, a key cell in oxidative stress, in lung surgical specimens from non-smokers without emphysema and smokers with and without emphysema.
Western blot, immunohistochemical and laser scanning confocal analysis revealed that the Nrf2 protein level decreased significantly in whole lung tissue and alveolar macrophages (cytosol and nucleus) in patients with emphysema compared with those without emphysema. Conversely, Bach1 and Keap1 levels were increased in patients with emphysema. These modifications were associated with a parallel decrease in the expression of HO-1, GPX2 and NQO1 at the cellular level, which was inversely correlated with airway obstruction and distension indexes, and increased macrophage expression of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Silencing RNA experiments in vitro in THP-1 cells were performed to confirm the cause-effect relation between the loss of Nrf2 and the decrease in HO-1, NQO1 and GPX2 expression. Nrf2/Keap1-Bach1 equilibrium was altered in alveolar macrophages in pulmonary emphysema, which points to a decreased stress response phenotype.
This finding opens a new view of the pathophysiology of emphysema and could provide the basis for new therapeutic approaches based on preservation and/or restoration of such equilibrium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Particulate matter (PM) from atmospheric pollution can easily deposit in the lungs and induce recruitment of inflammatory cells, a source of inflammatory cytokines, oxidants, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which are important players in lung structural homeostasis. In many large cities, the subway system is a potent source of PM emission, but little is known about the biological effects of PM from this source. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the biological effects of PM sampled at two sites (RER and Metro) in the Paris subway system. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, were exposed to 0.01-10 microg/cm2 and 5-100 microg/mouse subway PM or reference materials [carbon black (CB), titanium dioxide (TiO2), or diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)]. We analyzed cell viability, production of cellular and lung proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), KC (the murin analog of interleukin-8), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], and mRNA or protein expression of MMP-2, -9, and -12 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Deferoxamine and polymixin B were used to evaluate the roles of iron and endotoxin, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of subway PM (but not CB, TiO2, or DEPs) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in TNFalpha and MIP-2 production by RAW 264.7 cells, in a manner involving, at least in part, PM iron content (34% inhibition of TNF production 8 h after stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with 10 microg/cm2 RER particles pretreated with deferoxamine). Similar increased cytokine production was transiently observed in vivo in mice and was accompanied by an increased neutrophil cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (84.83+/-0.98% of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for RER-treated mice after 24 h vs 7.33+/-0.99% for vehicle-treated animals). Subway PM induced an increased expression of MMP-12 and HO-1 both in vitro and in vivo. PM from the Paris subway system has transient biological effects. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiological implications of these findings.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 11/2007; 20(10):1426-33. DOI:10.1021/tx700093j · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with lung function impairment. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of this phenomenon, we investigated, in an alveolar human epithelial cell line (A549), whether diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a main component of particulate air pollution, modulates the expression and activity of the matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1, a collagenase involved in alveolar wall degradation. Interaction of DEPs with cigarette smoke, which also produces structural and functional lung alterations, was also investigated. A noncytotoxic concentration of DEPs induced an increase in MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression and activity in A549 cells without modifying the expression of the MMP inhibitors TIMP-1 and -2. This effect was not potentiated when cells were coexposed to noncytotoxic concentrations of cigarette smoke condensate. DEP-induced MMP-1 was associated with increased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and upregulation of expression and activity of the NADPH oxidase analog NOX4. Cell transfection with a NOX4 small interfering RNA prevented these phenomena, showing the critical role of a NOX4 ERK 1/2 pathway in DEP-induced MMP-1 expression and activity. Similar results to those observed in A549 cells were obtained in another human lung epithelial cell line, NCI-H292. Furthermore, experiments in mice intratracheally instilled with DEPs confirmed the in vitro findings, showing the induction of NOX4 and MMP-1 protein expression in alveolar epithelial cells. We conclude that alveolar alterations secondary to MMP-1 induction could explain lung function impairment associated with exposure to particulate pollution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
L’exposition chronique à des particules de pollution joue probablement un rôle aggravant dans l’évolution de la broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive (BPCO). Ceci pourrait être dû aux effets des particules de pollution sur la balance pro-téases/antiprotéases pulmonaires. Cependant, les mécanismes impliqués dans ce phénomène ne sont pas bien caractérisés. L’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer les effets des particules diesel (PD), un composant majeur de la pollution particulaire urbaine, sur l’expression de metalloprotéases de la matrice (MMP) et leurs inhibiteurs (TIMPs) par les cellules épithéliales alvéolaires.
Les effets des PD (10 ug/cm2, 6 et 24 heures d’incubation) sur des cellules de la lignée A549 (utilisées comme modèle représentatif de pneumocyte de type II humain), sont comparés à ceux des particules de noir de carbone et leurs véhicules (dipalmy-toyl-lecithine). L’expression des MMPs et des TIMPs est évaluée au niveau ARN messager par RT-PCR en temps réel.
L’exposition des cellules aux différentes particules n’entraîne pas de cytotoxicité. L’incubation avec les PD entraîne une induction de l’expression de MMP-1 sans affecter l’expression de MMP-2, TIMP-1 et TIMP-2. Cet effet est supprimé par un antioxydant (la N-acetylcystéine) et il est concomitant avec une augmentation de la production intracellulaire d’oxydants et de marqueurs de peroxydation lipidique. Par ailleurs, le prétraitement des cellules avec un inhibiteur de la NAD (P) H oxydase (diphenyliodi-nium) et un inhibiteur d’ERK 1/2 (PD 98059) atténue l’induction de MMP-1 par les particules.
Les résultats de ce travail montrent que les PD induisent l’expression de MMP-1, à travers une voie faisant intervenir des oxydants synthétisés par la NAD (P) H oxydase et la voie d’ERK 1/2. Ces phénomènes pourraient participer à l’aggravation de la BPCO par les particules de la pollution atmosphérique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-1 and MMP-2, are involved in the pathophysiology of emphysema. MMPs contain zinc in the catalytic site and its expression is regulated transcriptionally via mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme oxygenase activity, has anti-inflammatory properties, which are mediated, at least in part, by activation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, CO has the unique ability to bind to metal centers in proteins and can affect their specific activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that CO could inhibit MMPs expression and/or activity. Here we show that a recently identified carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, [Ru(CO)3Cl2]2 (or CORM-2) inhibits MMP-1 and MMP-2 mRNA expression in the human lung epithelial cell line A549. The MMPs mRNA expression was unaffected by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but in the case of MMP-1 was reversed by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In addition, CORM-2 inhibited both MMP-1 and MMP-2 activities. Interestingly, no effect was observed with (Ru(DMSO)4Cl2), a negative control that does not contain CO groups. To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence on the effect of CO on MMPs expression and activity. This effect could have important implications in the pathophysiology of emphysema and other diseases involving proteases/antiproteases imbalance.