[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent clinical observation, the growth of endothelial tumors, such as hemangiomas of infancy, was repressed by the non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol possibly through targeting of the vascular endothelial compartment. As human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) play an essential role as structural and functional components in tumor angiogenesis, we assessed whether propranolol could target HBMEC's in vitro angiogenic properties. We found that biopsies from human glioblastoma as well as from experimental brain tumor-associated vasculature expressed high levels of the beta2-adrenergic receptor, suggesting adrenergic adaptative processes could take place during tumor vascularization. We observed that in vitro tubulogenesis was significantly reduced by propranolol when HBMEC were seeded on Matrigel. Propranolol, as much as 100microM, did not reduce cell viability and did not alter HBMEC migration as assessed with Boyden chambers. Secretion of the key angiogenic and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assessed by zymography. Propranolol significantly reduced MMP-9 secretion upon treatment with the tumor-promoting agent phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, while secretion of MMP-2 remained unaffected. This was correlated with a decrease in MMP-9 gene expression which is, in part, explained by a decrease in the nucleocytoplasmic export of the mRNA stabilizing factor HuR. Our data are therefore indicative of a selective role for propranolol in inhibiting MMP-9 secretion and HBMEC tubulogenesis which could potentially add to propranolol's anti-angiogenic properties.
Pharmacological Research 06/2009; 60(5):438-45. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Future breakthroughs in cancer therapy must accompany targeted agents that will neutralize cancer stem cells response to circulating growth factors. Since the brain tissue microenvironmental niche is a prerequisite for expression of the stem cell marker CD133 antigen in brain tumors, we investigated the invasion mechanisms specific to CD133(+) U87 glioblastoma cells in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), two circulating bioactive lysophospholipids and potent inducers of cancer. A CD133(+) U87 glioma cell population was isolated from parental U87 glioblastoma cells using magnetic cell sorting technology. The CD133(+)-enriched cell population grew as neurospheres and showed enhanced maximal response to both LPA (approximately 5.0-fold) and S1P (approximately 2.5-fold) at 1 microM when compared to parental U87 cells. The increased response to LPA in CD133(+) cells, reflected by increased levels of phosphorylated ERK, was found independent of the cooperative functions of the membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), while this cooperativity was essential to the S1P response. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed and we found higher gene expression levels of the S1P receptors S1P1 and S1P2, and of the LPA receptor LPA1 in CD133(+) cells than in their parental U87 cells. These increased levels reflected those observed from in vivo experimental U87 tumor implants. Our data suggest that the CD133(+) cell subpopulation evokes most of the lysophospholipid response within brain tumors through a combined regulation of S1P/LPA cell surface receptors signaling and by MT1-MMP. The emergence of lead compounds targeting the stem cell niche and S1P/LPA signaling in CD133(+) cancer cells is warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel of glioma samples increasing histological grade demonstrated frequencies of CD133(+) cells which correlated with high expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP).
We used qRT-PCR and immunoblotting to examine the molecular interplay between MT1-MMP and COX-2 gene and protein expression in parental, CD133(+), and neurospheres U87 glioma cell cultures.
We found that CD133, COX-2 and MT1-MMP expression were enhanced when glioma cells were cultured in neurosphere conditions. A CD133(+)-enriched U87 glioma cell population, isolated from parental U87 cells with magnetic cell sorting technology, also grew as neurospheres and showed enhanced COX-2 expression. MT1-MMP gene silencing antagonized COX-2 expression in neurospheres, while overexpression of recombinant MT1-MMP directly triggered COX-2 expression in U87 cells independent from MT1-MMP's catalytic function. COX-2 induction by MT1-MMP was also validated in wild-type and in NF-kappaB p65-/- mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but was abrogated in NF-kappaB 1 (p50-/-) mutant cells.
We provide evidence for enhanced COX-2 expression in CD133(+) glioma cells, and direct cell-based evidence of NF-kappaB-mediated COX-2 regulation by MT1-MMP. The biological significance of such checkpoint control may account for COX-2-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory balance responsible of therapy resistance phenotype of cancer stem cells.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2009; 6:8. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/caveolin-1 interaction in the regulation of brain endothelial cells (EC) migration and tubulogenesis. P-gp overexpression in MDCK-MDR cells was correlated with enhanced cell migration whereas treatment with P-gp inhibitors CsA or PSC833 reduced it. Transfection of RBE4 rat brain endothelial cells with mutated versions of MDR1, in the caveolin-1 interaction motif, decreased the interaction between P-gp and caveolin-1, enhanced P-gp transport activity and cell migration. Moreover, down-regulation of caveolin-1 in RBE4 cells by siRNA against caveolin-1 stimulated cell migration. Interestingly, the inhibition of P-gp/caveolin-1 interaction increased also EC tubulogenesis. Furthermore, decrease of P-gp expression by siRNA inhibited EC tubulogenesis. These data indicate that the level of P-gp/caveolin-1 interaction can modulate brain endothelial angiogenesis and P-gp dependent cell migration.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2008; 372(3):440-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) play an essential role as structural and functional components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While disruption of the BBB by the brain tumor-secreted matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) favors tumor invasion, the role and regulation of MMP-9 secretion by HBMEC themselves in response to carcinogens or brain tumor-derived growth factors has received little attention. Our study delineates a unique brain endothelial phenotype in that MMP-9 secretion is increased upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment of HBMEC. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate present in broccoli which exhibits chemopreventive properties, selectively inhibited the secretion of MMP-9 but not that of MMP-2. The decrease in MMP-9 gene expression correlated with a decrease in the expression of the mRNA stabilizing factor HuR protein triggered by SFN. PMA-induced HBMEC migration was also antagonized by SFN. Silencing of the MMP-9 gene inhibited PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion, cell migration, and in vitro tubulogenesis on Matrigel. While SFN inhibited the chemoattractive abilities of brain tumor-derived growth factors, it failed to inhibit PMA-induced tubulogenesis. Our data are indicative of a selective role for SFN to inhibit MMP-9-activated, but not basal, HBMEC migration, and tubulogenesis whose actions could add to SFN's antitumor properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neural precursor surface marker CD133 is thought to be enriched in brain cancer stem cells and in radioresistant DAOY medulloblastoma-derived tumor cells. Given that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression is a hallmark of highly invasive, radioresistant, and hypoxic brain tumor cells, we sought to determine whether MT1-MMP and other MMPs could regulate the invasive phenotype of CD133(+) DAOY cells. We found that when DAOY medulloblastoma or U87 glioblastoma cells were implanted in nude mice, only those cells specifically implanted in the brain environment generated CD133(+) brain tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor gene expression increases in correlation with CD133 expression in those tumors. When DAOY cultures were induced to generate in vitro neurosphere-like cells, gene expression of CD133, MT1-MMP, MMP-9, and MDR-1 was induced and correlated with an increase in neurosphere invasiveness. Specific small interfering RNA gene silencing of either MT1-MMP or MMP-9 reduced the capacity of the DAOY monolayers to generate neurospheres and concomitantly abrogated their invasive capacity. On the other hand, overexpression of MT1-MMP in DAOY triggered neurosphere-like formation which was further amplified when cells were cultured in neurosphere medium. Collectively, we show that both MT1-MMP and MMP-9 contribute to the invasive phenotype during CD133(+) neurosphere-like formation in medulloblastoma cells. Increases in MMP-9 may contribute to the opening of the blood-brain barrier, whereas increased MT1-MMP would promote brain tumor infiltration. Our study suggests that MMP-9 or MT1-MMP targeting may reduce the formation of brain tumor stem cells.
Molecular Cancer Research 07/2008; 6(6):907-16. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microvasculature of brain tumors has been proposed as the primary target for ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. However, the contribution of low dose IR-induced non-apoptotic cell death pathways has not been investigated. This study aimed to characterize the effect of IR on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and to assess the combined effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), a green tea-derived anti-angiogenic molecule. HBMEC were treated with EGCg, irradiated with a sublethal (< or =10 Gy) single dose. Cell survival was assessed 48 h later by nuclear cell counting and Trypan blue exclusion methods. Cell cycle distribution and DNA fragmentation were evaluated by flow cytometry (FC), cell death was assessed by fluorimetric caspase-3 activity, FC and immunoblotting for pro-apoptotic proteins. While low IR doses alone reduced cell survival by 30%, IR treatment was found more effective in EGCg pretreated-cells reaching 70% cell death. Analysis of cell cycle revealed that IR-induced cell accumulation in G2-phase. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(CIP/Waf1) and p27(Kip) were increased by EGCg and IR. Although random DNA fragmentation increased by approximately 40% following combined EGCg/IR treatments, the synergistic reduction of cell survival was not related to increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome C proteins. Cell necrosis increased 5-fold following combined EGCg/IR treatments while no changes in early or late apoptosis were observed. Our results suggest that the synergistic effects of combined EGCg/IR treatments may be related to necrosis, a non-apoptotic cell death pathway. Strategies sensitizing brain tumor-derived EC to IR may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and EGCg may represent such a potential agent.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 11/2006; 80(2):111-21. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic blocking drug, was recently reported to control the growth of hemangiomas, the most common vascular tumor of infancy. However, the mechanisms involved in this effect remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that propranolol dose-dependently inhibited growth factor-induced proliferation of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through a G₀/G₁ phase cell cycle arrest. This was correlated to decreased cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and cyclin-dependent kinase CDK6 protein levels, while increases in the CDK inhibitors p15(INK4B), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) were observed. Chemotactic motility and differentiation of HUVECs into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel were also inhibited by propranolol. Furthermore, inhibition by propranolol of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 lead to inhibition of downstream signaling such as the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that propranolol interferes with several essential steps of neovascularization and opens up novel therapeutic opportunities for the use of β-blockers in the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human diseases.