Hatem Alkadhi

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (423)1398.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the potential of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) for optimizing radiation dose of high-pitch coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Methods High-pitch 192-slice dual-source CCTA was performed in 25 patients (group 1) according to standard settings (ref. 100 kVp, ref. 270 mAs/rot). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ADMIRE (strength levels 1–5). In another 25 patients (group 2), high-pitch CCTA protocol parameters were adapted according to results from group 1 (ref. 160 mAs/rot), and images were reconstructed with ADMIRE level 4. In ten patients of group 1, vessel sharpness using full width at half maximum (FWHM) analysis was determined. Image quality was assessed by two independent, blinded readers. Results Interobserver agreements for attenuation and noise were excellent (r = 0.88/0.85, p p p Conclusions In a selected population, ADMIRE can be used for optimizing high-pitch CCTA to an effective dose of 0.3 mSv. Key points • Advanced modeled IR (ADMIRE) reduces image noise up to 50 % as compared to FBP. • Coronary artery vessel borders show an increasing sharpness at higher ADMIRE levels. • High-pitch CCTA with ADMIRE is possible at a radiation dose of 0.3 mSv.
    European Radiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-3862-5 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the value of advanced virtual monoenergetic images (mono+) from dual-energy computed tomography (CT) of hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating liver lesions in various phantom sizes and patients in comparison with standard monoenergetic images (mono). Anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 4 patient sizes (S, 300 × 200 mm; M, 350 × 250 mm; L, 400 × 300 mm; and XL, 600 × 450 mm) with a liver insert containing both hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating iodine-containing lesions were imaged with dose-equivalent dual-energy (100/150 Sn kilovolt [peak] [kV{p}]) and single-energy (120 kV[p]) protocols on a 192-slice dual-source CT system. In addition, 4 patients with 3 hypoattenuating and 3 hyperattenuating hepatocellular carcinoma were included and underwent dual-energy CT imaging with the same scanner at similar kV(p) settings (100/150 Sn kV[p]). Images were reconstructed with standard mono and with the mono+ algorithm at 10-kiloelectron volt (keV) intervals from 40 to 190 keV. Attenuation of the liver and lesions were measured, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated. Lesion conspicuity was rated by 2 blinded independent readers in all mono and mono+ data sets from 40 to 190 keV using a 5-point Likert scale (1, lowest conspicuity; and 5, highest conspicuity). Attenuation in the liver and in both hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating lesions did not differ between mono and mono+ (P = 0.41-0.49). Noise on mono+ was significantly lower than on mono for all phantom sizes (P < 0.05) and was increasing with phantom size. Hyperattenuating lesion CNR was highest for mono+ images at 40 keV in the S phantom (6.73), with significantly higher CNR for mono+ than for mono and for single energy (120 kV[p]) in all phantom sizes (all P < 0.001) except for the XL phantom. Hypoattenuating lesion CNR was highest for high-keV mono+ being significantly higher than on mono and on single-energy (120 kV[p]) images (all P < 0.001), except for the XL phantom with significantly higher CNR for mono (1.3) compared with mono+ (0.47) and 120 kV(p) (1.26). In patients, CNR curves of hyperattenuating hepatocellular carcinoma were in accordance with the phantom data, whereas hypoattenuating lesions demonstrate varying curves, some being in accordance with findings in phantoms. Interreader agreement for lesion conspicuity was very good (intraclass correlation, 0.95), with higher conspicuity scores for mono+ than for mono and single energy (120 kV[p]) at all phantom sizes (all P < 0.05) and within patients. Our ex vivo and patient data demonstrate added value for imaging of both hyperattenuating and hypoattenuating liver lesions with advanced virtual monoenergetic dual-energy CT by decreased noise, increased CNR, and higher lesion conspicuity, although with limitations in XL body sizes.
    Investigative radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000171 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the accuracy of x-ray grating interferometry phase-contrast (PC) imaging for the characterization of human coronary artery plaque. Materials and Methods PC and conventional absorption computed tomographic (CT) imaging was performed ex vivo in this institutional review board-approved study in 40 human coronary artery segments by using a synchrotron radiation source. Qualitative analyses and calculations of image quality (McNemar test), plaque components (McNemar test), and plaque classification (Cohen κ test) according to the American Heart Association classification were performed in 38 plaques detected at histopathologic examination (reference standard). Quantitative measurements of plaque components (ie, collagen, lipids, smooth muscle, and calcifications) were compared among PC and absorption images by using analysis of variance for repeated measures with post hoc Bonferroni correction. Results Image quality was superior in PC (median image score, 1) in all cases (100%) compared with absorption imaging (median image score, 3) (P < .001). Plaque components were detected by means of PC without significant differences (seven of seven calcifications, 22 of 22 plaques with collagen and smooth muscle cells, P > .99; 29 of 29 plaques with lipids, P = .10) with histopathologic findings, whereas absorption imaging was used to detect calcifications (seven of seven, P > .99) without statistical differences only (nine of 29 plaques with lipids, 0 of 22 plaques with collagen and smooth muscle cells, P < .001). Accuracy for plaque stage assessment with PC (early vs advanced) was 100%, and characterization was correct in 33 of 38 plaques (87%), while conventional absorption imaging allowed correct characterization of seven plaques only (18%, P < .001). PC CT numbers were significantly different (P < .05) for all plaque components (mean for calcifications, 1236 HU ± 69; collagen, 78 HU ± 24; lipids, -18 HU ± 23; and smooth muscle cells, 34 HU ± 12), whereas absorption images showed significant differences (P < .001) between calcifications (1336 HU ± 241) and other plaque components, but not for collagen (22 HU ± 13), lipids (-15 HU ± 14), and smooth muscle (13 HU ± 9) (P > .99). Conclusion PC imaging allows accurate characterization of human coronary artery plaques and quantitative assessment of plaque components, thereby outperforming absorption imaging. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015141614 · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Investigative Radiology 04/2015; 50(4):187. DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000139 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess radiation dose and image quality in body CT-angiography (CTA) with automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection (ATVS) on a 192-slice dual-source CT (DSCT). Forty patients (69.5 ± 9.6 years) who had undergone body CTA with ATVS (ref.kVp 100, ref.mAs 90) using a 2x192-slice CT in single-source mode were retrospectively included. All patients had undergone prior CTA with a 2x128-slice CT and ATVS with identical imaging and contrast media protocols, serving for comparison. Images were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction at similar strength levels. Radiation dose was determined. Image quality was assessed semi-quantitatively (1:excellent, 5:non-diagnostic), aortic attenuation, noise and CNR were determined. As compared to 128-slice DSCT, 192-slice DSCT selected tube voltages were lower in 30 patients (75 %), higher in 3 (7.5 %), and similar in 7 patients (17.5 %). CTDIvol was lower with 192-slice DSCT (4.7 ± 1.9 mGy vs. 5.8 ± 2.1 mGy; p < 0.001). Subjective image quality, mean aortic attenuation (342 ± 67HU vs. 268 ± 67HU) and CNR (9.8 ± 2.5 vs. 8.2 ± 2.9) were higher with 192-slice DSCT (all p < 0.01), all datasets being diagnostic. Our study suggests that ATVS of 192-slice DSCT for body CTA is associated with an improved image quality and further radiation dose reduction of 19 % compared to 128-slice DSCT. • 192-slice DSCT allows imaging from 70 kVp to 150 kVp at 10 kVp increments. • 192-slice DSCT allows for radiation-dose reduction in body-CTA with ATVS. • Subjective and objective image quality increase compared to 128-slice DSCT.
    European Radiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-3632-4 · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • European Heart Journal 02/2015; 36(16). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv020 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of the study was to examine frequency, size, and localization of peri-device leaks after percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA)-closure with the AMPLATZER-Cardiac-Plug (ACP) by using a multimodal imaging approach, i.e. combined cardiac-CT and TEE follow-up. Background Catheter-based LAA-occlusion using ACP aims to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Detection of peri-device leaks after ACP implantation by TEE is challenging, the few available data are inconsistent and the frequency of LAA leaks after ACP implantation remains therefore unclear. Methods Cardiac-CT using a multi-phase protocol and a second-generation dual-source-CT-system was performed in 24 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation starting 3 months after LAA-closure by ACP. Color Doppler multiplane TEE was used to evaluate peri-device flow. ResultsCardiac-CT follow-up detected any persistent LAA contrast filling in 62% of patients (n=15), but leak-sizes were small (1.51.4 mm). Peri-device leaks were almost exclusively localized at the posterior portion of the LAA-orifice (>90%). TEE follow-up revealed peri-device flow in 36% of patients (jet-sizes:4 mm). ACP-lobe compression (>10%) and perpendicular ACP-lobe orientation to the LAA-neck axis, that was also dependent on LAA anatomy, were substantially more frequent in patients with complete LAA closure. Conclusion The present study evaluates for the first time peri-device flow after LAA closure by ACP using a combined cardiac-CT and TEE follow-up. Persistent LAA-perfusion was frequently detected, leak-sizes were small and were less frequent when lobe compression was >10% and lobe orientation was perpendicular to the LAA-neck axis, that was also related to the LAA anatomy. The clinical significance of these small leaks after LAA-closure using ACP needs to be further evaluated in future studies. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2015; 85(2). DOI:10.1002/ccd.25667 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the number of imaging examinations, radiation dose, and the time to complete trauma-related imaging in multiple trauma patients before and after introduction of whole-body CT (WBCT) into early trauma care. Methods: 120 consecutive patients before and 120 patients after introduction of WBCT into our hospitals' trauma algorithm were compared regarding number and type of CT, radiography, focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST), additional CT examinations (defined as CT of same body regions after radiography and/or FAST), and the time to complete trauma-related imaging. Results: In the WBCT cohort significantly more patients underwent CT of the head, neck, chest, and abdomen (P<.001) as compared to the non-WBCT cohort, whereas the number of radiography of the cervical spine, chest and pelvis and of FAST examinations were significantly lower (P<.001). There were no significant differences between cohorts regarding the number of radiography of upper (P=.56) and lower extremities (P=.30). We found significantly higher effective doses in the WBCT (29.5mSv) as compared to the non-WBCT cohort (15.9mSv, P<.001), but less additional CT for completing the work-up were needed in the WBCT cohort (P<.001). The time to complete trauma-related imaging was significantly shorter in the WBCT (12min) as compared to the non-WBCT cohort (75min, P<.001). Conclusion: Including WBCT in the initial work-up of trauma patients results in higher radiation dose, but less additional CT is needed, and the time for completing trauma-related imaging is shorter. Advances in knowledge: WBCT in trauma patients is associated with a high radiation dose of 29.5mSv.
    British Journal of Radiology 01/2015; 88(1047):20140616. DOI:10.1259/bjr.20140616 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the dual-energy CT behavior of cocaine and heroin and of typical adulterants, and to evaluate the elemental composition of pure cocaine and heroin compared with cocaine and heroin in bodypacks. Pure heroin and pure synthetic cocaine samples, eight different adulterants, and in each case ten different bodypacks containing cocaine or heroin, were imaged at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp in a dual source CT system at two different degrees of compression. Two radiologists, blinded to the samples, measured the attenuation. The dual-energy index (DEI) was calculated. We performed atomic mass spectrometry for the elemental analysis of pure cocaine, pure heroin, and heroin and cocaine in bodypacks, and 140 kVp in a dual-source CT system. Inter- and intra-observer agreement for attenuation measurements was good (r = 0.61-0.72; p < 0.01). The cocaine bodypacks had a positive DEI of 0.029, while the pure drugs and the heroin bodypacks had a negative DEI (-0.051 to -0.027). Levamisole was the only substance which expressed a positive DEI of 0.011, while the remaining adulterants had negative DEIs ranging between -0.015 and -0.215. Atomic mass spectrometry revealed a concentration of tin in the cocaine bodypack that was 67 times higher than in the pure synthetic cocaine sample. The different DEIs of bodypacks containing cocaine and heroin allow them to be distinguished with dual-energy CT. Although the material properties of pure cocaine, pure heroin, or common drug extenders do not explain the differences in DEI, tin contamination during illicit natural cocaine production may be a possible explanation.
    Forensic Science Medicine and Pathology 01/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1007/s12024-014-9643-7 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare low-contrast detectability, and qualitative and quantitative image parameters on standard and reduced radiation dose abdominal CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A custom built liver phantom containing 43 lesions was imaged at 120 kVp and four radiation dose levels (100% = 188 mAs, 50%, 25%, and 10%). Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were assessed. Lesion detection and qualitative image analysis (five-point Likert scale with 1 = worst, 5 = best for confidence) was performed by three independent radiologists. CNR on MBIR images was significantly higher (mean 246%, range 151-383%) and image noise was significantly lower (69%, 59-78%) than on FBP images at the same radiation dose (both p < 0.05). On MBIR 10% images, CNR (3.3 ± 0.3) was significantly higher and noise (15 ± 1HU) significantly lower than on FBP 100% images (2.5 ± 0.1; 21 ± 1 HU). On 100% images, lesion attenuation was significantly lower with MBIR than with FBP (mean difference -2 HU). Low-contrast detectability and qualitative results were similar with MBIR 50% and FBP 100%. Low-contrast detectability with MBIR 50% and FBP 100% were equal. Quantitative parameters on even lower dose MBIR images are superior to 100%-dose FBP images. Some attenuation values differ significantly with MBIR compared with FBP. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Radiology 12/2014; 70(4). DOI:10.1016/j.crad.2014.11.015 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current technological advances in CT, specifically those with a major impact on clinical imaging, are discussed. The intent was to provide for both medical physicists and practicing radiologists a summary of the clinical impact of each advance, offering guidance in terms of utility and day-to-day clinical implementation, with specific attention to radiation dose reduction.
    Investigative Radiology 12/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000125 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Coronary angiography (CA) remains the standard for preoperative planning for surgical revascularization. However, besides anatomical imaging, current guidelines recommend additional functional imaging before a therapy decision is made. We assess the impact of functional imaging on the strategy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with particular regards on postoperative patency and myocardial perfusion. Methods After CA, 55 patients (47 males/8 females; age: 65.1 ± 9.5 years) underwent perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) before isolated CABG (n = 31), CABG and concomitant valve surgery (valve + CABG; n = 10) and isolated valve surgery (n = 14; control). DSCT was used for analysis of significant stenosis, CMR for myocardial-perfusion to discriminate between: no ischemia (normal), ischemia, or scar. The results, unknown to the surgeons, were compared with CA and related to the location and number of distal anastomoses. Nineteen CABG patients underwent follow-up CMR and DSCT (FU: 13 ± 3 months) to compare the preop findings with the postop outcomes. Results Thirty-nine patients either received CABG alone (n = 31) or a combined procedure (n = 10) with a total of 116 distal anastomoses. DSCT was compared with CA regarding accuracy of coronary stenosis and showed 91% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and negative/positive predictive values of 89/90%. In total, 880 myocardial segments (n = 55, 16 segments/patient) were assessed by CMR. In 17% (149/880) of segments ischemia and in 8% (74/880) scar tissue was found. Interestingly, 14% (16/116) of bypass-anastomoses were placed on non-ischemic myocardium and 3% (4/116) on scar tissue. In a subgroup of 19 patients 304 segments were evaluated. Thirty-nine percent (88/304) of all segments showed ischemia preoperatively, while 94% (83/88) of these ischemic segments did not show any ischemia postoperatively. In regard to performed anastomoses, 79% of all grafts (49/62) were optimally placed, whereas 21% (13/62) were either placed into non-ischemic myocardium or scar tissue, including 10% occluded grafts (6/62). Conclusion In the whole cohort analysis, 17% of grafts were placed in regions with either no ischemia or scar tissue. The subgroup analysis revealed that 94% of all ischemic segments were successfully revascularized after CABG. Thus, functional imaging could be a promising tool in preoperative planning of revascularization strategy. Avoidance of extensive and unnecessary grafting could further optimize outcomes after CABG. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 12/2014; 63(04). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1395393 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine qualitative and quantitative image-quality parameters in abdominal imaging using advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) with third-generation dual-source 192 section CT.
    Clinical Radiology 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.crad.2014.08.012 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. RESULTS: Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed diabetes, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P < 0.001) and thus was selected for constructing a scoring system from 0 to 10 (diabetes: 2 points; C-reactive protein, ≥100 mg/L: 1 point; attenuation of fluid collection, ≥20 HU: 4 points; entrapped gas: 3 points). The model was well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.36). In the validation cohort, scores of 2 or lower had a 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56%-100%) negative predictive value, scores of 3 or higher had an 80% (95% CI, 56%-94%) positive predictive value, and scores of 6 or higher a 100% (95% CI, 74%-100%) positive predictive value for diagnosing infected fluid collections. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88-1.00) for the score. CONCLUSIONS: We introduce an accurate scoring system including quantitative radiologic, laboratory, and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected fluid collections after abdominal surgery.
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    ABSTRACT: Fett wird seit der Entdeckung des ob-Gen-Produkts Leptin als endokrines Organ angesehen. Insbesondere dem epikardialen Fett ist in den letzten Jahren vermehrte Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt worden. Das epikardiale Fett nimmt Aufgaben im Fettmetabolismus wahr, jedoch werden ihm auch schädliche parakrine, autokrine und systemische Wirkungen zugeschrieben. Die bildmorphologische Bestimmung des epikardialen Fettvolumens gelingt mittels der Echokardiographie, der Computertomographie oder der Magnetresonanztomographie. In diesem Review sollen zunächst grundlegende Betrachtungen der Physiologie und Pathophysiologie des epikardialen Fetts skizziert werden. Der Schwerpunkt des Reviews liegt dann auf der Vorstellung der Messmethoden des epikardialen Fetts mittels der einzelnen Bildgebungsmodalitäten und einem Literaturüberblick der Assoziationen des epikardialen Fetts zu Erkrankungen des kardiovaskulären Systems wie dem metabolischen Syndrom, der Herzinsuffizienz und der koronaren Herzkrankheit. Abstract Since the discovery of the obese (ob) gene product leptin, fat has been considered an endocrine organ. Especially epicardial fat has gained increasing attention in recent years. The epicardial fat plays a major role in fat metabolism; however, harmful properties have also been reported. Echocardiography, computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are the non-invasive tools used to measure epicardial fat volume. This review briefly introduces the basic physiological and pathophysiological considerations concerning epicardial fat. The main issue of this review is the presentation of non-invasive measurement techniques of epicardial fat using various imaging modalities and a literature overview of associations between epicardial fat and common cardiovascular diseases.
    Herz 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00059-014-4146-6 · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) to measure the mitral valve annulus size before implantation of a percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty device in an animal trial. Seven domestic pigs underwent CT before and after implantation of a Cardioband™ (a percutaneously implantable mitral valve annuloplasty device) with a second-generation 128-section dual-source CT machine. Implantation of the Cardioband™ was performed in a standard fashion according to a protocol. Animals were sacrificed afterwards and the hearts explanted. The Cardioband™ was found to be adequately implanted in all animals, with no anchor dehiscence and no damage of the circumflex artery (CX) or the coronary sinus (CS). The correct length of the band as chosen according to the length of the posterior mitral annulus measured in CT before implantation was confirmed in gross examination in all animals. The device did not result in a metal artifact-related degradation of image quality. The closest distance from the closest anchor to the CX was 2.1 ± 0.7 mm in diastole and 1.6 ± 0.5 mm systole. Mitral annulus distance to the CS was 6.4 ± 1.3 mm in diastole and 7.7 ± 1.1 mm in systole. CT visualization and measurement of the mitral valve annulus dimensions is feasible and can become the imaging method of choice for procedure planning of Cardioband™ implantations or other transcatheter mitral annuloplasty devices.
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 08/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s10554-014-0516-7 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of standard axial 64-Slice chest CT compared to aortic valve image plane ECG-gated cardiac CT for bicuspid aortic valves. Materials & Methods The standard axial chest CT scans of 20 patients with known bicuspid aortic valves were blindly, randomly analysed for (i) the appearance of the valve cusps, (ii) the largest aortic sinus area, (iii) the longest aortic cusp length, (iv) the thickest aortic valve cusp and (v) valve calcification. A second blinded reader independently analysed the appearance of the valve cusps. Forty-two age- and sex-matched patients with known tricuspid aortic valves were used as controls. Retrospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT multiphase reconstructions of the aortic valve were used as the gold-standard. Results Fourteen (21%) scans were scored as unevaluable (7 bicuspid, 7 tricuspid). Of the remainder, there were 13 evaluable bicuspid valves, ten of which showed an aortic valve line sign, while the remaining three showed a normal Mercedes-benz appearance owing to fused valve cusps. The 35 evaluable tricuspid aortic valves all showed a normal Mercedes-benz appearance (P = 0.001). Kappa analysis = 0.62 indicating good interobserver agreement for the aortic valve cusp appearance. Aortic sinus areas, aortic cusp lengths and aortic cusp thicknesses of ≥ 3.8 cm2, 3.2 cm and 1.6 mm respectively on standard axial chest CT best distinguished bicuspid from tricuspid aortic valves (P < 0.0001 for all). Of evaluable scans, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of standard axial chest CT in diagnosing bicuspid aortic valves was 77% (CI 0.54-1.0%), 100%, 100% and 70% respectively. Conclusion The aortic valve is evaluable in approximately 80% of standard chest 64-slice CT scans. Bicuspid aortic valves may be diagnosed on evaluable scans with good diagnostic accuracy. An aortic valve line sign, enlarged aortic sinuses and elongated, thickened valve cusps are specific CT features.
    European Journal of Radiology 08/2014; 83(8). DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2014.05.010 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the accuracy of post-mortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) and to demonstrate the feasibility of helix angle (HA) calculation to study remodelling of myofibre architecture. Cardiac DTI was performed in 26 deceased subjects prior to autopsy for medicolegal reasons. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were determined. Accuracy was calculated on per-segment (AHA classification), per-territory, and per-patient basis, with pathology as reference standard. HAs were calculated and compared between healthy segments and those with MI. Autopsy demonstrated MI in 61/440 segments (13.9 %) in 12/26 deceased subjects. Healthy myocardial segments had significantly higher FA (p < 0.01) and lower MD (p < 0.001) compared to segments with MI. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that FA (p < 0.10) and MD (p = 0.01) with the covariate post-mortem time (p < 0.01) predicted MI with an accuracy of 0.73. Analysis of HA distribution demonstrated remodelling of myofibre architecture, with significant differences between healthy segments and segments with chronic (p < 0.001) but not with acute MI (p > 0.05). Post-mortem cardiac DTI enablesdifferentiation between healthy and infarcted myocardial segments by means of FA and MD. HA assessment allows for the demonstration of remodelling of myofibre architecture following chronic MI. aEuro cent DTI enables post-mortem detection of myocardial infarction with good accuracy. aEuro cent A decrease in right-handed helical fibre indicates myofibre remodelling following chronic myocardial infarction. aEuro cent DTI allows for ruling out myocardial infarction by means of FA. aEuro cent Post-mortem DTI may represent a valuable screening tool in forensic investigations.
    European Radiology 07/2014; 24(11). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3322-7 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the best predictor for the response to and survival with transarterial radioembolisation (RE) with 90yttrium microspheres in patients with liver metastases. Methods Forty consecutive patients with liver metastases undergoing RE were evaluated with multiphase CT, perfusion CT and 99mTc-MAA SPECT. Arterial perfusion (AP) from perfusion CT, HU values from the arterial (aHU) and portal venous phase (pvHU) CT, and 99mTc-MAA uptake ratio of metastases were determined. Morphologic response was evaluated after 4 months and available in 30 patients. One-year survival was calculated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results We found significant differences between responders and non-responders for AP (P < 0.001) and aHU (P = 0.001) of metastases, while no differences were found for pvHU (P = 0.07) and the 99mTc-MAA uptake ratio (P = 0.40). AP had a significantly higher specificity than aHU (P = 0.003) for determining responders to RE. Patients with an AP >20 ml/100 ml/min had a significantly (P = 0.01) higher 1-year survival, whereas an aHU value >55 HU did not discriminate survival (P = 0.12). The Cox proportional hazard model revealed AP as the only significant (P = 0.02) independent predictor of survival. Conclusion Compared to arterial and portal venous enhancement and the 99mTc-MAA uptake ratio of liver metastases, the AP from perfusion CT is the best predictor of morphologic response to and 1-year survival with RE. Key Points • Perfusion CT allows for calculation of the liver arterial perfusion. • Arterial perfusion of liver metastases differs between responders and non-responders to RE. • Arterial perfusion can be used to select patients responding to RE.
    European Radiology 07/2014; 24(7). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3180-3 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to quantify the response of the myocardial transverse relaxation times (ΔT2*) to hyperoxic respiratory challenge (HRC) at different field strengths in an intra-individual comparison of healthy volunteers and in a patient with coronary artery disease. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular MR (CMR) data were acquired in 10 healthy volunteers (five women, five men; mean age, 29 ± 3 years; range, 22–35 years) at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Medical air (21% O2), pure oxygen and carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) were administered in a block-design temporal pattern to induce normoxia, hyperoxia and hyperoxic hypercapnia, respectively. Average T2* times were derived from measurements by two independent and blind readers in 16 standard myocardial segments on three short-axis slices per patient. Inter- and intra-reader correlations of T2* measurements were good [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.75 and ICC = 0.79, both p < 0.001]. During normoxia, the mean T2* times were 29.9 ± 6.1 ms at 1.5 T and 27.1 ± 6.6 ms at 3.0 T. Both hyperoxic gases induced significant (all p < 0.01) T2* increases (∆T2* hyperoxia: 1.5 T, 12.7%; 3.0 T, 11.2%; hyperoxic hypercapnia: 1.5 T, 13.1%; 3.0 T, 17.7%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated a significant (both p < 0.001) effect of the inhaled gases on the T2* times at both 1.5 T (F = 17.74) and 3.0 T (F = 39.99). With regard to the patient imaged at 1.5 T, HRC induced significant T2* increases during hyperoxia and hyperoxic hypercapnia in normal myocardial segments, whereas the T2* response was not significant in ischemic segments (p > 0.23). The myocardial ∆T2* response to HRC can reliably be imaged and quantified with BOLD CMR at both 1.5 and 3.0 T. During HRC, hyperoxia and hyperoxic hypercapnia induce a significant increase in T2*, with ∆T2* being largest at 3.0 T and during hyperoxic hypercapnia in normal myocardial segments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    NMR in Biomedicine 07/2014; 27(7). DOI:10.1002/nbm.3119 · 3.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,398.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • University of Zurich
      • • Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie
      • • Center for Integrative Human Physiology
      • • Division of Neuropsychology
      • • Institut für Neuropathologie
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Kantonsspital St. Gallen
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
  • 2003–2012
    • University Hospital Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Radiological Sciences
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2001
    • ETH Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland