You Han Bae

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (203)933.71 Total impact

  • Hee Sook Hwang, Jun Hu, Kun Na, You Han Bae
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    ABSTRACT: Endosomal entrapment is one of the main barriers that must be overcome for efficient gene expression along with cell internalization, DNA release and nuclear import. Introducing pH-sensitive ionizable groups into the polycationic polymers to increase gene transfer efficiency has proven to be a useful method; however, effective methods of introducing equal numbers of ionizable groups in both polymer and monomer forms, has not been reported. In this paper, we prepared two types of histidine grafted Poly(L-lysine) (PLL), a stacking form of Poly(L-histidine) (PLL-g-PHis) and a mono- L-histidine (PLL-g-mHis) with same number of imidazole groups. These two types showed profound differences in hemolytic activity, cellular uptake, internalization and transfection efficiency. Cy3-labeled PLL-g-PHis showed strong fluorescence in the nucleus after internalization, and high hemolytic activity upon pH changes was also observed from PLL-g-PHis. The arrangement of imidazole groups from PHis also provided higher gene expression than mHis due to its ability to escape the endosome. mHis or PHis grafting reduced the cytotoxicity of PLL and changed the cellular uptake by changing the quantity of free ɛ-amines available for gene condensation. The sub-cellular localization of PLL-g-PHis/pDNA measured by YOYO1-pDNA intensity was highest inside the nucleus, and the lysotracker which stains the acidic compartments was lowest among polymers. Thus, the polymeric histidine arrangement demonstrate the ability to escape the endosome and trigger rapid release of polyplexes into the cytosol resulting in a greater amount of genes available for translocation to the nucleus and enhanced gene expression.
    Biomacromolecules 08/2014; · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Branched-type hydrophilic polyethyleneimine derivatives (i.e., bPEI derivatives) are developed polymeric carriers for photodynamic therapy. Their chemical structures which contain pH-tunable hydrophobic/hydrophilic cavities enable efficient loading of hydrophobic drugs in basic pH environments. Intracellular stimuli trigger the release of the loaded drugs in bPEI derivatives. As expected, the hydrophobic photosensitizer known as pheophorbide A (PheoA) is solubilized by physical loading in the inner hydrophobic spaces of bPEI derivatives in environments with basic pH values. Interestingly, acidic pH environments induce aggregation, resulting in poor release of the loaded PheoA as well as in quenched photo-activity of the PheoA-loaded polymers. However, when reducible polycation derivatives of bPEI are used (i.e., RPC-bPEI), intracellular thiols degrade the disulfide linkages in the polymers, resulting in rapid PheoA release. Particularly, a RPC-bPEI containing 6 wt% PheoA (i.e., RPC-bPEI0.8kDa-PheoA6%) respond remarkably well to light exposure and display large differences between dark toxicity and light-induced toxicity. Cellular uptake of RPC-bPEI0.8kDa-PheoA6% is approximately sevenfold to ninefold lower than that of free PheoA. Nevertheless, the photo-toxicity of RPC-bPEI0.8kDa-PheoA6% was only two- to sixfold less potent than that of free PheoA. These results suggest that reducible bPEI materials may act as potential solubilizers and carriers for low-molecular-weight hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs.
    Macromolecular Bioscience 07/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Joseph W Nichols, You Han Bae
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    ABSTRACT: The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) of nanoparticles in tumors has long stood as one of the fundamental principles of cancer drug delivery, holding the promise of safe, simple and effective therapy. By allowing particles preferential access to tumors by virtue of size and longevity in circulation, EPR provided a neat rationale for the trend toward nano-sized drug carriers. Following the discovery of the phenomenon by Maeda in the mid-1980s, this rationale appeared to be well justified by the flood of evidence from preclinical studies and by the clinical success of Doxil®. Clinical outcomes from nano-sized drug delivery systems, however, have indicated that EPR is not as reliable as previously thought. Drug carriers generally fail to provide superior efficacy to free drug systems when tested in clinical trials. A closer look reveals that EPR-dependent drug delivery is complicated by high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), irregular vascular distribution, and poor blood flow inside tumors. Furthermore, the animal tumor models used to study EPR differ from clinical tumors in several key aspects that seem to make EPR more pronounced than in human patients. On the basis of this evidence, we believe that EPR should only be invoked on a case-by-case basis, when clinical evidence suggests the tumor type is susceptible.
    Journal of Controlled Release 04/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the potential of dexamethasone (Dex) to enhance the nuclear accumulation and subsequent gene expression of plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivered using a charged polymeric micelle-based gene delivery system. (PLGA)n -b-bPEI25kDa block copolymers are synthesized and used to prepare Dex-loaded cationic micelles (DexCM). After preparing DexCM/pDNA complexes, bPEI1.8kDa is coated on the complexes using a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique to construct DexCM/pDNA/bPEI1.8kDa complexes (i.e., LbL-DexCM polyplexes) that are 100-180 nm in diameter and have a zeta potential of 30-40 mV. In MCF7 cells, LbL-DexCM polyplexes cause 3-13-fold higher transfection efficiencies compared to LbL-CM polyplexes and show negligible cytotoxicity. LbL-DexCM3 polyplexes induce much higher nuclear delivery of pDNA compared to LbL-CM3 polyplexes. These results suggest that Dex-loaded polyplexes could be used in gene and drug delivery applications to increase nuclear accumulation of therapeutic payloads, further leading to a decrease in the dose of the drug and gene necessary to achieve equivalent therapeutic effects.
    Macromolecular Bioscience 02/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nontoxic endogenous nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate have secondary phosphate groups, causing proton-buffering capacity and/or hemolytic activity in endolysosomal pH ranges. Nucleotides co-delivered in single polymeric pDNA nanocarrier induce highly enhanced transfection efficiency with negligible cytotoxicity due to their endosomolytic functions.
    Advanced Healthcare Materials 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bioreducible polymers have attracted intense attention as a gene carrier due to their low cell toxicity compared to other polymer-based gene delivery counterparts. We have synthesized low-molecular-weight spermine-originated bioreducible polyspermines (BPSs) to serve as a plasmid DNA (pDNA) carrier complex with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency. Spermine is biogenic and ubiquitous and is of benefit to nucleic acid delivery in many respects. We found that the BPSs formed nano-sized, positively charged complexes with pDNA. In addition, they showed a high buffering capacity from the polyamine-based proton sponge effect which facilitates endosomal escape. With degradable characteristics in thiol-rich (intracellular) environments, BPSs exhibited significantly improved cell viability and suitable transfection efficiency across several cell lines in comparison to linear and branched polyethylenimine, the current gold standards of non-viral gene carriers. BPSs appear to be promising polymers for use as effective pDNA carriers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 02/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral delivery is the preferred route to deliver therapeutics via nanoparticles due to ease of administration and patient acceptance. Here, we report on the findings of the absorption pathway of taurocholic acid (TCA)-linked heparin and docetaxel (DTX) conjugate, which we refer to as HDTA. We studied the oral absorption of HDTA using a Caco-2 cell transport system and an animal model. We have also used other absorption enhancers, such as ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), or inhibitors, such as sodium azide, to compare the relative permeability of HDTA conjugates. In vivo comparative studies were conducted using free TCA as a pre-administration and exhibited the maximum absorption site of the organ after oral administration of HDTA conjugates. HDTA was found to be absorbed mainly in the ileum and Caco-2 cell monolayer through passive diffusion and bile acid transporters. High fluorescence intensity of HDTA in mice came from the ileum, and it was eliminated from the body through colon. This novel formulation could be further investigated by clinical trials to find the prospect of oral anti-cancer drug delivery through anti-angiogenic treatment strategies.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Joseph W. Nichols, You Han Bae
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our previous study, a histidine-based AB2 miktoarm polymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-histidine)2 (mPEG-b-(PolyHis)2), was designed to construct pH-sensitive polymersomes that transform in acidic pH; the polymer self-assembles into a structure that mimics phospholipids. In this study, the polymersomes further imitated liposomes due to the incorporation of cholesterol (CL). The hydrodynamic radii of the polymersomes increased with increasing CLwt% (e.g., 70nm for 0wt% vs. 91nm for 1wt%), resulting in an increased capacity for encapsulating hydrophilic drugs (e.g., 0.92μL/mg for 0wt% vs. 1.42μL/mg for 1wt%). The CL incorporation enhanced the colloidal stability of the polymersomes in the presence of serum protein and retarded their payload release. However, CL-incorporating polymersomes still demonstrated accelerated release of a hydrophilic dye (e.g., 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF)) below pH 6.8 without losing their desirable pH sensitivity. CF-loaded CL-incorporating polymersomes showed better cellular internalization than the hydrophilic CF, whereas doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded CL-incorporating polymersomes presented similar or somewhat lower anti-tumor effects than free hydrophobic DOX. The findings suggest that CL-incorporating mPEG-b-(PolyHis)2-based polymersomes may have potential for intracellular drug delivery of chemical drugs due to their improved colloidal stability, lower drug loss during circulation, acidic pH-induced drug release, and endosomal disruption.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 12/2013; 116C:128-137. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cancer-recognizable MRI contrast agents (CR-CAs) has been developed using pH-responsive polymeric micelles. The CR-CAs with pH sensitivity were self-assembled based on well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers, consisting of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-histidine) (PEG-p(l-His)) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lactic acid)-diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid dianhydride-gadolinium chelate (PEG-p(l-LA)-DTPA-Gd). The CR-CAs have a spherical shape with a uniform size of ∼40 nm at physiological pH (pH 7.4). However, in acidic tumoral environment (pH 6.5), the CR-CAs were destabilized due to the protonation of the imidazole groups of p(l-His) blocks, causing them to break apart into positively charged water-soluble polymers. As a result, the CR-CAs exhibit highly effective T1 MR contrast enhancement in the tumor region, which enabled the detection of small tumors of ∼3 mm(3)in vivo at 1.5 T within a few minutes.
    Biomaterials 10/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With countless research papers using preclinical models and showing the superiority of nanoparticle design over current drug therapies used to treat cancers, it is surprising how deficient the translation of these nano-sized drug carriers into the clinical setting is. This review article seeks to compare the preclinical and clinical results for Doxil®, PK1, Abraxane®, Genexol-PM®, Xyotax™, NC-6004, Mylotarg®, PK2, and CALAA-01. While not comprehensive, it covers nano-sized drug carriers designed to improve the efficacy of common drugs used in chemotherapy. While not always available or comparable, effort was made to compare the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy between the animal and human studies. Discussion is provided to suggest what might be causing the gap. Finally, suggestions and encouragement are dispensed for the potential that nano-sized drug carriers hold.
    Journal of Controlled Release 10/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    Jun Hu, Seiji Miura, Kun Na, You Han Bae
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    ABSTRACT: To address cancer cell heterogeneity while endowing tumor specificity, the approach of charge shielding/deshielding was tested in vitro and in vivo with a paclitaxel loaded cationic micelle from a block copolymer of poly(L-histidine) (3.7kDa) and short branched polyethyleneimine (1.8kDa). The cationic micelle surface was shielded by electrostatically complexing with a negatively charged mPEG (2kDa)-block-polysulfadimethoxine (4kDa) (mPEG-b-PSDM) at pH7.4. Unshielded micelle at pH7.4 and deshielded micelle at tumor extracellular pH were readily taken up by two wild types of human cancer cell lines, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma, while the uptake of the shielded micelle at pH7.4 was minimal. The preliminary in vivo results from a mouse model xenografted with MCF-7 showed significant anticancer therapeutic efficacy and deep penetration of the micelle into tumor tissues after deshielding, supporting the unique pH-responsive mechanism to treat acidic cancer.
    Journal of Controlled Release 08/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • You Han Bae, David W Grainger
    Journal of Controlled Release 08/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance limited drug penetration that mediated drug resistance and heterogeneity within the tumour microenvironment, we designed a paclitaxel (PTX) loaded degradable cationic nanogel (DpNG) consisted with acetylated pullulan and low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (LowbPEI, 1.8 kDa). The restoration of cationic charge on the DpNG was achieved via HA degradation by hyaluronidase which is secreted in tumour. The size and surface charge of HA-coated DpNG loaded with PTX (HA/DpNG-PTX) was 200-250 nm and 0 mV, respectively. The DpNG-PTX was showed significant cytotoxicity in heterogeneous cancer cells. The IC50 value of DpNG-PTX was 100 times less than that of free PTX. The growth of heterogeneous tumour in Balb/c mice was inhibited via intravenous injection of HA/DpNG-PTX. Furthermore, the invasive distance and amount of HA/DpNG-PTX localised within the deep tissue regions were increased two times than that of PA-PTX. Therefore, the DpNG based drug delivery system could be useful for treatment of heterogeneous tumour.
    Biomaterials 07/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Li Tian, Han Chang Kang, You Han Bae
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the numerous vital functions of proteins in the cytosolic compartment, less attention has been paid to the delivery of protein drugs to the cytosol than to the plasma membrane. To address this issue and effectively deliver charged proteins into the cytoplasm, we used endosomolytic, thiol-triggered degradable polyelectrolytes as carriers. The cationic, reducible polyelectrolyte RPC-bPEI0.8 kDa2 was synthesized by the oxidative polymerization of thiolated branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI). The polymer was converted to the anionic, reducible polyelectrolyte RPA-bPEI0.8 kDa2 by introducing carboxylic acids. The two reducible polyelectrolytes (RPC-bPEI0.8 kDa2 and RPA-bPEI0.8 kDa2) were complexed with counter-charged model proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ)), forming polyelectrolyte/protein complexes of less than 200 nm in size at weight ratios (WR) of ≥1. The resultant complexes maintained a proton buffering capacity nearly equivalent to that of the polyelectrolytes in the absence of protein complexation and were cytocompatible with MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells. Under cytosol-mimicking thiol-rich conditions, RPC-bPEI0.8 kDa2/BSA and RPA-bPEI0.8 kDa2/LYZ complexes increased significantly in size and released the loaded protein, unlike the protein complexes with nonreducible polyelectrolytes (bPEI25 kDa and bPEI25 kDaCOOH). The polyelectrolyte/protein complexes showed cellular uptake similar to that of the corresponding proteins alone, but the former allowed more protein to escape into the cytosol from endolysosomes than the latter as a result of the endosomolytic function of the polyelectrolytes. In addition, the proteins in the polyelectrolyte/protein complexes kept their intrinsic secondary structures. In conclusion, the results show the potential of the designed endosomolytic, reducible polyelectrolytes for the delivery of proteins to the cytosol.
    Biomacromolecules 07/2013; · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyplex formation (complexation) and gene release from the polyplexes (decomplexation) are major events in polymeric gene delivery, however the effect of the decomplexation rate on transfection has been rarely investigated. This study employed mixed polymers of poly(L-lysine) (PLL: MW ~7.4 kDa) and reducible PLL (RPLL) (MW ~6.7 kDa) to design decomplexation rate-controllable PLL100-xRPLLx/pDNA complexes (PRLx polyplexes). The transfection efficiency of a model gene (luciferase) in MCF7 and HEK293 cell lines increased with increasing x (RPLL content) in the PRLx polyplexes until peaking at x=2.5 and x=10, respectively, after which point transfection efficiency declined rapidly. In MCF7 cells, PRL2.5 polyplex produced 3- or 223-fold higher gene expression than PLL or RPLL polyplexes, respectively. Similarly, the transfection efficiency of PRL10 polyplex-transfected HEK293 cells was 3.8- or 67-fold higher than that of PLL or RPLL polyplexes, respectively. The transfection results were not apparently related to the particle size, surface charge, complexation/compactness, cellular uptake, or cytotoxicity of the tested polyplexes. However, the decomplexation rate varied by RPLL content in the polyplexes, which in turn influenced the gene transfection. The nuclear localization of pDNA delivered by PRLx polyplexes showed a similar trend to their transfection efficiencies. This study suggests that an optimum decomplexation rate may result in high nuclear localization of pDNA and transfection. Understanding in decomplexation and intracellular localization of pDNA may help develop more effective polyplexes.
    Biomacromolecules 12/2012; · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • Joseph W Nichols, You Han Bae
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    ABSTRACT: No chemotherapeutic drug can be effective until it is delivered to its target site. Nano-sized drug carriers are designed to transport therapeutic or diagnostic materials from the point of administration to the drug's site of action. This task requires the nanoparticle carrying the drug to complete a journey from the injection site to the site of action. The journey begins with the injection of the drug carrier into the bloodstream and continues through stages of circulation, extravasation, accumulation, distribution, endocytosis, endosomal escape, intracellular localization and-finally-action. Effective nanoparticle design should consider all of these stages to maximize drug delivery to the entire tumor and effectiveness of the treatment.
    Nano Today 12/2012; 7(6):606-618. · 17.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For long-term, sustained protein delivery, a new, star-shaped block copolymer composed of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG), branched oligoethylenimine (bOEI), and poly(l-histidine) (pHis) was synthesized via the multi-initiation and ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of His N-carboxy anhydride (NCA) on bOEI with a PEG conjugation. The resulting mPEG-bOEI-pHis (POH) had strong buffering capacity within the neutral-to-acidic pH range and was complexed with insulin (Ins) via an electrostatic attraction plus hydrophobic interactions, resulting in the formation of a dual-interaction complex (DIC, weight ratio 2) of approximately 30-60 nm in size. This DIC tolerated high salt concentrations without destabilization, supporting the existence of hydrophobic interactions, and protected Ins from the organic solvent/water interface. The DIC in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PLGA MS) as a long-term Ins delivery formulation was evenly distributed via a double-emulsion method. The DIC-loaded PLGA MS offered a higher Ins loading and a lower initial burst than Ins-loaded PLGA MS. This formulation possessed near zero-order release kinetics (for at least one month). In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, a DIC-loaded PLGA MS formulation was able to maintain blood-glucose levels at 200-350 mg/dL for the first two weeks and even lower levels (100-200 mg/dL) for the next two weeks. Thus, a new POH polymer and its complex with a drug protein could have potential biological application as a long-term, sustained protein delivery system.
    Biomaterials 09/2012; 33(34):8848-57. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Motivated by the limitations of liposomal drug delivery systems, we designed a novel histidine-based AB2-miktoarm polymer (mPEG-b-(polyHis)2) equipped with a phospholipid-mimic structure, low cytotoxicity, and pH-sensitivity. Using “core-first” click chemistry and ring-opening polymerization, mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 was successfully synthesized with a narrow molecular weight distribution (1.14). In borate buffer (pH 9), the miktoarm polymer self-assembled to form a nano-sized polymersome with a hydrodynamic radius of 70.2 nm and a very narrow size polydispersity (0.05). At 4.2 μmol per mg polymer, mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 strongly buffered against acidification in the endolysosomal pH range and exhibited low cytotoxicity on 5 days exposure. Below pH 7.4 the polymersome transitioned to cylindrical micelles, spherical micelles, and finally unimers as the pH was decreased. The pH-induced structural transition of mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 nanostructures may be caused by the increasing hydrophilic weight fraction of mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 and can help to disrupt the endosomal membrane through proton buffering and membrane fusion of mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2. In addition, a hydrophilic model dye 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein encapsulated into the aqueous lumen of the polymersome showed a slow, sustained release at pH 7.4 but greatly accelerated release below pH 6.8, indicating a desirable pH sensitivity of the system in the range of endosomal pH. Therefore, this polymersome that is based on a biocompatible histidine-based miktoarm polymer and undergoes acid-induced transformations could serve as a drug delivery vehicle for chemical and biological drugs.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 08/2012; 22(36):19168-19178. · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To overcome the limitations of monomeric pH probes for acidic tumor environments, this study designed a mixed micelle pH probe composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-b-poly(l-histidine) (PHis) and PEG-b-poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), which is well-known as an effective antitumor drug carrier. Unlike monomeric histidine and PHis derivatives, the mixed micelles can be structurally destabilized by changes in pH, leading to a better pH sensing system in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The acidic pH-induced transformation of the mixed micelles allowed pH detection and pH mapping of 0.2-0.3 pH unit differences by pH-induced "on/off"-like sensing of NMR and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The micellar pH probes sensed pH differences in nonbiological phosphate buffer and biological buffers such as cell culture medium and rat whole blood. In addition, the pH-sensing ability of the mixed micelles was not compromised by loaded doxorubicin. In conclusion, PHis-based micelles could have potential as a tool to simultaneously treat and map the pH of solid tumors in vivo.
    Biomacromolecules 08/2012; 13(9):2945-51. · 5.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
933.71 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–2014
    • University of Utah
      • • Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      • • Department of BioEngineering
      • • Center for Controlled Chemical Delivery (CCCD)
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Utah Inha Drug Delivery Systems and Advanced Therapeutics Research Center
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Chemistry Nano Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2005
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Kwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 1999–2004
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • College of Dentistry
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992–1994
    • Universiteit Twente
      Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
  • 1991
    • Waseda University
      • Department of Applied Chemistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan