[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid and accurate response of leukocytes to environmental cues is critical for a proper inflammatory reaction to foreign particles or invading microbes. In the last decade, the signal transduction enzyme phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) has emerged as a critical modulator of leukocyte responses, with its effects spanning from recruitment to the site of inflammation to the production of reactive oxygen species. These findings initially obtained from genetically modified mice have led to the development of experimental anti-inflammatory inhibitors with reasonable selectivity and specificity. While such molecules have not yet reached clinical use, preclinical studies combining genetics and pharmacology continue to provide new therapeutic indications for targeting PI3Kγ. Thus, this review focuses on the latest discoveries regarding PI3Kγ function in leukocytes and on the most recent findings in disease models related to immunity.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 07/2011; 63(9):707-13. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In phagocytes, GTPases of the Rac family control crucial antimicrobial functions. The RacGAP ArhGAP15 negatively modulates Rac activity in leukocytes, but its in vivo role in innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here we show that neutrophils and macrophages derived from mice lacking ArhGAP15 presented higher Rac activity but distinct phenotypes. In macrophages, the loss of ArhGAP15 induced increased cellular elongation and membrane protrusions but did not modify chemotactic responses. Conversely, the lack of ArhGAP15 in neutrophils affected critical Rac-dependent antimicrobial functions, specifically causing enhanced chemotactic responses, straighter directional migration, amplified reactive oxygen species production, increased phagocytosis, and improved bacterial killing. In vivo, in a model of severe abdominal sepsis, these effects contributed to increase neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection, thereby limiting bacterial growth, controlling infection spread, reducing systemic inflammation, and ultimately improving survival in ArhGAP15-null mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate the relevance of ArhGAP15 in the selective regulation of multiple neutrophil functions, suggesting that ArhGAP15 targeting might be beneficial in specific pathologic settings like severe sepsis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reduction of neutrophil migration to the bacterial focus is associated with poor outcome in sepsis.
The objective of this study was to identify soluble substances in the blood of septic mice that inhibit neutrophil migration.
A pool of serum obtained from mice 2 hours after the induction of severe sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture inhibited the neutrophil migration. The proteins with inhibitory activity on neutrophil migration were isolated by Blue-Sepharose chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrophoresis, and identified by mass spectrometry.
Hemopexin was identified as the serum component responsible for the inhibition of neutrophil migration. In sepsis, the pretreatment of wild-type mice with hemopexin inhibited neutrophil migration to the focus of infection and decreased the survival rate from 87.5 to 50.0%. Hemopexin-null mice subjected to severe sepsis presented normal neutrophil migration, low bacteremia, and an improvement of 40% in survival rate. Moreover, hemopexin inhibited the neutrophil chemotaxis response evoked by C5a or macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and induced a reduction of CXCR2 and L-selectin as well as the up-regulation of CD11b expression in neutrophil membranes. The inhibitory effect of hemopexin on neutrophil chemotaxis was prevented by serine protease inhibitors or ATP. In addition, serum levels of ATP were decreased 2 hours after severe sepsis.
These data demonstrate for the first time the inhibitory role of hemopexin in neutrophil migration during sepsis and suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of hemopexin or its protease activity could improve neutrophil migration to the focus of infection and survival in sepsis.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10/2010; 183(7):922-31. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been reported that some members of the PI3K family might have a "double identity"; in other words, PI3K have been found to act not only as classical kinases, but also as scaffolding proteins. Until now, the use of knockout mice has been considered sufficient to model the effects of PI3K inhibition and to predict the outcome of anti-PI3K pharmacological treatments by observing the resulting phenotypes. These studies supported the view that PI3K may represent promising pharmacological targets for cancer and inflammation. However, in selected cases, different experimental strategies of gene targeting of the same locus have resulted in distinct phenotypes. This demonstrates that "knocking-out" a gene is not necessarily equivalent to "knocking-in" an inactivating point mutation (Vanhaesebroeck et al. in Cell 118:274-276, 2004). Specifically, knockout and kinase-dead models have led to the discovery that PI3Kγ and β may act independently of their kinase activity, likely as adaptor proteins.
Current topics in microbiology and immunology 01/2010; 346:171-81. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocytes, like neutrophils and macrophages, are specialized cells evolved to clear infectious pathogens. This function resides at the core of innate immunity and requires a series of concerted events that lead first to migration to the infected tissue and then to the killing of the invading pathogens. Molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are starting to emerge and point to the interplay between two families of crucial proteins: the PI3K lipid kinases and the Rac GTPases. This review focuses on how these two protein families contribute to migration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production, as well as their epistatic and feedback relations that finely tune these crucial aspects of the immune response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) plays a fundamental role in mediating leukocyte migration to inflammation sites. However, the downstream cytoplasmic events triggered by its signaling activity are still largely obscure. To address this issue, tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylated proteins of chemokine-stimulated WT or PI3Kgamma-null macrophages were investigated. Among the proteins analyzed, the intermediate filament vimentin was found as a downstream effector of the PI3Kgamma signaling pathway. Specific analysis of the phosphorylation state of vimentin in macrophages showed that this protein becomes rapidly phosphorylated in both tyrosine and serine residues upon chemokine stimulation. In the absence of PI3Kgamma or the kinase activity of PI3Kgamma (PI3Kgamma(KD/KD)), phosphorylation of vimentin was reduced. PI3Kgamma-null macrophages displayed impaired chemokine-driven vimentin fiber disassembly as well as reduced ability to transmigrate across endothelial cells. While WT macrophages infected with a vimentin mutant resistant to N-terminal serine phosphorylation showed a reduction in transendothelial migration, infection of PI3Kgamma-null macrophages with a vimentin mutant mimicking serine phosphorylation of N-terminal residues rescued the transendothelial migration defect. These results define vimentin N-terminal phosphorylation and fiber reorganization as a target of chemokine-dependent PI3Kgamma signaling in leukocytes.
European Journal of Immunology 04/2009; 39(4):1136-46. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates from T cells and frequently expresses oncogenic fusion proteins derived from chromosomal translocations or inversions of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. The proliferation and survival of ALCL cells are determined by the ALK activity. Here we show that the kinase activity of the nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion regulated the shape of ALCL cells and F-actin filament assembly in a pattern similar to T-cell receptor-stimulated cells. NPM-ALK formed a complex with the guanine exchange factor VAV1, enhancing its activation through phosphorylation. VAV1 increased Cdc42 activity, and in turn, Cdc42 regulated the shape and migration of ALCL cells. In vitro knockdown of VAV1 or Cdc42 by short hairpin RNA, as well as pharmacologic inhibition of Cdc42 activity by secramine, resulted in a cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of ALCL cells. Importantly, the concomitant inhibition of Cdc42 and NPM-ALK kinase acted synergistically to induce apoptosis of ALCL cells. Finally, Cdc42 was necessary for the growth as well as for the maintenance of already established lymphomas in vivo. Thus, our data open perspectives for new therapeutic strategies by revealing a mechanism of regulation of ALCL cell growth through Cdc42.
Cancer Research 12/2008; 68(21):8899-907. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of receptor signal transduction is continuously highlighting new unforeseen potential drug targets for yet unmet therapeutic needs. While the large number of different cell surface receptors challenge the concept of antagonists development, the finding of signal transduction platforms common to multiple receptor families has boosted the development of new therapeutic approaches. The identification of the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase family members downstream receptors as directors of multiple cellular responses ranging from cell proliferation and survival to immunity and cardiovascular control, is an example of successful drug target validation studies. This review will focus on these findings and on the ongoing efforts to tame this family of enzymes to beat inflammation and cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway crucially controls metabolism and cell growth. Although different PI3K catalytic subunits are known to play distinct roles, the specific in vivo function of p110beta (the product of the PIK3CB gene) is not clear. Here, we show that mouse mutants expressing a catalytically inactive PIK3CB(K805R) mutant survived to adulthood but showed growth retardation and developed mild insulin resistance with age. Pharmacological and genetic analyses of p110beta function revealed that p110beta catalytic activity is required for PI3K signaling downstream of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors as well as to sustain long-term insulin signaling. In addition, PIK3CB(K805R) mice were protected in a model of ERBB2-driven tumor development. These findings indicate an unexpected role for p110beta catalytic activity in diabetes and cancer, opening potential avenues for therapeutic intervention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polarization of chemotaxing cells depends on positive feedback loops that amplify shallow gradients of chemoattractants into sharp intracellular responses. In particular, reciprocal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and small GTPases like Rac leads to accumulation, at the leading edge, of the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Mice carrying a "knockin" allele of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-activated PI3Kgamma, encoding a plasma membrane-targeted protein appeared normal, but their leukocytes showed GPCR-uncoupled PIP3 accumulation. In vivo, the mutation increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis, leading to leukocytosis and delayed resolution of inflammation in wound healing. Mutant leukocytes showed significantly impaired directional cell migration in response to chemoattractants. Stimulated mutant macrophages did not polarize PIP3 and showed a shortened Rac activation because of enhanced PI3K-dependent activation of RacGAPs. Together with the finding that chemoattractants stimulate a PIP3-dependent GAP activation in wild-type macrophages, these results identify a molecular mechanism involving PI3K- and RacGAP-dependent negative control of Rac that limits and fine-tunes feedback loops promoting cell polarization and directional motility.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2007; 104(36):14354-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In multicellular organisms, concerted actions of different tissues are regulated inside single cells by signal transduction mechanisms that, subsequently to hormones sensing, trigger intracellular responses. In recent years, increasing evidence indicates phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) as crucial signal transducing elements that regulate communication across the plasma membrane. PI3K generate lipid secondary messengers that trigger a plethora of intracellular responses ranging from metabolic regulation to cell proliferation, survival, and migration. The growing number of hormones that relay signals by activating PI3K suggests not only multiple roles of these enzymes in the regulation of different physiological responses but also a way by which common reactions can be stimulated by different inputs. This review will thus focus on the different pathways that converge on PI3K activation, with particular attention to the paradigmatic PI3K involvement in insulin signaling.
Journal of Endocrinology 09/2007; 194(2):243-56. · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are indispensable for initiation of primary T cell responses and a host's defense against infection. Many proinflammatory stimuli induce DCs to mature (mDCs), but little is known about the ability of chemokines to modulate their maturation. In the present study, we report that CCL16 is a potent maturation factor for monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) through differential use of its four receptors and an indirect regulator of Th cell differentiation. MoDCs induced to mature by CCL16 are characterized by increased expression of CD80 and CD86, MHC class II molecules, and ex novo expression of CD83 and CCR7. They produce many chemokines to attract monocytes and T cells and are also strong stimulators in activating allogeneic T cells to skew toward Th1 differentiation. Interestingly, they are still able to take up Ag and express chemokine receptors usually bound by inflammatory ligands and can be induced to migrate to different sites where they capture Ags. Our findings indicate that induction of MoDC maturation is an important property of CCL16 and suggest that chemokines may not only organize the migration of MoDCs, but also directly regulate their ability to prime T cell responses.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2006; 177(9):6143-51. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concerted activation of leukocytes and vessels shapes multiple physiological and pathological responses. A large number of these processes shares a common signal transduction platform involving the activation of plasma membrane bound G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This event is usually amplified by the production of different intra-cellular second messenger molecules. Among these mediators, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) produced by phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) has recently emerged as a crucial signal in both vascular and white blood cells. The generation of mice lacking PI3Kgamma showed that the GPCR/PI3Kgamma/PIP3 signaling pathway controls diverse immune modulatory and vascular functions like respiratory burst, cell recruitment, mast cell reactivity, platelet aggregation, endothelial activation as well as smooth muscle contractility. The relative specificity of these events suggests that blocking PI3Kgamma function might turn out beneficial for diseases like inflammation, allergy, thrombosis, and major cardiovascular disorders like hypertension, thus offering a wide range of therapeutic opportunities.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2006; 95(1):29-35. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translocations of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene have been described in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) and in stromal tumors. The most frequent translocation, t(2;5), generates the fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Along with transformation, NPM-ALK induces morphologic changes in fibroblasts and lymphoid cells, suggesting a direct role of ALK in cell shaping. In this study, we used a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach to search for proteins involved in cytoskeleton remodeling and identified p130Cas (p130 Crk-associated substrate) as a novel interactor of NPM-ALK. In 293 cells and in fibroblasts as well as in human ALK-positive lymphoma cell lines, NPM-ALK was able to bind p130Cas and to induce its phosphorylation. Both of the effects were dependent on ALK kinase activity and on the adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), since no binding or phosphorylation was found with the kinase-dead mutant NPM-ALK(K210R) or in the presence of a Grb2 dominant-negative protein. Phosphorylation of p130Cas by NPM-ALK was partially independent from Src (tyrosine kinase pp60c-src) kinase activity, as it was still detectable in Syf-/- cells. Finally, p130Cas-/- (also known as Bcar1-/-) fibroblasts expressing NPM-ALK showed impaired actin filament depolymerization and were no longer transformed compared with wild-type cells, indicating an essential role of p130Cas activation in ALK-mediated transformation.