[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) has been widely used as a well-established nonhuman primate (NHP) model for HIV/AIDS research. However, there have been a growing number of studies using Chinese RM to evaluate immunopathogenesis of SIV infection. In this paper, we have for the first time reviewed and discussed the major publications related to SIV or SHIV infection of Chinese RM in the past decades. We have compared the differences in the pathogenesis of SIV infection between Chinese RM and Indian RM with regard to viral infection, immunological response, and host genetic background. Given AIDS is a disease that affects humans of diverse origins, it is of importance to study animals with different geographical background. Therefore, to examine and compare results obtained from RM models of Indian and Chinese origins should lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models for HIV/AIDS research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is one of the key sensors that recognize viral infection/replication in the host cells. Studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH) dysregulated host cell innate immunity and facilitated HIV infection of macrophages. In this study, we present new evidence that METH suppressed TLR9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. Activation of TLR9 by its agonist CpG-ODN 2216 inhibits (HIV) replication, which was demonstrated by increased expression of TLR9, IFN-α, IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) in macrophages. However, METH treatment of macrophages greatly compromised TLR9 signaling-mediated anti-HIV effect and inhibited the expression of TLR9 downstream signaling factors. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists (SCH23390) could block METH-mediated inhibition of anti-HIV activity of TLR9 signaling. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the METH action showed that METH treatment selectively down-regulated the expression of TLR9 on macrophages, whereas it had little effect on the expression of other TLRs. Collectively, our results provide further evidence that METH suppresses host cell innate immunity against HIV infection by down-regulating TLR9 expression and its signaling-mediated antiviral effect in macrophages.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 06/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infiltrating monocytes and macrophages play a crucial role in the progression of HIV-1 infection in the CNS. Previous studies showed that activation of the CB2 can attenuate inflammatory responses and affect HIV-1 infectivity in T cells and microglia. Here, we report that CB2 agonists can also act as immunomodulators on HIV-1-infected macrophages. First, our findings indicated the presence of elevated levels of CB2 expression on monocytes/macrophages in perivascular cuffs of postmortem HIV-1 encephalitic cases. In vitro analysis by FACS of primary human monocytes revealed a step-wise increase in CB2 surface expression in monocytes, MDMs, and HIV-1-infected MDMs. We next tested the notion that up-regulation of CB2 may allow for the use of synthetic CB2 agonist to limit HIV-1 infection. Two commercially available CB2 agonists, JWH133 and GP1a, and a resorcinol-based CB2 agonist, O-1966, were evaluated. Results from measurements of HIV-1 RT activity in the culture media of 7 day-infected cells showed a significant decrease in RT activity when the CB2 agonist was present. Furthermore, CB2 activation also partially inhibited the expression of HIV-1 pol. CB2 agonists did not modulate surface expression of CXCR4 or CCR5 detected by FACS. We speculate that these findings indicate that prevention of viral entry is not a central mechanism for CB2-mediated suppression in viral replication. However, CB2 may affect the HIV-1 replication machinery. Results from a single-round infection with the pseudotyped virus revealed a marked decrease in HIV-1 LTR activation by the CB2 ligands. Together, these results indicate that CB2 may offer a means to limit HIV-1 infection in macrophages.
Journal of leukocyte biology 03/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD56+ T cells, the crucial component of the host innate immune system, play an important role in defense against viral infections. We investigated the noncytolytic anti-HIV-1 activity of primary CD56+ T cells. SNs collected from CD56+ T cell cultures inhibited HIV-1 infection and replication. This CD56+ T SN-mediated anti-HIV-1 activity was broad-spectrum, as CD56+ T SNs could inhibit infections by laboratory-adapted and clinical strains of HIV-1. The antibody to IFN-γ could partially block the CD56+ T SN-mediated anti-HIV effect. Investigation of mechanism(s) of the CD56+ T cell action on HIV-1 showed that although CD56+ T SN had little effect on HIV-1 entry coreceptor CCR5 expression, CD56+ T SN induced the expression of CC-chemokines, the ligands for CCR5. The antibodies to CC-chemokines also significantly blocked CD56+ T SN-mediated anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, CD56+ T SN up-regulated the expression of STAT-1/-2 and enhanced the expression of IRF1, -3, -7, and -9, resulting in the induction of endogenous IFN-α/β expression in macrophages. Moreover, CD56+ T SN up-regulated intracellular expression of APOBEC3G/3F, the recently identified HIV-1 restriction factors. These findings provide compelling evidence that CD56+ T cells may have a critical role in innate immunity against HIV-1 infection.
Journal of leukocyte biology 05/2012; 92(2):343-51. · 4.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon lambda 3 (IFN-λ3) is a newly identified cytokine with antiviral activity, and its single nucleotide polymorphisms are strongly associated with the treatment effectiveness and development of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. We thus examined the potential of IFN-λ3 to inhibit HIV replication and the possible mechanisms of the anti-HIV action by IFN-λ3 in human macrophages.
Under different conditions (before, during, and after HIV infection), IFN-λ3 significantly inhibited viral replication in macrophages, which was associated with the induction of multiple antiviral cellular factors (ISG56, MxA, OAS-1, A3G/F and tetherin) and IFN regulatory factors (IRF-1, 3, 5, 7 and 9). This anti-HIV action of IFN-λ3 could be compromised by the JAK-STAT inhibitor. In addition, IFN-λ3 treatment of macrophages induced the expression of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and two key adaptors (MyD88 and TRIF) in type I IFN pathway activation. However, HIV infection compromised IFN-λ3-mediated induction of the key elements in JAK-STAT signaling pathway.
These data indicate that IFN-λ3 exerts its anti-HIV function by activating JAK-STAT pathway-mediated innate immunity in macrophages. Future in vivo studies are necessary in order to explore the potential for developing IFN-λ3-based therapy for HIV disease.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35902. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same modes of transmission and common risk factors for infection, co-infections with HIV and HCV are frequently found in injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs represent one of the largest reservoirs of HIV as well as HCV in the United States. These two pathogens are also likely to be responsible for the highest infectious disease morbidity and mortality rates among IDUs. IDUs frequently involve the abuse of heroin, the most common abused opiate. Opiates have been suggested to have a cofactor role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV disease, as they have the potential to compromise host immune responses and enhances microbial infections. Although in vitro studies have yielded relatively agreeable data that morphine, the active metabolite of heroin, exacerbate HIV infection/replication, epidemiologic studies as well as in vivo non-human primate investigations on the impact of opiate abuse on HIV disease progression have yielded the conflicting data. Given immunomodulation and immunocompromising effect as well as demonstrated impact to enhance HIV replication in vitro, it is reasonable to believe that opiate abuse is a facilitator in HIV and/or HCV disease progression. However, much remain to be learned about the mechanisms of opiate-mediated broad influence on host immunity and viral expression. Thus, more extensive studies are needed in order to determine the effects of different conditions of opiate abuse and to define the understanding of the role of opiate in modulating HIV and/or HCV disease progression.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 07/2011; 6(4):477-89. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can activate immune cells including macrophages. Activation of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to neuronal injury. Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether BBI has the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated macrophage activation, reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent neurotoxicity in primary cortical neural cultures.
Mixed cortical neural cultures from rat were used as target cells for testing neurotoxicity induced by LPS-treated macrophage supernatant. Neuronal survival was measured using a cell-based ELISA method for expression of the neuronal marker MAP-2. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages was measured via 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH2DA) oxidation. Cytokine expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR.
LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and of ROS. In contrast, BBI pretreatment (1-100 μg/ml) of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines and ROS. Further, supernatant from BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. BBI, when directly added to the neuronal cultures (1-100 μg/ml), had no protective effect on neurons with or without LPS-activated macrophage supernatant treatment. In addition, BBI (100 μg/ml) had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-mediated neurotoxicity.
These findings demonstrate that BBI, through its anti-inflammatory properties, protects neurons from neurotoxicity mediated by activated macrophages.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2011; 8:15. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can activate immune cells including macrophages. Activation of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to neuronal injury. Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether BBI has the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated macrophage activation, reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent neurotoxicity in primary cortical neural cultures. Methods Mixed cortical neural cultures from rat were used as target cells for testing neurotoxicity induced by LPS-treated macrophage supernatant. Neuronal survival was measured using a cell-based ELISA method for expression of the neuronal marker MAP-2. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages was measured via 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH2DA) oxidation. Cytokine expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and of ROS. In contrast, BBI pretreatment (1-100 μg/ml) of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines and ROS. Further, supernatant from BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures was found to be less cytotoxic to neurons than that from non-BBI-pretreated and LPS-activated macrophage cultures. BBI, when directly added to the neuronal cultures (1-100 μg/ml), had no protective effect on neurons with or without LPS-activated macrophage supernatant treatment. In addition, BBI (100 μg/ml) had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that BBI, through its anti-inflammatory properties, protects neurons from neurotoxicity mediated by activated macrophages.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 01/2011; · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several micro RNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to inhibit HIV replication in target cells. Thus, we investigated the impact of opioids (morphine and heroin), widely abused drugs among people infected with HIV, on the expression of cellular anti-HIV miRNAs in monocytes. We found that morphine-treated monocytes expressed lower levels of cellular anti-HIV miRNAs than untreated cells. In addition, morphine treatment of monocytes compromised type I interferon (IFN)-induced anti-HIV miRNA expression. These findings paralleled the observation that morphine treatment of monocytes enhanced HIV replication. These morphine-mediated actions on the anti-HIV miRNAs and HIV could be antagonized by the opioid receptor antagonists (naltrexone or Cys2, Tyr3, Arg5, Pen7-amide). Furthermore, the in vitro impact of morphine on miRNA expression was confirmed by the in vivo observation that heroin-dependent subjects had significantly lower levels of anti-HIV miRNAs (miRNA-28, 125b, 150, and 382) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than the healthy subjects. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that opioid use impairs intracellular innate anti-HIV mechanism(s) in monocytes, contributing to cell susceptibility to HIV infection.
American Journal Of Pathology 01/2011; 178(1):41-7. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV disease progression is mixed, in vitro studies as well as studies using in vivo animal models have indicated that drugs of abuse have the ability to enhance HIV infection/replication. Drugs of abuse may also be a risk factor for perinatal transmission of HIV. Because high levels of viral load in maternal blood are associated with increased risk of HIV vertical transmission, it is likely that drugs of abuse play an important role in promoting mother-fetus transmission. Furthermore, because the neonatal immune system differs qualitatively from the adult system, it is possible that maternal exposure to drugs of abuse would exacerbate neonatal immunity defects, facilitating HIV infection of neonate immune cells and promoting HIV vertical transmission. The availability and use of antiretroviral therapy for women infected with HIV increase, there is an increasing interest in determining the impact of drug abuse on efficacy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)-standardized treatment regimens for woman infected with HIV in the context of HIV vertical transmission.
Life sciences 11/2010; 88(21-22):972-9. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common communicable infectious disease worldwide and the top killer of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people. Because of common dual HIV and M. tuberculosis infections, the emergence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, the lack of effective vaccination, the morbidity, and the mortality of M. tuberculosis infection are increasing sharply. Therefore, there is an urgent need for vaccine and drug development against M. tuberculosis infection. These require appropriate animal models that closely resemble human disease. To this end, we infected Chinese rhesus macaques with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Bronchoscopy was used to inoculate nine monkeys with different doses of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Regardless of the M. tuberculosis dose, all monkeys were infected successfully. This was shown by clinical, laboratory, and histopathology assessments. Among nine infected monkeys, six developed acute rapid progressive tuberculosis and the remaining animals mirrored early-stage chronic disease. These data, taken together, demonstrate that Chinese rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to M. tuberculosis infection and develop similar manifestations of disease that are seen in humans. This model affords new opportunities for studies of M. tuberculosis disease pathology and therapeutics.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 10/2010; 6(3):362-70. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The newly identified type III interferon (IFN-lambda) has antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. We thus examined whether IFN-lambda has the ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of blood monocyte-derived macrophages that expressed IFN-lambda receptors. Both IFN-lambda1 and IFN-lambda2, when added to macrophage cultures, inhibited HIV-1 infection and replication. This IFN-lambda-mediated anti-HIV-1 activity is broad, as IFN-lambda could inhibit infection by both laboratory-adapted and clinical strains of HIV-1. Investigations of the mechanism(s) responsible for the IFN-lambda action showed that although IFN-lambda had little effect on HIV-1 entry coreceptor CCR5 expression, IFN-lambda induced the expression of CC chemokines, the ligands for CCR5. In addition, IFN-lambda upregulated intracellular expression of type I IFNs and APOBEC3G/3F, the newly identified anti-HIV-1 cellular factors. These data provide direct and compelling evidence that IFN-lambda, through both extracellular and intracellular antiviral mechanisms, inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages. These findings indicate that IFN-lambda may have therapeutic value in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Journal of Virology 03/2009; 83(8):3834-42. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists suppress HIV-1 infection of macrophages in vitro. We have further investigated the anti-HIV-1 activity of aprepitant, a Food and Drug Administration-approved NK-1R antagonist, and its cytotoxic effect in the macrophage/microglia system. Aprepitant inhibited infection of macrophages with primary HIV-1 R5 strains (subtypes A, D, and H; UG275, BZ163, and BCF-KITA), while it had little effect on primary HIV-1 X4 strains (subtypes B and D, BZ167 and SE365). Aprepitant, when added to microglia cultures infected with CSF-derived HIV-1 strains (JAGO or JRFL), significantly inhibited viral replication. Aprepitant also enhanced the anti-HIV-1 activity of enfuvirtide (an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor) in HIV-1-infected macrophages. Over a concentration range of 10(-9) to 10(-5) M, aprepitant had little cytotoxic effect (less than 10%) on macrophages during the in vitro cultures. Autologous human serum (< or =20%) had little effect on the anti-HIV-1 activity of aprepitant in macrophages. These observations provide additional evidence to support the potential use of NK-1R antagonists as therapeutic and immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 12/2008; 3(4):257-64. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) has recently been identified as a potent antiviral protein. Here, we examined the expression and regulation of APOBEC3G in human brain tissues and the cells of central nervous system (CNS). Similar to the immune cells, human brain tissue and the CNS cells expressed APOBEC3G at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of APOBEC3G could be up-regulated in human neuronal cells (NT2-N) and astrocytes (U87-MG) by interferons (IFN-alpha, beta and gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor. Other cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta1) and CC-chemokines (CCL3, 4 and 5), however, had little impact on the expression of APOBEC3G. In addition, pseudotyped HIV-1 infection and cytokine/chemokine-enriched supernatants from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cultures induced APOBEC3G expression in NT2-N cells. APOBEC3G expressed in the neuronal cells and astrocytes was biologically functional, as the suppression of APOBEC3G expression by the specific siRNA led to increase of pseudotyped HIV-1 replication in these cells. These findings provide direct and compelling evidence that there is intracellular expression and regulation of functional APOBEC3G in the neuronal cells, which may be one of innate defense mechanisms involved in the neuronal protection in the CNS.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 12/2008; 206(1-2):14-21. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although both monocytes and macrophages possess essential requirements for HIV-1 entry, peripheral blood monocytes are infrequently infected with HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, tissue macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro are highly susceptible to infection with HIV-1 R5 tropic strains. We investigated intracellular anti-HIV-1 factors that contribute to differential susceptibility of monocytes/macrophages to HIV-1 infection. Freshly isolated monocytes from peripheral blood had significantly higher levels of the anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (miRNA, miRNA-28, miRNA-150, miRNA-223, and miRNA-382) than monocyte-derived macrophages. The suppression of these anti-HIV-1 miRNAs in monocytes facilitates HIV-1 infectivity, whereas increase of the anti-HIV-1 miRNA expression in macrophages inhibited HIV-1 replication. These findings provide compelling and direct evidence at the molecular level to support the notion that intracellular anti-HIV-1 miRNA-mediated innate immunity may have a key role in protecting monocytes/macrophages from HIV-1 infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the majority of heroin abusers use injection as the primary route of admission, heroin abuse contributes significantly to the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We determined HCV infection and its genotype distribution among injection heroin users in Wuhan, the largest city in the central China. Eight hundred seventy-eight (84%) out of 1046 serum specimens from the injection drug users were positive for HCV antibody. Out of randomly selected 122 specimens positive for HCV antibody, seventy-eight (64%) had detectable HCV RNA with genotype 6a as the predominant strain (50%), followed by 3b (32.2%), 1a (8.1%), 1b (6.5%), and 3a (3.2%). HCV RNA levels in male heroin users were significantly higher (P=0.013) than those in the female subjects. Although there was no significant difference in HCV RNA levels among the specimens positive for HCV 6a and 1a/1b, the samples with 6a or 1a/1b contained higher levels of HCV RNA than the specimens positive for HCV 3b (P=0.019, P=0.012, respectively). These findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of HCV infection with genotypes 6a and 3b as predominated strains among injection heroin users in Wuhan, China.
Virus Research 08/2008; 135(1):191-6. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) not only plays a key role in innate host immunity against infections but also is involved in the cellular functions of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we examined the impact of morphine on IFN-alpha expression in human neuronal cells (NT2-N). Similar to human immune cells, NT2-N cells also expressed IFN-alpha at both mRNA and protein levels. IFN-alpha expression in NT2-N cells, however, was inhibited by morphine. Naltrexone antagonized the inhibitory effect of morphine on IFN-alpha expression in NT2-N cells. The specific mu opioid receptor antagonist, Cys2, Tyr3, Arg5, Pen7-amide (CTAP), also blocked the morphine action on intracellular IFN-alpha expression. Investigation of the mechanisms involved in the morphine action showed that although morphine had little effect on the expression of key IFN regulatory factors (IRFs), morphine inhibited IFN-alpha promoter activation and suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in the neuronal cells. These findings provide direct in vitro evidence that opioids may impair neuronal cell-mediated innate protection in the CNS.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 07/2008; 199(1-2):1-9. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (meth), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. However, there is a lack of direct evidence that meth promotes HIV infection of target cells. This study examined whether meth is able to enhance HIV infection of macrophages, the primary target site for the virus. Meth treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase of HIV reverse transcriptase activity in human blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Dopamine D1 receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and SKF83566) blocked this meth-mediated increase in the HIV infectivity of macrophages. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of meth action showed that meth up-regulated the expression of the HIV entry co-receptor CCR5 on macrophages. Additionally, meth inhibited the expression of endogenous interferon-alpha and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 in macrophages. These findings provide direct in vitro evidence to support the possibility that meth may function as a cofactor in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection and may lead to the future development of innate immunity-based intervention for meth users with HIV infection.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2008; 172(6):1617-24. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human astrovirus is one of the important causes for viral gastroenteritis in young children. In previous study where we examined the molecular epidemiology of human astrovirus (HAstV) infection in infants in Wuhan City, we isolated and identified a new subtype (WH1859) of HAstV genotype 3 from an infant with diarrhea. The sequence analysis of this strain showed that the complete region of ORF2 of WH1859 contains 2385-bp of nucleotides that encode 795 amino acids. Because WH1859 strain has the identity of less than 95% with the distance of more than 0.05 to the reference strains of HAstV-3, WH1859 represents a distinct subtype within HAstV-3 strains. Further studies are needed to determine the role of this new subtype strain of HAstV in viral gastroenteritis among young children.