[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. Methods: HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. Results: The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. Conclusions: The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine 10/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2013; 57(4):535-542. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Human milk confers health benefits of vital importance for the sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Mother's own milk is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and every effort should be made to promote lactation. When mother's milk is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. Yet, occasionally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised. The present data collection planned by the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) in collaboration with the Italian Neonatal Network (INN) attempted to address this concern. A total of 4277 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from 83 Italian NICUs were evaluated for this comparative analysis. The 83 Italian NICUs were divided into two groups: centers with a human milk bank (HMB) and centers without a HMB; the available parameters in the network - "any and exclusive breastfeeding rates" and "exclusive formula rate" at discharge - were compared. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was significantly higher in NICUs with a HMB than in NICUs without (29.6% vs. 16.0%, respectively). Any breastfeeding rate at discharge tended to be higher in the NICUs with HMB (60.4% vs. 52.8%, P=0.09), and exclusive formula rate was lower in the NICUs with HMB (26.5% vs. 31.3%), but this difference was not significant. This report shows that the presence of a HMB and the use of DHM in NICU are associated with increased breastfeeding rate at discharge from the hospital for VLBW infants.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine 11/2012; · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of prolonged refrigeration of fresh human milk (HM) on its fatty acid profile, free fatty acid content, lipase activities and oxidative status. METHODS:: Human milk from mothers of pre-term newborns was collected, pooled and placed in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) refrigerator. Pooled milk was aliquoted and analyzed within 3 hours of collection, and after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of storage. The milk samples were analysed for pH, total and free fatty acid profile, lipase activity at room temperature and at 4°C, lipase activity at room temperature in presence of sodium cholate (BSDL), total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, malondialdehyde and conjugated diene concentration. The experiment was replicated in three independent trials. RESULTS:: Prolonged refrigeration did not affect the fatty acid composition of breast milk, and preserved both its overall oxidative status and the activity of HM lipolytic enzymes. In particular, BSDL activity, LC-PUFAs and medium chain saturated fatty acid concentrations were unaffected for up to 96h of refrigerated storage. CONCLUSION:: Prolonged refrigeration of fresh human milk for 96 hours maintained its overall lipid composition. The limited lipolysis during storage should be ascribed to the activity of lipoprotein lipase, responsible for the decrease in pH. Our study demonstrates that infants who receive expressed milk stored for up to 96h receive essentially the same supply of fatty acids and active lipases as do infants fed directly at the breast.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 11/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preterm infants fed fortified human milk in standard fashion receive less protein than they need due to customary assumptions. Protein is limiting for growth and neurocognitive development,and shortfalls of protein are not acceptable. Adjustable fortification regimen has been proven as an effective way to provide adequate protein intakes and appropriate growth in this group of infants. Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) has promoted and implemented this Adjustable fortification regimen in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with success. This paper presents an update of Adjustable fortification regimen; a new protocol already utilized in several italian NICUs.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2012; · 5.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
A mixture of neutral prebiotic oligosaccharides has been shown to reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergy associated symptoms during the first 2 years of life.
To evaluate if this protective effect against allergy lasted beyond the intervention period until 5 y of age.
In a prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled fashion, healthy term infants at risk of atopy were fed either a prebiotic-supplemented (0.8 g/100 ml scGOS/lcFOS) or placebo-supplemented (0.8 g/100 ml maltodextrin) hypoallergenic formula during the first 6 mo of life. Following this intervention period, follow-up continued until 5 y of life. The present study evaluated (i) the cumulative incidence of allergic manifestations during 5 y, and (ii) the prevalence of allergic and persistent allergic manifestations at 5 y. Monitored allergic manifestations were AD, recurrent wheezing, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria.
Ninety-two children (50 in placebo group, 42 in intervention group) completed the 5-y follow-up. The 5-y cumulative incidences of any allergic manifestation and atopic dermatitis were significantly lower in the scGOS/lcFOS group (30.9, 19.1 %, respectively) compared to placebo group (66, 38 %, respectively) (p< 0.01 and< 0.05). Children in the scGOS/lcFOS group tended to have a lower incidence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and allergic urticaria (4.8 vs 16% for both manifestations, p=0.08). There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of recurrent wheezing. With regard to the prevalences at 5 y, intervention group had significantly lower prevalence of any persistent allergic manifestation and rhinoconjunctivitis (4.8, 2.4 %, respectively) compared to placebo (26, 14 %, respectively) (p < 0.01 and =0.05). Prevalence of persistent AD tended to be lower in the intervention group (2.4 vs 12%, p= 0.09). Although intervention group had 75% reduction in the prevalence of persistent wheezing (4.8 vs 14 %), no significance was shown.
Oligosaccharide prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS), when started early in life have a protective effect against allergic manifestations in high risk infants. The protection lasts beyond infancy until 5 y of life, for AD and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Long-term follow-up studies in larger populations are warranted to evaluate the potential preventive effect of this mixture on asthma.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2012; · 5.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prebiotic oligosaccharides influence the intestinal microbiota and can positively modulate the infant's immune system. It was demonstrated that a special prebiotic mixture (Immunofortis(®)) of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) can reduce the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infants at risk for allergy as determined using the AD symptom score (SCORAD). Additionally, it was shown very recently that immunoglobulin free light-chain (Ig-fLC) might be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic disease. Increased Ig-fLC concentrations were found in patients suffering from AD, cow's milk allergy, allergic rhinitis, or asthma. In this study, the effect of supplementation of scGOS/lcFOS on the Ig-fLC plasma concentrations in infants at risk for allergy was assessed. The plasma kappa and lambda Ig-fLC concentrations were measured in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, in which infants at risk for developing allergic disease received a hypoallergenic whey formula containing 8 g/l of the scGOS/lcFOS mixture (n = 34) or maltodextrin as a placebo (n=40) for 6 months. After intervention, plasma samples were collected, and total plasma concentrations of lambda and kappa Ig-fLC were analyzed using ELISA. Total kappa and lambda Ig-fLC plasma concentrations were higher in infants suffering from AD when compared to infants without any sign of AD. In infants receiving the prebiotic mixture, the Ig-fLC levels were significantly lower compared to the placebo-fed infants (p<0.001). Interestingly, lambda Ig-fLC concentrations were positively correlated with total IgE (p<0.05). These data demonstrate for the first time that the specific scGOS/lcFOS mixture lowered kappa and lambda Ig-fLC plasma concentrations in infants at high risk for allergies when compared to infants receiving placebo formula. Because Ig-fLC concentrations were increased in infants suffering from AD, this may have contributed, at least in part, to the reduced incidence in AD as described previously. This suggests a possible role for Ig-fLC in the pathophysiology of AD in infants at risk for allergy development.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 08/2011; 22(5):537-42. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organization of the sleep states and a normal sleep pattern in the neonatal period and early infancy is essential for brain development and plasticity. The establishment of a consolidated circadian sleep-wake cycle occurs between 1 and 4 months of life in term infants. This period may be even longer for preterm infants who are exposed to relentless interventions in neonatal intensive care units. The sleep should be respected and protected.
Human milk (HM) contains bioactive sleep-promoting components, and recent evidence shows that some of these components show circadian oscillations. This article reviews the existing evidence regarding the role of these HM components on sleep. This topic is prefaced with a brief information about the basic concepts concerning sleep. Consecutively, chronobiotic and chrononutrition concepts are introduced.
Melatonin, tryptophan, nucleosides/nucleotides, and vitamin B12 are components of HM that have sleep-promoting characteristics. The sleep-inducing effects of these components are well-established in animal and adult human studies. Interestingly, melatonin, tryptophan, and 5′-adenosine monophosphate and 5′-guanosine monophosphate nucleotides in HM have been shown to exhibit also circadian oscillations. Although 5′-uridine monophosphate does not have a circadian rhythm, its levels increase during the night.
HM has a potential to function as a “synchronizer,” helping the infant to consolidate a circadian sleep-wake cycle, thanks to its several bioactive components with chronobiotic characteristics. Research is warranted to address gaps in this field, such as the association between the circadian oscillations of the sleep-promoting factors in HM and the quantity/quality of infant sleep.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine 01/2011; 40(1):1-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.
Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2011; 3:818-29.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most infants developing atopic dermatitis have a low risk for atopy. Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis is difficult.
To assess the effect of supplementation of an infant and follow-on formula with prebiotic and immunoactive oligosaccharides on the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life.
Healthy term infants from 5 European countries with low atopy risk were recruited before the age of 8 weeks, either having started with formula feeding or being on full breast-feeding (breast-feeding group). Formula-fed infants were randomized to feeding with a regular formula containing a specific mixture of neutral oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (prebiotic formula group) or regular formula without oligosaccharides (control formula group).
A total of 414 infants were randomized to the prebiotic group and 416 infants to the control group. A total of 300 infants were followed in the breast-feeding group. Up to the first birthday, atopic dermatitis occurred in significantly fewer infants from the prebiotic group (5.7%) than from the control group (9.7%; P = .04). The cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis in the prebiotic group was in the low range of the breast-feeding group (7.3%). In a Cox regression model, the rate of atopic dermatitis was significantly lower by 44% in the prebiotic group versus the control group (P = .04). The number needed to prevent 1 case of atopic dermatitis by supplementation of prebiotics was 25 infants.
Formula supplementation with a specific mixture of oligosaccharides was effective as primary prevention of atopic dermatitis in low atopy risk infants.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2010; 126(4):791-7. · 9.17 Impact Factor
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 09/2010; 23 Suppl 2:1-20. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cow's milk allergy (CMA) affects 2.5% of young infants. In previous murine studies it was observed that allergic sensitization to the major cow's milk allergens casein and whey led, respectively, to IgE-independent and IgE-dependent clinical responses.
In this study the involvement of immunoglobulin free light chains (Ig-fLCs) in the hypersensitivity response to cow's milk proteins was explored in mice, and Ig-fLC serum levels were determined in children affected by CMA or atopic dermatitis (AD).
Mice were orally sham, casein, or whey sensitized. Acute allergen-specific skin responses were determined, and serum immunoglobulin and Ig-fLC concentrations were measured. Ig-fLC dependency was validated by using the Ig-fLC blocker F991 in actively and passively sensitized mice. Ig-fLC serum concentrations were measured in a cohort of infants with CMA and infants with AD.
After sensitization, no specific IgE was detectable in sera of casein-sensitized mice, whereas specific IgE levels were enhanced in whey-sensitized mice. Instead, Ig-fLC levels were increased in sera from casein-sensitized mice. Furthermore, blocking Ig-fLCs strongly diminished the allergic skin responses not only in casein-sensitized mice but also in mice transferred with splenocyte supernatants of casein-sensitized mice. In both patients with CMA and patients with AD, serum Ig-fLC concentrations were significantly enhanced.
This study indicates that sensitization with cow's milk proteins can lead to both IgE-dependent and Ig-fLC-dependent allergic hypersensitivity responses. Also, in children affected with CMA or AD, serum Ig-fLC concentrations were increased, implying the relevance of Ig-fLC measurements in the diagnoses of human allergic disease.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 06/2010; 125(6):1308-14. · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In preterm infants, feeding with human milk (HM) is a very effective intervention for the prevention of infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and for potentially improved neurocognitive and cardiovascular outcomes in the long-term. Hospitals and physicians are advised to recommend HM for preterm and other high-risk infants either by direct breastfeeding and/or using the mother's own expressed milk. Donor HM is the preferred feeding when the mother's own milk is not available in sufficient quantity. While in some countries donor HM has been considered an effective tool in the delivery of health care to infants, skepticism regarding its nutritional and immunological quality has limited its distribution in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the clinical benefits of donor HM in preterm infants, and to discuss common concerns limiting its distribution as standard care. Clinically, the use of donor HM has been shown to prevent NEC, reduce feeding intolerance and improve long-term outcomes in premature infants. Common concerns, such as slow growth and loss of important biological components of donor HM due to storage and pasteurization, should not be a reason for denial of donor milk. Optimization of banking procedures and of HM fortification is available and should be applied. Banked donor milk should be promoted as standard component of health care for premature infants.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine 05/2010; 38(4):347-51. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preterm infants fed fortified human milk (HM) in standard (STD) fashion grow slower than preterm formula fed infants. Recently, low protein intake has been proven to be the primary limiting factor responsible for this growth failure. The main reason of protein undernutrition despite fortification is that STD fortification is based on the customary assumptions about the composition of HM. However, the protein concentration of preterm HM is variable and decreases with the duration of lactation. Also, the protein concentration of banked donor milk, which is most often provided by mothers of term infants, is likely to be lower. Hence, most of the HM fed to preterm infants during the fortification period is likely to have an inadequately low protein concentration. This hypothesis has been confirmed very recently by comparing the assumed and actual protein intakes in preterm infants fed fortified HM. Novel fortification models have been devised to deal with the problem of ongoing protein undernutrition. Individualized fortification is the recommended method to optimize HM fortification. There are two models of individualization: "adjustable fortification" and "targeted fortification". Both ways are feasible and effective in improving protein intakes and growth. Adjustable fortification has the advantage of being practical and avoids excessive protein intakes.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine 02/2010; 38(3):233-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the actual nutrient intakes observed in a previously reported study with assumed nutrient intakes based on the customary assumptions about the composition of human milk.
Fortified human milk is assumed to provide adequate amounts of nutrients for premature infants. This assumption holds if milk has the composition of milk expressed by mothers of premature infants during weeks 2 to 3 of lactation. The assumption does not necessarily hold for milk expressed after 2 to 3 weeks lactation. It also does not hold for donor milk, which is typically provided by mothers of term infants. The size of the disparity between assumed and actual nutrient intakes is not known. Actual nutrient intakes were available for 32 preterm infants participating in the study. Assumed nutrient intakes were calculated for these infants by substituting assumed nutrient concentrations for observed nutrient concentrations. Data were compared separately for each of the 3 study weeks.
Actual protein intakes were significantly and consistently lower than assumed protein intakes during each study week. The differences in mean intakes were large, ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 g kg(-1) per day. Differences in energy intake were small and not consistently significant.
Actual intakes of protein by preterm infants fed fortified human milk are substantially lower than assumed intakes. The discrepancy may in part explain why preterm infants frequently show postnatal growth failure.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 06/2009; 29(7):489-92. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast-feeding is associated with several benefits. Among them, the balanced postnatal development of the immune system is 1 of the key functions of breast-feeding. Although this effect is of multifactorial origin, it is widely accepted that the entire intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants represents an important stimulating factor of the postnatal development of the immune system. The effect of breast-feeding on the intestinal microbiota can not be attributed to a single compound, but there is accumulating evidence that human milk oligosaccharides play a crucial role. Because there is a broad consensus that the intestinal microbiota plays an important physiological role for the host, many attempts have been made to influence the intestinal flora by dietary interventions. This article summarizes results of intervention studies in which nonmilk oligosaccharides have been used to mimic the prebiotic effect of breast-feeding. A second focus has been related to the question of whether the prebiotic activity has beneficial effects on the postnatal development of the immune system. The data clearly demonstrate that prebiotics of nonmilk origin can mimic the prebiotic effect of breast-feeding, and this has positive consequences for the postnatal development of the immune system.
Journal of Nutrition 10/2008; 138(9):1818S-1828S. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mixture of neutral short-chain galactooligosaccharides (scGOS) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (lcFOS) has been shown to reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and infectious episodes during the first 6 mo of life. This dual protection occurred through the intervention period. The present study evaluated if these protective effects were lasting beyond the intervention period. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, healthy term infants with a parental history of atopy were fed either a prebiotic-supplemented (8 g/L scGOS/lcFOS) or placebo-supplemented (8 g/L maltodextrin) hypoallergenic formula during the first 6 mo of life. Following this intervention period, blind follow-up continued until 2 y of life. Primary endpoints were cumulative incidence of allergic manifestations. Secondary endpoints were number of infectious episodes and growth. Of 152 participants, 134 infants (68 in placebo, 66 in intervention group) completed the follow-up. During this period, infants in the scGOS/lcFOS group had significantly lower incidence of allergic manifestations. Cumulative incidences for AD, recurrent wheezing, and allergic urticaria were higher in the placebo group, (27.9, 20.6, and 10.3%, respectively) than in the intervention group (13.6, 7.6, and 1.5%) (P < 0.05). Infants in the scGOS/lcFOS group had fewer episodes of physician-diagnosed overall and upper respiratory tract infections (P < 0.01), fever episodes (P < 0.00001), and fewer antibiotic prescriptions (P < 0.05). Growth was normal and similar in both groups. Early dietary intervention with oligosaccharide prebiotics has a protective effect against both allergic manifestations and infections. The observed dual protection lasting beyond the intervention period suggests that an immune modulating effect through the intestinal flora modification may be the principal mechanism of action.
Journal of Nutrition 06/2008; 138(6):1091-5. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was evaluated in preterm infants, in terms of its potential impact on fat absorption, advancement of enteral feeding, development of cholestasis, growth, nutritional status, and metabolic status. Although fecal fat excretion slightly decreased and achievement of full enteral feeding was earlier in the UDCA group, these differences were not significant. Interestingly, whereas serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity increased during the parenteral nutrition period in the placebo group, we observed a constant and significant decrease in the UDCA group. This observation warrants further investigation to determine the utility of prophylactic UDCA in preventing cholestasis in infants with prolonged parenteral nutrition.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 03/2008; 46(2):228-31. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mixture of neutral short chain galactooligosaccharides and long chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) has been shown to have prebiotic and immunomodulatory effects comparable to human milk oligosaccharides. This can be translated into clinical practice as a potential to prevent infections and allergy. The hypothesis of this study was that this specific prebiotic mixture could have a preventive effect against infections during the first 6 mo of life. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy term infants with a parental history of atopy were fed either prebiotic-supplemented (8 g/L scGOS/lcFOS) or placebo-supplemented (8 g/L maltodextrin) hypoallergenic formula during the first 6 mo of life. The primary outcome measures were infectious episodes, number of infections requiring antibiotics, and incidence of infections. During the study period, infants in the scGOS/lcFOS group had fewer episodes of all types of infections combined (P = 0.01). They also tended to have fewer upper respiratory tract infection episodes (P = 0.07) and fewer infections requiring antibiotic treatment (P = 0.10). Similarly, the cumulative incidence of recurring infections was significantly lower in the scGOS/lcFOS group. The cumulative incidence of any recurring infection and recurring respiratory infections was 3.9 and 2.9% in the scGOS/lcFOS group and 13.5 and 9.6% in the placebo group, respectively (P < 0.05). Oligosaccharide prebiotics reduced the number of infectious episodes and the incidence of recurring, particularly respiratory, infections during the first 6 mo of life. Although the exact mechanism of action is under investigation, it is very likely that the immune modulating effect of this prebiotic mixture through intestinal flora modification is the principal mechanism for the observed infection prevention early in life.
Journal of Nutrition 11/2007; 137(11):2420-4. · 4.20 Impact Factor