[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first report on the environmental occurrence of a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (locally called F-53B, C 8 ClF 16 O 4 SK). It has been widely applied as a mist suppressant by the chrome plating industry in China for decades but has evaded the attention of environmental research and regulation. In this study, F-53B was found in high concentrations (43−78 and 65−112 μg/L for the effluent and influent, respectively) in wastewater from the chrome plating industry in the city of Wenzhou, China. F-53B was not successfully removed by the wastewater treatments in place. Consequently, it was detected in surface water that receives the treated wastewater at similar levels to PFOS (ca. 10−50 ng/L) and the concentration decreased with the increasing distance from the wastewater discharge point along the river. Initial data presented here suggest that F-53B is moderately toxic (Zebrafish LC 50 -96 h 15.5 mg/L) and is as resistant to degradation as PFOS. While current usage is limited to the chrome plating industry, the increasing demand for PFOS alternatives in other sectors may result in expanded usage. Collectively, the results of this work call for future assessments on the effects of this overlooked contaminant and its presence and fate in the environment. ■ INTRODUCTION The electroplating industry in China is well developed, with an estimated >15 000 factories, >500 000 employees, >5000 production lines and a production capacity of >300 million m 2 . A recent survey by a China market research center revealed the total industrial output value to be almost 13 000 million USD in 2008. 1 During the electroplating process, especially in "hard chrome plating", mist suppressants are indispensable for the protection of employees from exposure to the airborne, highly toxic forms of chromium. The most commonly used mist suppressants are based on perfluorooctane sulfonate acid and its salts (PFOS, C 8 F 17 SO 3 −
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first report on the environmental occurrence of a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (locally called F-53B, C8ClF16O4SK). It has been widely applied as a mist suppressant by the chrome plating industry in China for decades, but has evaded the attention of environmental research and regulation. In this study, F-53B was found in high concentrations (43-78 μg/L and 65-112 μg/L for the effluent and influent, respectively) in wastewater from the chrome plating industry in the city of Wenzhou, China. F-53B was not successfully removed by the wastewater treatments in place. Consequently, it was detected in surface water which receives the treated wastewater at similar levels to PFOS (ca. 10-50 ng/L); and the concentration decreased with the increasing distance from the wastewater discharge point along the river. Initial data presented here suggest that F-53B is moderately toxic (Zebrafish LC50-96 h 15.5 mg/L) and is as resistant to degradation as PFOS. Whilst current usage is limited to the chrome plating industry, the increasing demand for PFOS alternatives in other sectors may result in expanded usage. Collectively these results of this work call for future assessments on the effects of this overlooked contaminant and its presence and fate in the environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oil and chemical spills in the marine environment are an issue of growing concern. Oil exploration and exploitation is moving from the continental shelf to deeper waters, and to northern latitudes where the risk of an oil spill is potentially greater and may affect pristine ecosystems. Moreover, a growing number of chemical products are transported by sea and maritime incidents of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) are expected to increase. Consequently, it seems timely to review all of the experience gained from past spills to be able to cope with appropriate response and mitigation strategies to combat future incidents. Accordingly, this overview is focused on the dissemination of the most successful approaches to both detect and assess accidental releases using chemical as well as biological approaches for spills of either oil or HNS in the marine environment. Aerial surveillance, sampling techniques for water, suspended particles, sediments and biota are reviewed. Early warning bioassays and biomarkers to assess spills are also presented. Finally, research needs and gaps in knowledge are discussed.
Journal of Environmental Management 06/2012; 109:136-53. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers-were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 05/2012; · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity.
Science of The Total Environment 04/2012; 426:375-86. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were calibrated in situ for selected illicit drugs and their metabolites at a sewage treatment works. Eleven out of 13 target compounds were detected and eight of those exhibited linear uptake kinetics with sampling rates between 0.035 and 0.150 L d(-1). Subsequently POCIS were deployed for 2 week periods over the course of a whole year, in order to examine trends in drug usage. Amphetamine and methamphetamine showed several similar peaks in concentration during the course of the year as did cocaine and two of its metabolites. Low levels of ecstasy were observed, with a prominent peak in May and a steady increase toward the end of the year. The antihistamine Cetirizine showed a clear increase in use during the summer months as expected and back calculation of the yearly dosage from POCIS accumulations yielded very similar results to that registered in the Norwegian prescription database. Estimations of cocaine usage using the parent compound averaged between 0.31 and 2.8 g d(-1) per 1000 inhabitants. POCIS is a cost-effective technique for the long-term monitoring of drug usage of a defined population and may overcome the difficulties of representative sampling associated with autosampling equipment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols (AP) that are present in routine discharges of produced water (PW) from the offshore industry continue to cause concern. The suitability of biological methods and chemical based passive samplers to determine exposure to these compounds was tested by deploying them around an oil installation and at reference locations in the North Sea. PAH and AP were analysed either as parent compounds in passive samplers and mussel tissue or as metabolites in fish bile. Generally the pattern of exposure relative to proximity to the discharge was represented by mussels, SPMDs and fish for PAH. Fish and SPMDs showed good correlation for PAH accumulations, whereas some differences were apparent between mussels and SPMDs. POCIS was the only technique tested that could accurately measure the most abundant AP in PW. The advantages of biologically independent measures of exposure for inclusion in discharge monitoring studies are outlined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Norwegian water column monitoring program investigates the biological effects of offshore oil and gas activities in Norwegian waters. In three separate surveys in 2006, 2008, and 2009, bioaccumulation and biomarker responses were measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) held in cages at known distances from the produced water (PW) discharge at the Ekofisk oil field. Identical monitoring studies performed in all three years have allowed the biological effects and bioaccumulation data to be compared, and in addition, enabled the potential environmental benefits of a PW treatment system (CTour), implemented in 2008, to be evaluated. The results of the 2009 survey showed that caged animals were exposed to low levels of PW components, with highest tissue concentrations in mussels located closest to the PW discharge. Mussels located approximately 1-2 km away demonstrated only background concentrations of target compounds. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkyl phenol (AP) metabolites in the bile of caged cod were elevated at stations 200-250 m from the discharge. There was also a signal of exposure relative to discharge for the biomarkers CYP1A in fish and micronuclei in mussels. All other fish and mussel biomarkers showed no significant exposure effects in 2009. The mussel bioaccumulation data in 2009 indicated a lower exposure to the PW effluent than seen previously in 2008 and 2006, resulting in an associated general improvement in the health of the caged mussels. This was due to the reduction in overall discharge of PW components (measured as oil in water) into the area in 2009 compared to previous years as a result of the improved PW treatment system.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2011; 74(7-9):582-604. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological impact of a treated produced water (PW) was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussel health status was assessed using an integrated biomarker approach in combination with chemical analysis of both water (with SPMDs), and mussel tissues. Acyl-CoA oxidase activity, neutral lipid accumulation, catalase activity, micronuclei formation, lysosomal membrane stability in digestive cells and haemocytes, cell-type composition in digestive gland epithelium, and the integrity of the digestive gland tissue were measured after 5 week exposure to 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% PW. The suite of biomarkers employed were sensitive to treated PW exposure with significant sublethal responses found at 0.01-0.5% PW, even though individual chemical compounds of PW were at extremely low concentrations in both water and mussel tissues. The study highlights the benefits of an integrated biomarker approach for determining the potential effects of exposure to complex mixtures at low concentrations. Biomarkers were integrated in the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic integrative chemical samplers (POCIS) were deployed in vicinity of an offshore oil production platform discharging production water (produced water) to the North Sea. Extracts from SPMDs and POCIS were subjected to chemical analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs) respectively, and also assessed for acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated production of vitellogenin (Vtg) and induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chemical analysis of the extracts revealed a gradient of exposure away from the platform for low molecular weight PAH and AP, whereas no exposure gradient was apparent for high molecular weight PAH, as expected. These data coupled with earlier work allowed a tentative general exposure scenario to be determined. The passive sampler extracts also caused modulation of the bioassay toxicity endpoints, although a clear gradient of response relative to the discharge point could not be identified.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring 09/2010; 12(9):1699-708. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Produced water (PW) discharged from offshore oil industry contains chemicals known to contribute to different mechanisms of toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rainbow trout primary hepatocytes exposed to the water soluble and particulate organic fraction of PW from 10 different North Sea oil production platforms. The PW fractions caused a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 1h exposure, as well as changes in levels of total glutathione (tGSH) and cytotoxicity after 96 h. Interestingly, the water soluble organic compounds of PW were major contributors to oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, and effects was not correlated to the content of total oil in PW. Bioassay effects were only observed at high PW concentrations (3-fold concentrated), indicating that bioaccumulation needs to occur to cause similar short term toxic effects in wild fish.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing demand for simple and reliable passive samplers for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants in water has led to increased frequency of use of single-phase polymeric sampling devices. In this study, we evaluate the effect of sampler material on the passive sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Norwegian rivers. Low density polyethylene membranes (LDPE), silicone strips and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) with the exact same surface area and conformation were exposed in the Drammen River for overlapping exposures of 24 and 51 d, under identical hydrodynamic conditions. Dissipation rates of performance reference compounds (PRCs) spiked in all samplers were consistent and demonstrated no significant differences in sampler-water analyte exchange kinetics between the two exposures. The transition to fully boundary layer-controlled uptake shown by PRC dissipation rates was confirmed by investigating PAH masses absorbed by the samplers. Masses of analytes with log K(ow)>4.5 absorbed into the samplers were similar and independent of the sampler material used, generally indicating for these compounds that the boundary layer dominated the resistance to mass transfer. The very low variability in analyte masses absorbed across sampler types observed here indicates that much of the overall variability in dissolved contaminant concentrations seen in passive sampler intercomparison studies is likely the result of the uncertainty associated with sampler-water partition coefficients and PRC dissipation rates. PRC dissipation rates and ratios of masses absorbed over 51 and 24 d for these compounds demonstrated integrative sampling over 51 d and no major effects of biofouling on sampling. The equivalence of data obtained using silicone strips and SPMDs supports the use of single-phase polymeric passive sampling devices.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the environmental impact of aquatic discharges from the offshore oil industry, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed around an oil platform and at reference locations in the North Sea. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylated phenols (AP) was determined from passive sampler accumulations using an empirical uptake model, the dissipation of performance reference compounds and adjusted laboratory derived sampling rates. Exposure was relatively similar within 1-2 km of the discharge point, with levels dominated by short chained C1-C3 AP isomers (19-51 ngL(-1)) and alkylated naphthalenes, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes (NPD, 29-45 ngL(-1)). Exposure stations showed significant differences to reference sites for NPD, but not always for more hydrophobic PAH. These concentrations are several orders of magnitude lower than those reported to give both acute and sub-lethal effects, although their long term consequences are unknown.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were exposed to a cocktail of organic chemicals using a flow-through system. Samplers were removed and analyzed every 7 d over a four-week period in order to determine sampling rates (Rs) for individual compounds. Prior to laboratory exposure, half of the samplers were allowed to foul naturally for six weeks, in order to examine differences in uptake due to fouling. The amount of fouling ranged from 0.2 to 2.8 g dry weight/dm2 for POCIS and 0.1 to 1.4 g dry weight/dm2 for SPMDs, and the pattern of accumulation was also different between them. The Rs values were determined by fitting curves to time course uptake data and also by using performance reference compounds (PRCs) for SPMDs. Sampling rates ranged from 2.7 to 14.2 L/d for SPMDs and 0.01 to 0.27 L/d for POCIS. Fouled SPMDs showed a reduction in Rs (<20%) for all but one compound, and there was a similar reduction in the release of PRCs. However, PRC-predicted R, values were overall somewhat higher than those from fitted curves. Uptake of alkylated phenols in POCIS was generally higher (up to 55%) in fouled samplers. The reason for this is not known, but is possibly due to some reduction in interactions with the membrane in fouled samplers. There was no overall pattern in the relationship of sampling rate differences with log Kow or over time for either sampler. Release of compounds from POCIS after a drop in exposure water concentrations provides some encouragement for the application of a PRC approach to polar passive samplers.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 07/2009; 28(11):2324-32. · 2.62 Impact Factor