Christopher Harman

Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway

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Publications (26)75.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the vicinity of an offshore oil installation and analysed for naphthenic acids (NA). POCIS accumulated a range of mono to tetracyclic NA, with different degrees of alkylation, with monocyclic acids being the most abundant. POCIS or similar polar samplers may currently be the only way to measure exposure to NA from offshore discharges in situ. In addition they may be a valuable tool for monitoring similar organic acids in general. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 05/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The following provides a short overview of the important topics arising from the 6(th) International Passive Sampling Workshop and Symposium (IPSW 2013) held in Bordeaux, France between 26 and 29(th) June, 2013. Most of the discussions focussed on monitoring non-polar and polar organic pollutants in water with less coverage on air (probably already seen as a mature technology for this medium) and sediments. The use of passive sampling devices within regulatory water monitoring programmes was also a major theme of the Workshop.
    Environmental science. Processes & impacts. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first report on the environmental occurrence of a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (locally called F-53B, C 8 ClF 16 O 4 SK). It has been widely applied as a mist suppressant by the chrome plating industry in China for decades but has evaded the attention of environmental research and regulation. In this study, F-53B was found in high concentrations (43−78 and 65−112 μg/L for the effluent and influent, respectively) in wastewater from the chrome plating industry in the city of Wenzhou, China. F-53B was not successfully removed by the wastewater treatments in place. Consequently, it was detected in surface water that receives the treated wastewater at similar levels to PFOS (ca. 10−50 ng/L) and the concentration decreased with the increasing distance from the wastewater discharge point along the river. Initial data presented here suggest that F-53B is moderately toxic (Zebrafish LC 50 -96 h 15.5 mg/L) and is as resistant to degradation as PFOS. While current usage is limited to the chrome plating industry, the increasing demand for PFOS alternatives in other sectors may result in expanded usage. Collectively, the results of this work call for future assessments on the effects of this overlooked contaminant and its presence and fate in the environment. ■ INTRODUCTION The electroplating industry in China is well developed, with an estimated >15 000 factories, >500 000 employees, >5000 production lines and a production capacity of >300 million m 2 . A recent survey by a China market research center revealed the total industrial output value to be almost 13 000 million USD in 2008. 1 During the electroplating process, especially in "hard chrome plating", mist suppressants are indispensable for the protection of employees from exposure to the airborne, highly toxic forms of chromium. The most commonly used mist suppressants are based on perfluorooctane sulfonate acid and its salts (PFOS, C 8 F 17 SO 3 −
    Environmental Science & Technology 09/2013; 47(1):10163−10170. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The applicability of silicone rubber and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as passive sampling materials for target and nontarget analyses of moderately polar and nonpolar substances was assessed through a field deployment of samplers along a small, polluted stream in Oslo, Norway. Silicone and LDPE samplers of identical surface area (but different volumes) were deployed at 6 sites in the River Alna for 49 d. Quantitative target analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (quadrupole, single-ion monitoring mode) demonstrated that masses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine compounds absorbed in the 2 polymeric materials were consistent with the current understanding of the control and mode of accumulation in these sampler materials. Some deviation was observed for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and may be linked to the large molecular size of this substance, resulting in lower diffusivity in the LDPE. Target and nontarget analyses with gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry allowed the identification of a wide range of chemicals, including organophosphate compounds (OPCs) and musk compounds (galaxolide and tonalid). Semiquantitative analysis revealed enhanced quantities of the OPCs in silicone material, indicating some limitation in the absorption and diffusion of these substances in LDPE. Overall, silicone allows nontarget screening analysis for compounds with a wider range of log octanol–water partition coefficient values than what can be achieved with LDPE. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1718–1726. © 2013 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 08/2013; 32(8). · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The implementation of strict environmental quality standards for polar organic priority pollutants poses a challenge for monitoring programs. The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) may help to address the challenge of measuring low and fluctuating trace concentrations of such organic contaminants, offering significant advantages over traditional sampling. In the present review, the authors evaluate POCIS calibration methods and factors affecting sampling rates together with reported environmental applications. Over 300 compounds have been shown to accumulate in POCIS, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, hormones, and industrial chemicals. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler extracts have been used for both chemical and biological analyses. Several different calibration methods have been described, which makes it difficult to directly compare sampling rates. In addition, despite the fact that some attempts to correlate sampling rates with the properties of target compounds such as log K(OW) have been met with varying success, an overall model that can predict uptake is lacking. Furthermore, temperature, water flow rates, salinity, pH, and fouling have all been shown to affect uptake; however, there is currently no robust method available for adjusting for these differences. Overall, POCIS has been applied to a wide range of sampling environments and scenarios and has been proven to be a useful screening tool. However, based on the existing literature, a more mechanistic approach is required to increase understanding and thus improve the quantitative nature of the measurements. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 09/2012; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oil and chemical spills in the marine environment are an issue of growing concern. Oil exploration and exploitation is moving from the continental shelf to deeper waters, and to northern latitudes where the risk of an oil spill is potentially greater and may affect pristine ecosystems. Moreover, a growing number of chemical products are transported by sea and maritime incidents of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) are expected to increase. Consequently, it seems timely to review all of the experience gained from past spills to be able to cope with appropriate response and mitigation strategies to combat future incidents. Accordingly, this overview is focused on the dissemination of the most successful approaches to both detect and assess accidental releases using chemical as well as biological approaches for spills of either oil or HNS in the marine environment. Aerial surveillance, sampling techniques for water, suspended particles, sediments and biota are reviewed. Early warning bioassays and biomarkers to assess spills are also presented. Finally, research needs and gaps in knowledge are discussed.
    Journal of Environmental Management 06/2012; 109:136-53. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers-were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 05/2012; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity.
    Science of The Total Environment 04/2012; 426:375-86. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Norsk Epidemiologi 12/2011; 21(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The current study was conducted in order to assess the release of dissolved contaminants from sediment relocation works in Oslo harbour, Norway, whilst operations were being carried out, and to assess the potential for spreading into the wider fjord area. Materials and methods This was achieved by comparing the concentration of metals and organic contaminants in the vicinity of the disposal site, and at strategic locations in the adjacent fjord area. In total, 14 stations were chosen, with passive sampling devices, diffusive gradients in thin films for metals and semipermeable membrane devices for organic compounds, deployed at various depths at each station for a period of 1 month. Results and discussion The highest concentrations were generally found closer to the harbour area where trace metals and organic contaminants are supplied from several sources including river discharges and old, contaminated sediments. Near the deposition site, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were low and the concentration gradients for Cd, Zn and Cu indicated removal of these metals from the water column, probably due to association with sulphides present at the deposition site or in the discharged sediments. Elevated concentrations of Pb and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) revealed that the disposal acted as a source of these compounds, but maximum concentrations were similar to or less than those predicted before the deposition begun. The estimated vertical transport and spreading to areas outside of the semi-enclosed sill basin was negligible. Conclusions Strictly, the validity of the results presented here are limited to a 1-month period of the disposal operations which lasted nearly 3 years. During this period, release of contaminants was compound-specific, but even for the most labile PAHs and Pb, the release appeared to be in the same order of magnitude or smaller than the release from other local sources not limited in time to the duration of the remediation operation.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2011; 11(8). · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    Environmental Science & Technology 11/2011; 45(21):9120-1. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    Ian John Allan, Christopher Harman
    Environmental Science & Technology 07/2011; 45(15):6233-4. · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Christopher Harman, Malcolm Reid, Kevin V Thomas
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    ABSTRACT: Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were calibrated in situ for selected illicit drugs and their metabolites at a sewage treatment works. Eleven out of 13 target compounds were detected and eight of those exhibited linear uptake kinetics with sampling rates between 0.035 and 0.150 L d(-1). Subsequently POCIS were deployed for 2 week periods over the course of a whole year, in order to examine trends in drug usage. Amphetamine and methamphetamine showed several similar peaks in concentration during the course of the year as did cocaine and two of its metabolites. Low levels of ecstasy were observed, with a prominent peak in May and a steady increase toward the end of the year. The antihistamine Cetirizine showed a clear increase in use during the summer months as expected and back calculation of the yearly dosage from POCIS accumulations yielded very similar results to that registered in the Norwegian prescription database. Estimations of cocaine usage using the parent compound averaged between 0.31 and 2.8 g d(-1) per 1000 inhabitants. POCIS is a cost-effective technique for the long-term monitoring of drug usage of a defined population and may overcome the difficulties of representative sampling associated with autosampling equipment.
    Environmental Science & Technology 06/2011; 45(13):5676-82. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    Christopher Harman, Malcolm Reid, Kevin V Thomas
    Environmental Science & Technology 05/2011; 45(10):4191; author reply 4192. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols (AP) that are present in routine discharges of produced water (PW) from the offshore industry continue to cause concern. The suitability of biological methods and chemical based passive samplers to determine exposure to these compounds was tested by deploying them around an oil installation and at reference locations in the North Sea. PAH and AP were analysed either as parent compounds in passive samplers and mussel tissue or as metabolites in fish bile. Generally the pattern of exposure relative to proximity to the discharge was represented by mussels, SPMDs and fish for PAH. Fish and SPMDs showed good correlation for PAH accumulations, whereas some differences were apparent between mussels and SPMDs. POCIS was the only technique tested that could accurately measure the most abundant AP in PW. The advantages of biologically independent measures of exposure for inclusion in discharge monitoring studies are outlined.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 02/2011; 63(5-12):141-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Norwegian water column monitoring program investigates the biological effects of offshore oil and gas activities in Norwegian waters. In three separate surveys in 2006, 2008, and 2009, bioaccumulation and biomarker responses were measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) held in cages at known distances from the produced water (PW) discharge at the Ekofisk oil field. Identical monitoring studies performed in all three years have allowed the biological effects and bioaccumulation data to be compared, and in addition, enabled the potential environmental benefits of a PW treatment system (CTour), implemented in 2008, to be evaluated. The results of the 2009 survey showed that caged animals were exposed to low levels of PW components, with highest tissue concentrations in mussels located closest to the PW discharge. Mussels located approximately 1-2 km away demonstrated only background concentrations of target compounds. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkyl phenol (AP) metabolites in the bile of caged cod were elevated at stations 200-250 m from the discharge. There was also a signal of exposure relative to discharge for the biomarkers CYP1A in fish and micronuclei in mussels. All other fish and mussel biomarkers showed no significant exposure effects in 2009. The mussel bioaccumulation data in 2009 indicated a lower exposure to the PW effluent than seen previously in 2008 and 2006, resulting in an associated general improvement in the health of the caged mussels. This was due to the reduction in overall discharge of PW components (measured as oil in water) into the area in 2009 compared to previous years as a result of the improved PW treatment system.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2011; 74(7-9):582-604. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biological impact of a treated produced water (PW) was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussel health status was assessed using an integrated biomarker approach in combination with chemical analysis of both water (with SPMDs), and mussel tissues. Acyl-CoA oxidase activity, neutral lipid accumulation, catalase activity, micronuclei formation, lysosomal membrane stability in digestive cells and haemocytes, cell-type composition in digestive gland epithelium, and the integrity of the digestive gland tissue were measured after 5 week exposure to 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% PW. The suite of biomarkers employed were sensitive to treated PW exposure with significant sublethal responses found at 0.01-0.5% PW, even though individual chemical compounds of PW were at extremely low concentrations in both water and mussel tissues. The study highlights the benefits of an integrated biomarker approach for determining the potential effects of exposure to complex mixtures at low concentrations. Biomarkers were integrated in the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 11/2010; 62(2):327-39. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Christopher Harman, Eivind Farmen, Knut Erik Tollefsen
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    ABSTRACT: Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic integrative chemical samplers (POCIS) were deployed in vicinity of an offshore oil production platform discharging production water (produced water) to the North Sea. Extracts from SPMDs and POCIS were subjected to chemical analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs) respectively, and also assessed for acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated production of vitellogenin (Vtg) and induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chemical analysis of the extracts revealed a gradient of exposure away from the platform for low molecular weight PAH and AP, whereas no exposure gradient was apparent for high molecular weight PAH, as expected. These data coupled with earlier work allowed a tentative general exposure scenario to be determined. The passive sampler extracts also caused modulation of the bioassay toxicity endpoints, although a clear gradient of response relative to the discharge point could not be identified.
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 09/2010; 12(9):1699-708. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Produced water (PW) discharged from offshore oil industry contains chemicals known to contribute to different mechanisms of toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rainbow trout primary hepatocytes exposed to the water soluble and particulate organic fraction of PW from 10 different North Sea oil production platforms. The PW fractions caused a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 1h exposure, as well as changes in levels of total glutathione (tGSH) and cytotoxicity after 96 h. Interestingly, the water soluble organic compounds of PW were major contributors to oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, and effects was not correlated to the content of total oil in PW. Bioassay effects were only observed at high PW concentrations (3-fold concentrated), indicating that bioaccumulation needs to occur to cause similar short term toxic effects in wild fish.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 02/2010; 60(7):1092-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing demand for simple and reliable passive samplers for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants in water has led to increased frequency of use of single-phase polymeric sampling devices. In this study, we evaluate the effect of sampler material on the passive sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Norwegian rivers. Low density polyethylene membranes (LDPE), silicone strips and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) with the exact same surface area and conformation were exposed in the Drammen River for overlapping exposures of 24 and 51 d, under identical hydrodynamic conditions. Dissipation rates of performance reference compounds (PRCs) spiked in all samplers were consistent and demonstrated no significant differences in sampler-water analyte exchange kinetics between the two exposures. The transition to fully boundary layer-controlled uptake shown by PRC dissipation rates was confirmed by investigating PAH masses absorbed by the samplers. Masses of analytes with log K(ow)>4.5 absorbed into the samplers were similar and independent of the sampler material used, generally indicating for these compounds that the boundary layer dominated the resistance to mass transfer. The very low variability in analyte masses absorbed across sampler types observed here indicates that much of the overall variability in dissolved contaminant concentrations seen in passive sampler intercomparison studies is likely the result of the uncertainty associated with sampler-water partition coefficients and PRC dissipation rates. PRC dissipation rates and ratios of masses absorbed over 51 and 24 d for these compounds demonstrated integrative sampling over 51 d and no major effects of biofouling on sampling. The equivalence of data obtained using silicone strips and SPMDs supports the use of single-phase polymeric passive sampling devices.
    Chemosphere 02/2010; 79(4):470-5. · 3.14 Impact Factor