[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip.
The microchip was made of cyclic olefin copolymer with straight microchannels that were 300 µm wide and 100 µm deep. For the construction of a sandwich ELISA for procollagen type I C-peptide (PICP), a biomarker for bone formation, we used a piezoelectric inkjet printing system for the deposition and fixation of the 1st anti-PICP antibody on the surface of the microchannel. After the infusion of the mixture of 2.0 µl of peroxidase-labeled 2nd anti-PICP antibody and 0.4 µl of sample to the microchannel and a 30-min incubation, the substrate for peroxidase was infused into the microchannel; and the luminescence intensity of each spot of 1st antibody was measured by CCD camera. A linear relationship was observed between PICP concentration and luminescence intensity over the range of 0 to 600 ng/ml (r(2) = 0.991), and the detection limit was 4.7 ng/ml. Blood PICP concentrations of 6 subjects estimated from microchip were compared with results obtained by the conventional method. Good correlation was observed between methods according to simple linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.9914). The within-day and between-days reproducibilities were 3.2-7.4 and 4.4-6.8%, respectively. This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method.
This assay enabled us to determine serum PICP with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18807. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a method for in situ real-time monitoring of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in mitochondria using infrared absorption spectroscopy with the multiple internal reflection geometry. Spectral changes corresponding to ATP synthesis and hydrolysis were monitored under oxygenation and constant stirring condition. It was demonstrated that the reversible process of ATP synthesis in mitochondria can be monitored by analyzing stretching modes of alpha- and beta-PO2- in adenine nucleotides. Our method has potential to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity in terms of mitochondrial activities of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A highly sensitive DNA detection method using a combination of ethidium bromide (EtBr) and SYBR Green II (SG II) for microchip electrophoresis was developed. By use of the combination of these intercalating DNA-staining dyes for microchip electrophoresis with Hitachi SV1100 system, the fluorescence intensities corresponding to DNA fragments were obviously increased over those obtained with EtBr only, with accuracy of DNA sizing and quantification. The detection limit with EtBr and the combination of EtBr and SG II were 0.048 and 0.007ng/μl, respectively. This highly sensitive DNA detection just using the combination of these dyes offering high resolution in a short time will be useful for various biological analyses.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 12/2010; 55(1):202-5. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The manner of interaction of the coat peptide of the Pf3 phage (Pf3 peptide) with lipid bilayers has been extensively studied. Presently, we designed a derivative of the Pf3 peptide, referred to as the DDRK peptide, and subjected it to trypsin digestion to understand its physicochemical properties. In the presence of Triton X-100 used for solubilization of the peptide, digestion of DDRK with trypsin caused specific cleavage at the lysine (Lys) residue in its N-terminal region but not at other Lys residues or at the arginine residue. As the N-terminal region of the DDRK peptide is relatively hydrophilic, but its remaining region is hydrophobic, this hydrophobic region of the peptide would be expected to be coated by Triton micelles. Thus, we propose that the presence of such micelles protected against cleavage there, leading to selective cleavage by trypsin of the DDRK peptide at its hydrophilic Lys residue in the N-terminal part of the molecule. However, such a protective effect on the DDRK peptide against trypsin digestion was not observed with octylglucoside. The observed results are important for better understanding of the manner of interaction between detergents and hydrophobic peptides.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2010; 1798(11):2090-3. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We quantitatively examined the transcript levels of ten fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) isoforms in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats kept at room temperature and of rats exposed to the cold by Northern blotting using the synthesized RNA of each isoform as an external standard. FABP3-5 were expressed in BAT of both rats maintained at room temperature and those exposed to the cold. FABP4 was the most abundantly expressed isoform, but its transcript level was not significantly affected by cold exposure. FABP3 was slightly expressed in the BAT of rats maintained at room temperature and its transcript level was elevated ten fold by cold exposure. FABP5 was also elevated four fold by cold exposure but the amount of its mRNA in BAT was negligible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoniazid is mainly metabolized by arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). Rapid acetylator types have NAT2*4/*4 alleles. Intermediate acetylator types have any of the following alleles: NAT2*4/*5, *4/*6, or *4/*7. Slow acetylator types do not have the NAT2*4 allele. We examined molecular features of these NAT2 molecules.
Structures of NAT2*5, *6, and *7 were constructed based on X-ray data of human NAT2*4 using a molecular modeling technique.
The NAT2*4 molecule mostly occupied a positive electrostatic potential field. Ile(114) and Arg(197), which are mutation sites of NAT2*4 to NAT2*5 and NAT2*6, were located in the peripheral part of the positive field. Gly(286), the mutation site from NAT2*4 to NAT2*7, was located near coenzyme A (CoA) in the boundary of the positive and negative fields.
Nonbinding energies between NAT2s and isoniazid were larger than those of CoA. Molecular polymorphism appears to influence the reactivity between NAT2 and the external ligand.
Anticancer research 08/2010; 30(8):3177-80. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the potential of microchip electrophoresis with a Hitachi SV1100, which can be used to determine DNA sizes between 500 and 5000 bp with good quantification (DNA concentration, <8 ng/l) within 5 min, for the analysis of DNA ligation. On analysis of an electropherogram of a ligation mixture of the pTAC1-T vector and a 789 bp PCR-amplified DNA fragment, the presence of recombinant DNA was easily detected by comparison with an electropherogram obtained without ligase. On analysis of a ligation mixture of pUC19/Eco RI without alkaline phosphatase treatment and a 667 bp Eco RI-digested fragment of foreign DNA, several peaks observed in the electropherogram corresponded to the formation of monomeric and polymeric insert DNAs, self-ligated vector DNA, and recombinant DNA. On the other hand, several peaks were also observed in the electropherogram of the ligation mixture of pUC19/Eco RI with alkaline phosphatase treatment and the 667 bp Eco RI-digested fragment of foreign DNA, the fluorescence intensity corresponding to recombinant DNA apparently being increased. These results indicate the potential of microchip electrophoresis for the analysis of DNA ligation, it offering high resolution in a short time.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 06/2010; 52(2):323-8. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is a protein catalyzing the transport of adenine nucleotides across inner mitochondrial membrane. In this review article, we first briefly introduce structural and functional properties of this protein. Next, we describe the results of our recent studies on the difference in the C-terminal region between yeast type 2 AAC isoform and bovine type 1 AAC isoform. Furthermore, based on the reactivities of cysteine residues that replaced amino acids in the sixth transmembrane segment, the probable structural features of the C-terminal region of this carrier are discussed.
Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 02/2010; 130(2):199-204. · 0.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is one of the major human infectious diseases in many endemic countries. For prevention of the spread of malaria, it is necessary to develop an early, sensitive, accurate and conventional diagnosis system.
A cell microarray chip was used to detect for malaria-infected erythrocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth), was made from polystyrene, and the formation of monolayers of erythrocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 was used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for malaria diagnosis. An erythrocyte suspension in a nuclear staining dye, SYTO 59, was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 10 min standing to allow the erythrocytes to settle down into the microchambers. About 130 erythrocytes were accommodated in each microchamber, there being over 2,700,000 erythrocytes in total on a chip. A microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive erythrocytes within 5 min, and 0.0001% parasitemia could be detected. To examine the contamination by leukocytes of purified erythrocytes from human blood, 20 µl of whole blood was mixed with 10 ml of RPMI 1640, and the mixture was passed through a leukocyte isolation filter. The eluted portion was centrifuged at 1,000×g for 2 min, and the pellet was dispersed in 1.0 ml of medium. SYTO 59 was added to the erythrocyte suspension, followed by analysis on a cell microarray chip. Similar accommodation of cells in the microchambers was observed. The number of contaminating leukocytes was less than 1 on a cell microarray chip.
The potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of malaria-infected erythrocytes was shown, it offering 10-100 times higher sensitivity than that of conventional light microscopy and easy operation in 15 min with purified erythrocytes.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13179. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calprotectin is an antimicrobial complex composed of the S100A8 and S100A9 protein family subunits. Contributing to innate immunity, calprotectin expression is increased by interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), which modulates keratinocyte differentiation. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is produced by mesenchymal cells and has a mitogenic activity for epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of KGF on calprotectin expression in keratinocytes and modulation by IL-1alpha. Human keratinocytes were cultured with KGF in the presence or absence of a KGF receptor (KGFR) inhibitor or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. Calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) expression was determined by northern blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, whereas MAPK phosphorylation was analyzed by western blot analysis. KGF significantly decreased the expression of S100A8/S100A9-specific mRNAs and calprotectin protein. In the presence of KGF, KGFR inhibitor or extracellular-regulated kinase inhibitor restored KGF-downregulated expression of S100A8/S100A9. KGF increased IL-1alpha expression in keratinocytes, whereas IL-1alpha increased KGF expression in fibroblasts. Cocultured fibroblast and keratinocytes showed lower S100A8/S100A9 mRNA expression than keratinocytes alone in the presence or absence of IL-1alpha or KGF. These results suggest that fibroblast-derived KGF reduces or restricts calprotectin expression in keratinocytes, which supports our hypothesis that calprotectin expression in keratinocytes is modulated by factors associated with epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
Immunology and Cell Biology 01/2010; 88(3):328-33. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ADP/ATP carrier catalyzes the exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The molecular dynamics of modeled yeast type 2 AAC (yAAC2) was analyzed and molecular parameters were determined.
The yAAC2 C-terminal moved flexibly and a negative electrostatic potential field (ESP) was located in the C-terminal region. The ESP field is always located in the C-terminal area during C-terminal truncation (d1-d9). Further C-terminal truncation occurred on field invagination into the core region (d11, d14, d16). The 2-6 C-terminal amino acid truncation did not affect the biological activity. The d7-d9 truncated mutants lost their biological function.
A critical point in yAAC2 function was shown between d6 and d7 C-terminal truncation. The C-terminal structure of yAAC2 is thought to be involved in biological function control.
Anticancer research 11/2009; 29(11):4897-900. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver- and heart/muscle-type isozymes of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L- and M-CPTI, respectively) show a certain similarity in their amino acid sequences, and mutation studies on the conserved amino acids between these two isozymes often show essentially the same effects on their enzymatic properties. Earlier mutation studies on C305 in human M-CPTI and its counterpart residue, C304, in human L-CPTI showed distinct effects of the mutations, especially in the aspect of enzyme stability; however, simple comparison of these effects on the conserved Cys residue between L- and M-CPTI was difficult, because these studies were carried out using different expression systems and distinct amino acids as replacements. In the present study, we carried out mutation studies on the C305 in human M-CPTI using COS cells for the expression system. Our results showed that C305 was replaceable with aspartic acid but that substitution with other amino acids caused both loss of function and reduced expression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast mitochondria have generally been believed not to undergo the permeability transition (PT) by the accumulation of Ca(2+) within the mitochondrial matrix, unlike mammalian mitochondria. However, the reason why the yeast PT is not induced by Ca(2+) has remained obscure. In this study, we examined in detail the effects of Ca(2+) on yeast mitochondria under various conditions. As a result, we discovered that the PT could be induced even in yeast mitochondria by externally added Ca(2+) under optimized experimental conditions. The 2 essential parameters for proper observation of the PT-inducing effects of Ca(2+) were the concentrations of the respiratory substrate and that of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the incubation medium. The yeast mitochondrial PT induced by Ca(2+) was found to be insensitive to cyclosporin A and suppressed in the presence of a high concentration of Pi. Furthermore, when the PT was induced in yeast mitochondria by Ca(2+), the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was also observed.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2009; 1787(12):1486-91. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance multi-analysis system for genotypic mutation by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) involving endonuclease treatment of PCR-amplified DNA on a microchip and subsequent analysis by microchip electrophoresis for DNA sizing was developed. A Hitachi SV1210 system, with which 12 samples can be analyzed on a plastic chip with good accuracy as to DNA sizing between 25 and 300 bp, was employed for RFLP analysis. We performed RFLP analysis of the ABO genotypes of blood donors for whom the ABO type was known. Six blood samples were analyzed by PCR to amplify two different regions of the genomic DNA, each of the amplified DNAs containing a different nucleotide polymorphism. To analyze the genes at polymorphic sites 261 and 526, restriction endonucleases Kpn I and Ban I were employed, respectively. When an amplified DNA was digested with each endonuclease on a microchip for 20 min, sequential analysis revealed the presence or absence of the respective restriction site. This analysis was performed within 7 min using a 1/10 volume of a DNA sample in comparison with the conventional method, and the estimated DNA size differed from the predicted size by less than 10 bp. The results indicate the potential of microchip electrophoresis for RFLP with on-chip direct endonuclease digestion and sequential analysis, offering high resolution in a short time.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 07/2009; 50(5):947-53. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, 10 isoforms of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) are expressed in various tissues. To understand the role of multiple FABP isoforms, we have quantitatively examined the transcript levels of individual FABP isoforms in each of various tissues by Northern blotting using synthesized RNAs corresponding to the mRNA of each isoform as external standards. As a result, absolute transcript levels of individual FABP isoforms expressed in each tissue were successfully determined. The 10 FABP isoforms were classified into three categories: (1) isoforms FABP7 and 12 were not markedly expressed in any tissue examined; (2) isoforms showing certain transcript levels in multiple tissues; and (3) isoforms FABP6, 8, and 9, expressed at certain levels in one particular tissue. Based on the expression profiles of the isoforms, individual tissues were also classified into three groups: (1) tissues in which high-level expression of FABP isoforms was not observed, (2) tissues in which multiple FABP isoforms were expressed at certain levels, and (3) tissues in which a single FABP isoform was dominantly expressed at a certain level. These results give a better understanding of the meaning of the presence of multiple FABP isoforms in mammals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP3A4 is the most abundant xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoform. We examined the structural features of the CYP3A4 molecule with regard to ligand access.
The deleted amino acid sequences of X-ray data sets of CYP3A4s were complemented by molecular modeling techniques. Molecular features of the ligand accessible regions in CYP3A4 were analyzed and their molecular parameters (e.g. dipole moment, solvation free energy, electrostatic potential fields) were determined.
Three ligand accessible regions (region 1-3) were present in erythromycin-bound CYP3A4, and these dipole moments indicated the same features as ketoconazole- or metyrapone-bound CYP3A4 molecules. In progesterone-bound CYP3A4, four candidate ligand accessible regions were observed and progesterone could be bound by two selected ligand accessible regions.
The heme pocket of CYP3A4 is very flexible and is able to interact with various types of substrate.
Anticancer research 04/2009; 29(3):935-42. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that cytochrome c is released from mitochondria when the permeability transition (PT) of this organelle is induced by Ca2+. Our previous study showed that valinomycin also caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria but without inducing this PT (Shinohara, Y., Almofti, M. R., Yamamoto, T., Ishida, T., Kita, F., Kanzaki, H., Ohnishi, M., Yamashita, K., Shimizu, S., and Terada, H. (2002) Permeability transition-independent release of mitochondrial cytochrome c induced by valinomycin. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 5224-5230). These results indicate that cytochrome c may be released from mitochondria with or without the induction of PT. In the present study, we examined the protein species released from valinomycin- and Ca2+-treated mitochondria by LC-MS/MS analysis. As a result, the proteins located in the intermembrane space were found to be specifically released from valinomycin-treated mitochondria, whereas those in the intermembrane space and in the matrix were released from Ca2+-treated mitochondria. These results were confirmed by Western analysis. Furthermore to examine how the protein release occurred, we examined the correlation between the species of released proteins and those of the abundant proteins in mitochondria. Consequently most of the proteins released from mitochondria treated with either agent were highly expressed proteins in mitochondria, indicating that the release occurred not selectively but in a manner dependent on the concentration of the proteins. Based on these results, the permeabilization effects of Ca2+ and valinomycin on the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the potential of microchip electrophoresis with a Hitachi SV1100, which can be used to evaluate the integrity of total RNA, for the analysis of synthesized RNA. There was little interference by DNA and/or the components of the in vitro transcription system with the microchip electrophoresis. The fluorescence intensity corresponding to the synthesized RNA increased in a time-dependent manner as to the RNA synthesis reaction on sequential analysis. A result can be obtained in 160 s and only 1/10 aliquots of samples, compared with the conventional method, are required. These results indicate the potential of microchip electrophoresis for sequential analysis of RNA synthesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) by Ca(2+), the addition of a respiratory substrate such as succinate is required. However, earlier studies indicated the possible induction of the mitochondrial PT by Ca(2+) in the absence of a respiratory substrate (Hunter, D.R., and Haworth, R.A. (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 195, 453-459). In the present study, we obtained clear evidence showing that the mitochondrial PT could be induced by Ca(2+) even in the absence of respiratory substrate. We next examined the protein release from mitochondria that accompanied the induction of PT in the absence of a respiratory substrate. Interestingly, distinct from the ordinary mitochondrial PT induced by Ca(2+) in the presence of a respiratory substrate, which is associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochome c and adenylate kinase, the mitochondrial PT occurring in the absence of a respiratory substrate was associated with release of mitochondrial adenylate kinase but not with that of mitochondrial cytochrome c. This experimental system should be quite useful for understanding the mechanisms of protein release from mitochondria.
Journal of Bioenergetics 02/2009; 40(6):619-23. · 1.60 Impact Factor