Jacques E Rossouw

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (181)1484.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationships of hypertension, antihypertensive treatment, and sodium intake on cognitive decline in older women. Prospective follow-up of 6,426 cognitively intact women aged 65-79 years enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. Dietary sodium intake was determined by food frequency questionnaires. Hypertension was defined as self-report of current drug therapy for hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) control was assessed by treatment for hypertension and clinic measurement of systolic BP ≥ 140mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90mm Hg at baseline. Cognitive functioning was assessed annually by global cognitive screening, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric evaluations. Cognitive decline was identified by the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable dementia (PD). Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Hypertension was associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline (HR 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.39; P = 0.02). Among women with antihypertensive medication, those with BP ≥140/90mm Hg (uncontrolled BP) were at highest risk for developing cognitive decline (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.05, 1.60) compared to women without treatment and BP <140/90mm Hg (controlled BP). Sodium intake >1,500mg/day did not alter the risk for cognitive decline in hypertensive women or women with antihypertensive treatment (P for interaction = 0.96 or 0.97). Women with antihypertensive treatment and uncontrolled BP showed highest risk estimates for developing cognitive decline compared to non-hypertensive women. Sodium intake did not modify the risk for cognitive decline in women with hypertension or receiving antihypertensive medication. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00685009 and NCT00745056. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American Journal of Hypertension 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/ajh/hpv081 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an invited editorial, Dr Shapiro proposes that vaginal bleeding leading to unblinding and subsequent detection bias explains the breast cancer increase seen with estrogen plus progestin in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial (1) . In the context of a uniform detection program of protocol-mandated annual mammography and breast examinations, such a proposal is medically implausible. Dr Shapiro suggests detection bias would identify a larger number of 'slowly growing tumors that would otherwise remain clinically silent'. The findings of more advanced cancers with increased deaths from breast cancer in the estrogen plus progestin group refute this conjecture. During early post-intervention phases of both WHI hormone therapy trials, when breast cancer detection bias is asserted by Dr Shapiro because participants had been informed of randomization assignment, breast cancer incidence rates were lower (rather than higher) than during intervention. Thus, Dr Shapiro's claims are directly refuted by findings from the WHI randomized clinical trials. Health-care providers should be aware that randomized clinical trial evidence supports estrogen plus progestin increasing breast cancer incidence and deaths from breast cancer. In contrast, among women with prior hysterectomy, randomized clinical trial evidence supports estrogen alone reducing breast cancer incidence and deaths from breast cancer.
    Climacteric 06/2015; 18(3):336-8. DOI:10.3109/13697137.2015.1038770 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (≤50 years in males and ≤60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol16. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl−1. At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase15, 17 and apolipoprotein C-III. Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.
    Nature 12/2014; advance online publication. DOI:10.1038/nature13917 · 41.46 Impact Factor
  • Jacques E Rossouw ·
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    ABSTRACT: In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study, current use of estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) and estrogen therapy showed an association with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, after taking into account the early increase in risk, the observational study and clinical trial hazard ratios did not differ significantly and showed no benefit for CHD. These findings were confirmed in novel reanalyses for EPT use in the Nurses' Health Study which for the first time included early events and yielded results similar to those of the WHI trial in showing no CHD benefit. The underestimation of CHD risk in observational studies of menopausal hormone therapy appears to lie in their inefficiency at capturing the early increase in risk in current users; by contrast clinical trials are very efficient at capturing early risk. Observational study data mostly reflects long-term use in women who survive the early increase, while trials mainly reflect short-term use. Confounding plays a role, but biologic differences in study populations are unlikely to explain the different risk estimates.
    Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 11/2014; 32(6):426-432. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1384625 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of BP in postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. Methods: BP was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials, in which 10 739 and 16 608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEEs and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. Results: At the first annual visit (year 1), mean SBP was 1.04 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58, 1.50] and 1.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.99, 1.72) higher in the CEEs and CEEs and MPA arms, respectively, compared with the corresponding placebos. These effects remained stable after year 1. CEEs also increased the VVV of SBP (ratio of VVV in CEEs vs. placebo, 1.03; P < 0.001), whereas CEEs and MPA did not (ratio of VVV in CEEs and MPA vs. placebo, 1.01; P = 0.20). After accounting for study drug adherence, the effects of CEEs and CEEs and MPA on mean SBP increased at year 1, and the differences in the CEEs and CEEs and MPA arms vs. placebos also continued to increase after year 1. Further, both CEEs and CEEs and MPA significantly increased the VVV of SBP (ratio of VVV in CEEs vs. placebo, 1.04; P < 0.001; ratio of VVV in CEEs and MPA vs. placebo, 1.05; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Among postmenopausal women, CEEs and CEEs and MPA at conventional doses increased mean and VVV of SBP.
    Journal of Hypertension 07/2014; 32(10). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000287 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The findings of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin (E+P) trial led to a substantial reduction in use of combined hormone therapy (cHT) among postmenopausal women in the United States. The economic effect of this shift has not been evaluated relative to the trial's $260 million cost (2012 U.S. dollars). To estimate the economic return from the WHI E+P trial. Decision model to simulate health outcomes for a "WHI scenario" with observed cHT use and a "no-WHI scenario" with cHT use extrapolated from the pretrial period. Primary analyses of WHI outcomes, peer-reviewed literature, and government sources. Postmenopausal women in the United States, aged 50 to 79 years, who did not have a hysterectomy. 2003 to 2012. Payer. Combined hormone therapy. Disease incidence, expenditure, quality-adjusted life-years, and net economic return. The WHI scenario resulted in 4.3 million fewer cHT users, 126 000 fewer breast cancer cases, 76 000 fewer cardiovascular disease cases, 263 000 more fractures, 145 000 more quality-adjusted life-years, and expenditure savings of $35.2 billion. The corresponding net economic return of the trial was $37.1 billion ($140 per dollar invested in the trial) at a willingness-to-pay level of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. The 95% CI for the net economic return of the trial was $23.1 to $51.2 billion. No evaluation of indirect costs or outcomes beyond 2012. The WHI E+P trial made high-value use of public funds with a substantial return on investment. These results can contribute to discussions about the role of public funding for large, prospective trials with high potential for public health effects. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
    Annals of internal medicine 05/2014; 160(9):594-602. DOI:10.7326/M13-2348 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paradoxically, a breast cancer risk reduction with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and a risk elevation with CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE + MPA) were observed in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. The effects of hormone therapy on serum sex hormone levels, and on the association between baseline sex hormones and disease risk, may help explain these divergent breast cancer findings. Serum sex hormone concentrations were measured for 348 breast cancer cases in the CEE + MPA trial and for 235 cases in the CEE trial along with corresponding pair-matched controls, nested within the WHI trials of healthy postmenopausal women. Association and mediation analyses, to examine the extent to which sex hormone levels and changes can explain the breast cancer findings, were conducted using logistic regression. Following CEE treatment, breast cancer risk was associated with higher concentrations of baseline serum estrogens, and with lower concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin. However, following CEE + MPA, there was no association of breast cancer risk with baseline sex hormone levels. The sex hormone changes from baseline to year 1 provided an explanation for much of the reduced breast cancer risk with CEE. Specifically, the treatment odds ratio (95% confidence interval) increased from 0.71 (0.43, 1.15) to 0.92 (0.41, 2.09) when the year 1 measures were included in the logistic regression analysis. In comparison, the CEE + MPA odds ratio was essentially unchanged when these year 1 measures were included. Breast cancer risk remains low following CEE use among women having favorable baseline sex hormone profiles, but CEE + MPA evidently produces a breast cancer risk for all women similar to that for women having an unfavorable baseline sex hormone profile. These patterns could reflect breast ductal epithelial cell stimulation by CEE + MPA that is substantially avoided with CEE, in conjunction with relatively more favorable effects of either regimen following a sustained period of estrogen deprivation. These findings may have implications for other hormone therapy formulations and routes of delivery.Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 03/2014; 16(2):R30. DOI:10.1186/bcr3632 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported mass spectrometry-based proteomic discovery research to identify novel plasma proteins related to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and to identify proteins with concentrations affected by the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Here we report CHD and stroke risk validation studies for highly-ranked proteins, and consider the extent to which protein concentration changes relate to disease risk or provide an explanation for hormone therapy effects on these outcomes. Five proteins potentially associated with CHD: beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (ORM1), thrombospondin-1(THBS1), complement factor D pre-protein (CFD), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1); and five potentially associated with stroke: B2M, IGFBP2, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and hemopexin (HPX) had high discovery phase significance level ranking and an available ELISA assay, and were included in case-control validation studies within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy trials. Protein concentrations, at baseline and 1-year following randomization, were assessed for 358 CHD cases and 362 stroke cases, along with corresponding disease-free controls. Disease association, and mediation of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin effects on CHD and stroke risk, were assessed using logistic regression. B2M, THBS1, and CFD were confirmed (p < 0.05) as novel CHD risk markers, and B2M, IGFBP2, and IGFBP4 were confirmed as novel stroke disease risk markers, while the assay for HPX proved to be unreliable. The change from baseline to 1-year in B2M was associated (p < 0.05) with subsequent stroke risk, and trended similarly with subsequent CHD risk. Change from baseline to 1-year in IGFBP1 was also associated with CHD risk, and this change provided evidence of hormone therapy effect mediation. Plasma B2M is confirmed to be an informative risk marker for both CHD and stroke. The B2M increase experienced by women during the first year of hormone therapy trial participation conveys cardiovascular disease risk. The increase in IGFBP1 similarly conveys CHD risk, and the magnitude of the IGFBP1 increase following hormone therapy may be a mediator of hormone therapy effects. Plasma THBS1 and CFD are confirmed as CHD risk markers, and plasma IGFBP4 and IGFBP2 are confirmed as stroke risk markers.Clinical trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611.
    Genome Medicine 12/2013; 5(12):112. DOI:10.1186/gm517 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    Jacques E Rossouw · Barbara V Howard ·

    South African Medical Journal 12/2013; 103(12):882. DOI:10.7196/samj.7709
  • Norman E Breslow · Gustavo Amorim · Mary B Pettinger · Jacques Rossouw ·
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    ABSTRACT: Standard analyses of data from case-control studies that are nested in a large cohort ignore information available for cohort members not sampled for the sub-study. This paper reviews several methods designed to increase estimation efficiency by using more of the data, treating the case-control sample as a two or three phase stratified sample. When applied to a study of coronary heart disease among women in the hormone trials of the Women's Health Initiative, modest but increasing gains in precision of regression coefficients were observed depending on the amount of cohort information used in the analysis. The gains were particularly evident for pseudo- or maximum likelihood estimates whose validity depends on the assumed model being correct. Larger standard errors were obtained for coefficients estimated by inverse probability weighted methods that are more robust to model misspecification. Such misspecification may have been responsible for an important difference in one key regression coefficient estimated using the weighted compared with the more efficient methods.
    Statistics in Biosciences 11/2013; 5(2). DOI:10.1007/s12561-013-9080-2
  • Jacques E. Rossouw ·
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized clinical trials of menopausal hormone therapy have shown increased risks of coronary heart disease in the first few years after randomization, and neutral or increased risk over the full trial period. These results diverge substantially from the protective associations of menopausal hormone use with coronary heart disease found in observational studies. In common with many other studies, conventional analyses in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study cohort of estrogen plus progestin users showed an association with reduced risk of coronary heart disease even after adjustment for potential confounders. However, upon allowing risk to vary by time since initiation, the hazard ratios did not differ significantly from those observed in the clinical trial. In analyses combining clinical trial and observational data the hazard ratios were 1.58 (1.12, 2.24) within the first 2 years after initiation, 1.19 (0.87, 1.63) between 2 and 5 years, and 0.63 (0.59, 1.26) after 5 years. Similar analyses for estrogen alone also reconciled trial and observational data. These findings were confirmed in novel re-analyses of the Nurses’ Health Study when investigators for the first time included outcomes occurring in the interval between the biennial study cycles. The key towards understanding the underestimation of coronary heart disease in observational studies of menopausal hormone therapy appears to lie in the time-dependent nature of coronary heart disease risk rather than differences in study populations. Observational studies typically do not capture early events in current users and the data mostly reflect the experience of long-term users who have survived the early risk, while clinical trials by design capture early events very efficiently and mainly reflect short-term use.
    Statistics in Biosciences 11/2013; 5(2). DOI:10.1007/s12561-012-9071-8
  • Barbara V Howard · Jacques E Rossouw ·
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    ABSTRACT: In 2002 and 2004, the Women's Health Initiative found no evidence that hormone therapy with estrogen or estrogen with progestin (E + P) protected against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since then, further analyses have been performed. This review summarizes current analyses on the effects of hormone therapy on CVD and CVD risk factors. The negative effects of hormone therapy vary by the type of CVD event. Estrogen alone and E + P show consistent effects on CVD, but E + P has more impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) and venous thromboembolism. Women of all ethnicities, including those who are obese, have diabetes, or are taking daily aspirin or statins remain at risk for adverse effects from hormone therapy. Although younger women or more recently menopausal women taking hormone therapy may be at relatively lower risk for CHD and myocardial infarction, they remain at risk for stroke, venous thromboembolism and peripheral artery disease. Adverse effects are enhanced in older women with menopausal symptoms. Although hormone therapy lowers LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, it has adverse effects on triglyceride, lipoprotein composition, and inflammatory and hemostatic markers. Baseline metabolic syndrome and high LDL cholesterol increase the CHD risk with hormone therapy. Analyses of discontinuation data in the estrogen-alone and E + P trials suggest that the adverse effects of hormone therapy on CVD are reversible. Recent analyses do not justify postmenopausal hormone therapy for CVD prevention. Further research on the role of hormone therapy-induced changes in CVD risk factors along with genetic studies may increase understanding and aid in developing safer therapies for menopausal symptoms.
    Current opinion in lipidology 10/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1097/MOL.0000000000000022 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent article, Sarrel et al.(1) assert that estrogen avoidance since 2002 has caused tens of thousands of premature deaths among posthysterectomy women aged 50 to 59 years in the United States. They fault Women's Health Initiative (WHI) investigators for inadequate efforts to communicate the benefits of unopposed estrogen and to contrast (unopposed) estrogen findings from those for estrogen plus progestin in reporting on the WHI randomized controlled trials.(2-5) (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 17, 2013: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301604).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2013; 103(12). DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301604 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Menopausal hormone therapy continues in clinical use but questions remain regarding its risks and benefits for chronic disease prevention. OBJECTIVE To report a comprehensive, integrated overview of findings from the 2 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy trials with extended postintervention follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 27 347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled at 40 US centers. INTERVENTIONS Women with an intact uterus received conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 2.5 mg/d) (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). Women with prior hysterectomy received CEE alone (0.625 mg/d) (n = 5310) or placebo (n = 5429). The intervention lasted a median of 5.6 years in CEE plus MPA trial and 7.2 years in CEE alone trial with 13 years of cumulative follow-up until September 30, 2010. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary efficacy and safety outcomes were coronary heart disease (CHD) and invasive breast cancer, respectively. A global index also included stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and death. RESULTS During the CEE plus MPA intervention phase, the numbers of CHD cases were 196 for CEE plus MPA vs 159 for placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.45) and 206 vs 155, respectively, for invasive breast cancer (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53). Other risks included increased stroke, pulmonary embolism, dementia (in women aged ≥65 years), gallbladder disease, and urinary incontinence; benefits included decreased hip fractures, diabetes, and vasomotor symptoms. Most risks and benefits dissipated postintervention, although some elevation in breast cancer risk persisted during cumulative follow-up (434 cases for CEE plus MPA vs 323 for placebo; HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.11-1.48]). The risks and benefits were more balanced during the CEE alone intervention with 204 CHD cases for CEE alone vs 222 cases for placebo (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.78-1.14) and 104 vs 135, respectively, for invasive breast cancer (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02); cumulatively, there were 168 vs 216, respectively, cases of breast cancer diagnosed (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97). Results for other outcomes were similar to CEE plus MPA. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality. For CEE alone, younger women (aged 50-59 years) had more favorable results for all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and the global index (nominal P < .05 for trend by age). Absolute risks of adverse events (measured by the global index) per 10 000 women annually taking CEE plus MPA ranged from 12 excess cases for ages of 50-59 years to 38 for ages of 70-79 years; for women taking CEE alone, from 19 fewer cases for ages of 50-59 years to 51 excess cases for ages of 70-79 years. Quality-of-life outcomes had mixed results in both trials. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Menopausal hormone therapy has a complex pattern of risks and benefits. Findings from the intervention and extended postintervention follow-up of the 2 WHI hormone therapy trials do not support use of this therapy for chronic disease prevention, although it is appropriate for symptom management in some women. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000611.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2013; 310(13):1353-1368. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.278040 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research comparing hormone therapy (HT) doses, regimens, and routes of delivery in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes has been limited. This study directly compared different estrogen doses, routes of delivery, and HT formulations in postmenopausal women in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD mortality, total CVD, and all-cause mortality. The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study is a multicenter prospective cohort study that was conducted at 40 US sites. Analyses included 93,676 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at study entry who were recruited from September 1994 to December 1998, with annual follow-up through August 14, 2009. The mean follow-up was 10.4 years. In direct comparisons, oral estradiol was associated with lower hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke than oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.40-1.02), but statistical power was limited. Similarly, transdermal estradiol was associated with a moderate but nonsignificantly lower risk of CHD compared with oral CEE (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.37-1.06). For other outcomes, comparisons revealed no appreciable differences by estrogen doses, formulations, or routes of delivery. Absolute risks of CVD events and all-cause mortality were markedly lower in younger women compared with older women. In direct comparisons, various HT doses and regimens are associated with similar rates of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, oral estradiol may be associated with a lower risk of stroke, and transdermal estradiol may be associated with a lower risk of CHD, compared with conventional-dose oral CEE. Additional research is needed to confirm these hypotheses.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 09/2013; 21(3). DOI:10.1097/GME.0b013e31829a64f9 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    R L Prentice · R D Jackson · M Pettinger · J E Rossouw ·

    Osteoporosis International 08/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1007/s00198-013-2461-z · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Juhua Luo · Jacques Rossouw · Karen L Margolis ·

    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2013; 310(1):94-96. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.6871 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies reported that smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk of type 2 diabetes than continuing to smoke. However, the duration of increased diabetes risk following smoking cessation needs further investigation. We followed 135,906 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, over an average of 11 years to examine the association between smoking cessation and risk of diabetes using Cox proportional hazard multivariable-adjusted regression models. Compared with that for never smokers, the risk for diabetes was significantly elevated in current smokers (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.36) but was even higher in women who quit smoking during the first 3 years of follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.63). Among former smokers, the risk of diabetes decreased significantly as the time since quitting increased and was equal to that of never smokers following a cessation period of 10 years. In new quitters with low cumulative exposure (<20 pack-years), diabetes risk was not elevated following smoking cessation. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes in former smokers returns to that in never smokers 10 years after quitting, and even more quickly in lighter smokers.
    American journal of epidemiology 06/2013; 178(6). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt071 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • R L Prentice · R D Jackson · J E Rossouw ·

    Osteoporosis International 04/2013; 24(8). DOI:10.1007/s00198-013-2359-9 · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Jacques E Rossouw · Joann E Manson · Andrew M Kaunitz · Garnet L Anderson ·
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    ABSTRACT: We re-evaluate the Women's Health Initiative findings and their implications for clinical practice. Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) was effective for relief of vasomotor symptoms, and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) tended to be reduced in women close to menopause compared with the increased risk in women more distant from menopause. In recently menopausal women, short-term absolute risks of stroke and venous thromboembolism were small. Estrogen plus progestin therapy, but not estrogen therapy, increased the risk of breast cancer with a suggestion of greater risk when initiated close to the menopause. Menopausal HT increased the risk of CHD in women more than 20 years distant from menopause, particularly in women with vasomotor symptoms. It remains unknown whether the suggestive benefit for CHD in younger women will translate into benefits or harms if menopausal HT is continued into older ages. Based on Women's Health Initiative data, the use of menopausal HT for fewer than 5 years is a reasonable option for the relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. The risks seen with estrogen plus progestin therapy suggest careful periodic reassessment of the ongoing therapy needs for women taking estrogen plus progestin therapy. The more favorable profile of estrogen therapy allows for individualized management with respect to duration of use when symptoms persist. For both estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy, the baseline risk profile of the individual woman needs to be taken into account. Menopausal HT is not suitable for long-term prevention of CHD given risks of stroke, venous thromboembolism, and breast cancer (for estrogen plus progestin therapy) found in both clinical trials and in observational studies.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2013; 121(1):172-6. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827a08c8 · 5.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
1,484.29 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2014
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1997-2010
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Office of Disease Prevention
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004-2009
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2002-2007
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Division of Preventive Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1999
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Women's Health
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Pretoria
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1978-1991
    • University of Cape Town
      • Department of Medicine
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa