Jacques E Rossouw

Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, United States

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Publications (91)913.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Paradoxically, a breast cancer risk reduction with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and a risk elevation with CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE + MPA) were observed in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. The effects of hormone therapy on serum sex hormone levels, and on the association between baseline sex hormones and disease risk, may help explain these divergent breast cancer findings. Serum sex hormone concentrations were measured for 348 breast cancer cases in the CEE + MPA trial and for 235 cases in the CEE trial along with corresponding pair-matched controls, nested within the WHI trials of healthy postmenopausal women. Association and mediation analyses, to examine the extent to which sex hormone levels and changes can explain the breast cancer findings, were conducted using logistic regression. Following CEE treatment, breast cancer risk was associated with higher concentrations of baseline serum estrogens, and with lower concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin. However, following CEE + MPA, there was no association of breast cancer risk with baseline sex hormone levels. The sex hormone changes from baseline to year 1 provided an explanation for much of the reduced breast cancer risk with CEE. Specifically, the treatment odds ratio (95% confidence interval) increased from 0.71 (0.43, 1.15) to 0.92 (0.41, 2.09) when the year 1 measures were included in the logistic regression analysis. In comparison, the CEE + MPA odds ratio was essentially unchanged when these year 1 measures were included. Breast cancer risk remains low following CEE use among women having favorable baseline sex hormone profiles, but CEE + MPA evidently produces a breast cancer risk for all women similar to that for women having an unfavorable baseline sex hormone profile. These patterns could reflect breast ductal epithelial cell stimulation by CEE + MPA that is substantially avoided with CEE, in conjunction with relatively more favorable effects of either regimen following a sustained period of estrogen deprivation. These findings may have implications for other hormone therapy formulations and routes of delivery.Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 03/2014; 16(2):R30. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported mass spectrometry-based proteomic discovery research to identify novel plasma proteins related to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and to identify proteins with concentrations affected by the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Here we report CHD and stroke risk validation studies for highly-ranked proteins, and consider the extent to which protein concentration changes relate to disease risk or provide an explanation for hormone therapy effects on these outcomes. Five proteins potentially associated with CHD: beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (ORM1), thrombospondin-1(THBS1), complement factor D pre-protein (CFD), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1); and five potentially associated with stroke: B2M, IGFBP2, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and hemopexin (HPX) had high discovery phase significance level ranking and an available ELISA assay, and were included in case-control validation studies within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy trials. Protein concentrations, at baseline and 1-year following randomization, were assessed for 358 CHD cases and 362 stroke cases, along with corresponding disease-free controls. Disease association, and mediation of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin effects on CHD and stroke risk, were assessed using logistic regression. B2M, THBS1, and CFD were confirmed (p < 0.05) as novel CHD risk markers, and B2M, IGFBP2, and IGFBP4 were confirmed as novel stroke disease risk markers, while the assay for HPX proved to be unreliable. The change from baseline to 1-year in B2M was associated (p < 0.05) with subsequent stroke risk, and trended similarly with subsequent CHD risk. Change from baseline to 1-year in IGFBP1 was also associated with CHD risk, and this change provided evidence of hormone therapy effect mediation. Plasma B2M is confirmed to be an informative risk marker for both CHD and stroke. The B2M increase experienced by women during the first year of hormone therapy trial participation conveys cardiovascular disease risk. The increase in IGFBP1 similarly conveys CHD risk, and the magnitude of the IGFBP1 increase following hormone therapy may be a mediator of hormone therapy effects. Plasma THBS1 and CFD are confirmed as CHD risk markers, and plasma IGFBP4 and IGFBP2 are confirmed as stroke risk markers.Clinical trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611.
    Genome Medicine 12/2013; 5(12):112. · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Jacques E Rossouw, Barbara V Howard
    South African Medical Journal 12/2013; 103(12):882.
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    ABSTRACT: Standard analyses of data from case-control studies that are nested in a large cohort ignore information available for cohort members not sampled for the sub-study. This paper reviews several methods designed to increase estimation efficiency by using more of the data, treating the case-control sample as a two or three phase stratified sample. When applied to a study of coronary heart disease among women in the hormone trials of the Women's Health Initiative, modest but increasing gains in precision of regression coefficients were observed depending on the amount of cohort information used in the analysis. The gains were particularly evident for pseudo- or maximum likelihood estimates whose validity depends on the assumed model being correct. Larger standard errors were obtained for coefficients estimated by inverse probability weighted methods that are more robust to model misspecification. Such misspecification may have been responsible for an important difference in one key regression coefficient estimated using the weighted compared with the more efficient methods.
    Statistics in Biosciences 11/2013; 5(2).
  • Barbara V Howard, Jacques E Rossouw
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    ABSTRACT: In 2002 and 2004, the Women's Health Initiative found no evidence that hormone therapy with estrogen or estrogen with progestin (E + P) protected against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since then, further analyses have been performed. This review summarizes current analyses on the effects of hormone therapy on CVD and CVD risk factors. The negative effects of hormone therapy vary by the type of CVD event. Estrogen alone and E + P show consistent effects on CVD, but E + P has more impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) and venous thromboembolism. Women of all ethnicities, including those who are obese, have diabetes, or are taking daily aspirin or statins remain at risk for adverse effects from hormone therapy. Although younger women or more recently menopausal women taking hormone therapy may be at relatively lower risk for CHD and myocardial infarction, they remain at risk for stroke, venous thromboembolism and peripheral artery disease. Adverse effects are enhanced in older women with menopausal symptoms. Although hormone therapy lowers LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, it has adverse effects on triglyceride, lipoprotein composition, and inflammatory and hemostatic markers. Baseline metabolic syndrome and high LDL cholesterol increase the CHD risk with hormone therapy. Analyses of discontinuation data in the estrogen-alone and E + P trials suggest that the adverse effects of hormone therapy on CVD are reversible. Recent analyses do not justify postmenopausal hormone therapy for CVD prevention. Further research on the role of hormone therapy-induced changes in CVD risk factors along with genetic studies may increase understanding and aid in developing safer therapies for menopausal symptoms.
    Current opinion in lipidology 10/2013; · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent article, Sarrel et al.(1) assert that estrogen avoidance since 2002 has caused tens of thousands of premature deaths among posthysterectomy women aged 50 to 59 years in the United States. They fault Women's Health Initiative (WHI) investigators for inadequate efforts to communicate the benefits of unopposed estrogen and to contrast (unopposed) estrogen findings from those for estrogen plus progestin in reporting on the WHI randomized controlled trials.(2-5) (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 17, 2013: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301604).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Menopausal hormone therapy continues in clinical use but questions remain regarding its risks and benefits for chronic disease prevention. OBJECTIVE To report a comprehensive, integrated overview of findings from the 2 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy trials with extended postintervention follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 27 347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled at 40 US centers. INTERVENTIONS Women with an intact uterus received conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 2.5 mg/d) (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). Women with prior hysterectomy received CEE alone (0.625 mg/d) (n = 5310) or placebo (n = 5429). The intervention lasted a median of 5.6 years in CEE plus MPA trial and 7.2 years in CEE alone trial with 13 years of cumulative follow-up until September 30, 2010. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary efficacy and safety outcomes were coronary heart disease (CHD) and invasive breast cancer, respectively. A global index also included stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and death. RESULTS During the CEE plus MPA intervention phase, the numbers of CHD cases were 196 for CEE plus MPA vs 159 for placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.45) and 206 vs 155, respectively, for invasive breast cancer (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53). Other risks included increased stroke, pulmonary embolism, dementia (in women aged ≥65 years), gallbladder disease, and urinary incontinence; benefits included decreased hip fractures, diabetes, and vasomotor symptoms. Most risks and benefits dissipated postintervention, although some elevation in breast cancer risk persisted during cumulative follow-up (434 cases for CEE plus MPA vs 323 for placebo; HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.11-1.48]). The risks and benefits were more balanced during the CEE alone intervention with 204 CHD cases for CEE alone vs 222 cases for placebo (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.78-1.14) and 104 vs 135, respectively, for invasive breast cancer (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02); cumulatively, there were 168 vs 216, respectively, cases of breast cancer diagnosed (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97). Results for other outcomes were similar to CEE plus MPA. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality. For CEE alone, younger women (aged 50-59 years) had more favorable results for all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and the global index (nominal P < .05 for trend by age). Absolute risks of adverse events (measured by the global index) per 10 000 women annually taking CEE plus MPA ranged from 12 excess cases for ages of 50-59 years to 38 for ages of 70-79 years; for women taking CEE alone, from 19 fewer cases for ages of 50-59 years to 51 excess cases for ages of 70-79 years. Quality-of-life outcomes had mixed results in both trials. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Menopausal hormone therapy has a complex pattern of risks and benefits. Findings from the intervention and extended postintervention follow-up of the 2 WHI hormone therapy trials do not support use of this therapy for chronic disease prevention, although it is appropriate for symptom management in some women. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000611.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2013; 310(13):1353-1368. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research comparing hormone therapy (HT) doses, regimens, and routes of delivery in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes has been limited. This study directly compared different estrogen doses, routes of delivery, and HT formulations in postmenopausal women in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD mortality, total CVD, and all-cause mortality. The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study is a multicenter prospective cohort study that was conducted at 40 US sites. Analyses included 93,676 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at study entry who were recruited from September 1994 to December 1998, with annual follow-up through August 14, 2009. The mean follow-up was 10.4 years. In direct comparisons, oral estradiol was associated with lower hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke than oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.40-1.02), but statistical power was limited. Similarly, transdermal estradiol was associated with a moderate but nonsignificantly lower risk of CHD compared with oral CEE (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.37-1.06). For other outcomes, comparisons revealed no appreciable differences by estrogen doses, formulations, or routes of delivery. Absolute risks of CVD events and all-cause mortality were markedly lower in younger women compared with older women. In direct comparisons, various HT doses and regimens are associated with similar rates of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, oral estradiol may be associated with a lower risk of stroke, and transdermal estradiol may be associated with a lower risk of CHD, compared with conventional-dose oral CEE. Additional research is needed to confirm these hypotheses.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 09/2013; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    Osteoporosis International 08/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Juhua Luo, Jacques Rossouw, Karen L Margolis
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2013; 310(1):94-96. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies reported that smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk of type 2 diabetes than continuing to smoke. However, the duration of increased diabetes risk following smoking cessation needs further investigation. We followed 135,906 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, over an average of 11 years to examine the association between smoking cessation and risk of diabetes using Cox proportional hazard multivariable-adjusted regression models. Compared with that for never smokers, the risk for diabetes was significantly elevated in current smokers (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.36) but was even higher in women who quit smoking during the first 3 years of follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.63). Among former smokers, the risk of diabetes decreased significantly as the time since quitting increased and was equal to that of never smokers following a cessation period of 10 years. In new quitters with low cumulative exposure (<20 pack-years), diabetes risk was not elevated following smoking cessation. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes in former smokers returns to that in never smokers 10 years after quitting, and even more quickly in lighter smokers.
    American journal of epidemiology 06/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • R L Prentice, R D Jackson, J E Rossouw
    Osteoporosis International 04/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We re-evaluate the Women's Health Initiative findings and their implications for clinical practice. Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) was effective for relief of vasomotor symptoms, and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) tended to be reduced in women close to menopause compared with the increased risk in women more distant from menopause. In recently menopausal women, short-term absolute risks of stroke and venous thromboembolism were small. Estrogen plus progestin therapy, but not estrogen therapy, increased the risk of breast cancer with a suggestion of greater risk when initiated close to the menopause. Menopausal HT increased the risk of CHD in women more than 20 years distant from menopause, particularly in women with vasomotor symptoms. It remains unknown whether the suggestive benefit for CHD in younger women will translate into benefits or harms if menopausal HT is continued into older ages. Based on Women's Health Initiative data, the use of menopausal HT for fewer than 5 years is a reasonable option for the relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. The risks seen with estrogen plus progestin therapy suggest careful periodic reassessment of the ongoing therapy needs for women taking estrogen plus progestin therapy. The more favorable profile of estrogen therapy allows for individualized management with respect to duration of use when symptoms persist. For both estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy, the baseline risk profile of the individual woman needs to be taken into account. Menopausal HT is not suitable for long-term prevention of CHD given risks of stroke, venous thromboembolism, and breast cancer (for estrogen plus progestin therapy) found in both clinical trials and in observational studies.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2013; 121(1):172-6. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial randomly assigned 36,282 postmenopausal women in the U.S. to 1,000 mg elemental calcium carbonate plus 400 IU of vitamin D(3) daily or placebo, with average intervention period of 7.0 years. The trial was designed to test whether calcium plus vitamin D supplementation in a population in which the use of these supplements was widespread would reduce hip fracture, and secondarily, total fracture and colorectal cancer. INTRODUCTION: This study further examines the health benefits and risks of calcium and vitamin D supplementation using WHI data, with emphasis on fractures, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. METHODS: WHI calcium and vitamin D randomized clinical trial (CT) data through the end of the intervention period were further analyzed with emphasis on treatment effects in relation to duration of supplementation, and these data were contrasted and combined with corresponding data from the WHI prospective observational study (OS). RESULTS: Among women not taking personal calcium or vitamin D supplements at baseline, the hazard ratio [HR] for hip fracture occurrence in the CT following 5 or more years of calcium and vitamin D supplementation versus placebo was 0.62 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.38-1.00). In combined analyses of CT and OS data, the corresponding HR was 0.65 (95 % CI, 0.44-0.98). Supplementation effects were not apparent on the risks of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, total heart disease, stroke, overall cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, or total mortality, while evidence for a reduction in breast cancer risk and total invasive cancer risk among calcium plus vitamin D users was only suggestive. CONCLUSION: Though based primarily on a subset analysis, long-term use of calcium and vitamin D appears to confer a reduction that may be substantial in the risk of hip fracture among postmenopausal women. Other health benefits and risks of supplementation at doses considered, including an elevation in urinary tract stone formation, appear to be modest and approximately balanced.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in older women with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDLC) levels. The endogenous estrogen receptor antagonist 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) is correlated with LDLC levels and may block the beneficial effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Initiative trials of 350 CHD cases and 813 matched controls to explore potential mediation by 27OHC of the dependence of the CHD risk elevation with MHT on LDLC. Baseline levels of 27OHC were not associated with CHD risk when LDLC was included in the multivariable models. The odds ratio for CHD associated with increased LDLC was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.23) and was unchanged at 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.22) when 27OHC was added to the model. Baseline 27OHC did not interact with MHT on CHD risk (P=0.81). In contrast, LDLC levels modified the effect of MHT on CHD risk (P for interaction=0.02), and adding 27OHC did not affect this result. With the use of log scales, the effect of MHT on CHD increased linearly with increasing level of baseline LDLC, with a transition from no risk to increased risk at ≈3.36 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). This study found that 27OHC does not independently increase the risk of CHD, does not modify the increased risk of CHD resulting from MHT, and does not mediate the interaction of LDLC with MHT. Measuring blood lipids may aid in counseling individual women about initiating MHT and cardiovascular risk mitigation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.
    Circulation 08/2012; 126(13):1577-86. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies have identified several genomic regions that are associated with stroke risk, but these provide an explanation for only a small fraction of familial stroke aggregation. Genotype by environment interactions may contribute further to such explanation. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial found increased stroke risk with postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and provides an efficient setting for evaluating genotype-HT interaction on stroke risk. METHODS: We examined HT by genotype interactions for 392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from candidate gene studies, and 2371 SNPs associated with change in blood protein concentrations after hormone therapy, in analyses that included 2045 postmenopausal women who developed stroke during WHI clinical trial and observational study follow-up and 1-1 matched controls. A two-stage procedure was implemented where SNPs passing the first stage screening based on marginal association with stroke risk were tested in the second-stage for interaction with HT using case-only analysis. RESULTS: The two stage procedure identified two SNPs rs2154299 and rs12194855 in the Coagulation Factor XIII Subunit A (F13A1) region and two SNPs rs630431 and rs560892 in the Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin 9 (PCSK9) region with estimated false discovery rate < 0.05 based on interaction tests. Further analyses showed significant stroke risk interaction between these F13A1 SNPs and Estrogen plus Progestin (E+P) treatment for ischemic stroke and for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke combined, and suggested interactions between PCSK9 SNPs with either E+P or Estrogen-alone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Genotype by environment interaction information may help to define genomic regions relevant to stroke risk. Two-stage analysis among postmenopausal women generates novel hypotheses concerning the F13A1 and PCSK9 genomic regions and the effects of hormonal exposures on postmenopausal stroke risk for subsequent independent validation.
    Genome Medicine 07/2012; 4(7):57. · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 06/2012; 19(7):835-6; author reply 836-7. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between retinopathy and cognitive decline or brain lesions and volumes in older women. This study included 511 women aged 65 and older who were simultaneously enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and the Sight Examination Study. In this analysis, we examined the link between retinopathy, assessed using fundus photography (2000-2002), cognitive performance over time assessed by the modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) (1996-2007), and white matter hyperintensities and lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia. Presence of retinopathy was associated with poorer 3MSE scores (mean difference = 1.01, SE: 0.43) (p = 0.019) over a 10-year follow-up period and greater ischemic volumes in the total brain (47% larger, p = 0.04) and the parietal lobe (68% larger, p = 0.01) but not with measures of regional brain atrophy. The correspondence we found between retinopathy and cognitive impairment, along with larger ischemic lesion volumes, strengthens existing evidence that retinopathy as a marker of small vessel disease is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease that may influence cognitive performance and related brain changes. Retinopathy may be useful as a clinical tool if it can be shown to be an early marker related to neurologic outcomes.
    Neurology 03/2012; 78(13):942-9. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Archives of internal medicine 03/2012; 172(5):438-40. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: {no abstract}
    Genome Medicine 03/2012; 4(3):19. · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
913.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Bloomington, IN, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1999–2013
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • West Virginia University
      • Department of Community Medicine
      Morgantown, WV, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2003
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States