Susana Jiménez

Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (7)24.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ninety female outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed a semistructured interview to assess the relationship between different OCD symptom dimensions and the onset of OCD at menarche or during the perinatal period. Patients with hoarding symptoms had an earlier age at menarche than non-hoarders (12.1 +/- 1.3 vs 13.0 +/- 1.5 years, p = 0.019) and were more likely to report OCD onset at menarche (OR = 4.1, p = 0.034). Patients with symptoms of the contamination/cleaning dimension were more likely to report the onset of their disorder during pregnancy or postpartum (OR = 9.3, p = 0.048).
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 09/2009; 13(1):75-81. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Memory deficits have been reported in several neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Dysfunction in nonverbal memory has been consistently reported, whereas findings on verbal memory are more heterogeneous. The authors studied 50 patients with OCD who were matched for sex, age, educational level, and hand dominance with 50 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive performance in both groups was assessed on verbal and nonverbal memory tasks, and several clinical variables were also assessed in the patient group. Patients with OCD showed a pattern of cognitive dysfunction with alterations in areas of nonverbal memory (recall and recognition), and verbal memory (learning and recall). Older age at onset of OCD was associated with poorer performance on verbal memory tasks. Low scores on some verbal memory tasks were associated with severity of OCD, and nonverbal memory was influenced by depressive symptoms. The study suggests the existence of dysfunction in the execution of verbal and nonverbal memory tasks in OCD; the influence of clinical variables depends on the specific neuropsychological function.
    Neuropsychology 04/2008; 22(2):262-72. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the relationship between personality factors and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proved difficult to interpret due to conceptual problems including a lack of consensus on the model of personality employed as a framework as well as a failure to consider the clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the dimensional personality profile associated with OCD and to determine whether any relationship exists between personality factors and clinical variables in a sample of 60 OCD outpatients who were administered Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Y-BOCS symptom checklist were used to assess the severity of obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms and the presence of the main OCD symptom dimensions. OCD patients showed significantly higher scores in harm avoidance and lower scores in novelty-seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness than healthy subjects. These results remained unchanged when only pure OCD patients without comorbid psychiatric conditions were considered. Comorbid depressive symptoms and hoarding obsessions and compulsions were significantly associated with high harm avoidance scores. These results support the existence of a dimensional personality profile associated with OCD and characterized by high harm avoidance and low novelty-seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness scores, but also emphasize the importance of considering the influence of comorbid clinical conditions or symptom subtypes in addressing the role of personality factors in OCD.
    Psychiatry Research 02/2008; 157(1-3):159-68. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to assess the role of gender in OCD symptom dimensions with a multivariate analysis while controlling for history of tic disorders and age at onset of OCD. One hundred and eighty-six consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were interviewed. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOC-S), YBOC-S Symptom Checklist, and Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales were administered to all patients. Lifetime history of tic disorders was assessed with the tic inventory section of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Age at onset of OCD was assessed by direct interview. Statistical analysis was carried out through logistic regression to calculate adjusted female:male odds ratios (OR) for each dimension. A relationship was found between gender and two main OCD dimensions: contamination/cleaning (higher in females; female:male OR=2.02, P=0.03) and sexual/religious (lower in females; female:male OR=0.41, P=0.03). We did not find gender differences in the aggressive/checking, symmetry/ordering, or hoarding dimensions. We also found a greater history of tic disorders in those patients with symptoms from the symmetry/ordering, dimension (P<0.01). Both symmetry/ordering and sexual/religious dimensions were associated with an earlier age at onset of OCD (P<0.05). Gender is a variable that plays a role in the expression of OCD, particularly the contamination/cleaning and sexual/religious dimensions. Our results underscore the need to examine the relationship between OCD dimensions and clinical variables such as gender, tics, age at onset and severity of the disorder to improve the identification of OCD subtypes.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2007; 25(10):832-8. · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Psychosomatic Research 07/2006; 60(6):647-8. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a relationship between reproductive cycle events and the initiation or changes in symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-six female outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD completed a semistructured interview at our OCD unit to assess the relationship between reproductive cycle events and OCD. Dates of data collection were from January 2001 to December 2003. In our sample, OCD onset occurred in the same year as menarche in 22% (N = 10), at pregnancy in 2% (N = 1), at postpartum in 7% (N = 3), and at menopause in 2% (N = 1). Worsening of preexisting OCD was reported by 20% of patients (9/45) at premenstruum, 8% (1/12) at pregnancy, 50% (6/12) at postpartum, and 8% (1/12) at menopause. The number of premenstrual mood symptoms, which included anxiety, irritability, mood lability and depressed mood, was associated with both premenstrual worsening of OCD (OR = 5.1, p < .01) and onset or worsening of OCD at postpartum (OR = 2.7, p < .05). Patients with an onset or worsening of OCD at postpartum also more frequently reported pre-menstrual worsening of OCD and previous history of major depressive disorder, including postpartum depression (p < or =.05 for all). In a substantial number of patients, the onset or worsening of OCD was related to reproductive cycle events, especially at menarche and postpartum. Certain women with OCD seem to be vulnerable to worsening of OCD at different reproductive periods that imply hormonal fluctuations, and premenstruum and post-partum were the 2 reproductive events with a greater vulnerability. Those patients whose OCD symptoms appeared to be related to reproductive events also exhibited a greater history of mood symptoms (premenstrual depression and major depressive episodes).
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 05/2005; 66(4):428-35; quiz 546. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) runs in families, but the specific contribution of genetic and environmental factors to its development is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess whether there are differences in perceived parental child-rearing practices between OCD patients and healthy controls, and whether any relationship exists between parental characteristics, depressive symptoms and the expression of particular OCD symptom dimensions. A group of 40 OCD outpatients and 40 matched healthy controls received the EMBU (Own Memories of Parental Rearing Experiences in Childhood), a self-report measure of perceived parental child-rearing style. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to assess the severity of obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms. The Y-BOCS Symptom Checklist was used to assess the nature of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, considering the following five symptom dimensions: contamination/cleaning, aggressive/checking, symmetry/ordering, sexual/religious and hoarding. Logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to study the relationship between parental style of upbringing, depressive symptoms and OCD symptom dimensions. Severe OCD (Y-BOCS: 27.0+/-7.4) and mild to moderate depressive symptoms (HDRS: 14.0+/-5.4) were detected in our sample. Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients perceived higher levels of rejection from their fathers. No differences between the groups with respect to perceived levels of overprotection were detected. The seventy of depressive symptoms could not be predicted by scores on any perceived parental characteristics. Hoarding was the only OCD symptom dimension that could be partially predicted by parental traits, specifically low parental emotional warmth. Social/cultural variables such as parental child-rearing patterns, in interaction with biological and genetic factors, may contribute to the expression of the OCD phenotype.
    Psychiatry Research 08/2004; 127(3):267-78. · 2.68 Impact Factor