Lisa R David

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (91)108.93 Total impact

  • Leslie G Branch · Lisa R David
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    ABSTRACT: Abstracts: Microstomia is rarely seen in pediatric patients, but usually results from burns, trauma, or caustic ingestions. There have been multiple studies reporting various techniques for oral commissure reconstruction, but few reports in infants. The authors present another modification of previous techniques of microstomia repair performed in a 10-week-old infant using multiple z-plasties and bilateral mucosal rhomboid flaps.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 06/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001847 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a profound increase in the number of patients undergoing head computed tomography after minor injuries and the identification of epidural hematomas has risen concurrently. Although emergent craniotomy and evacuation has been the conventional standard for management, some epidural hematomas can be managed nonoperatively in carefully selected patients. Because of the difficulty in clinically monitoring epidural hematoma absorption and resolution because of the attributed risks of imaging radiation exposure in pediatric patients, the exact incidence of epidural hematoma ossification is unknown.Integrating epidural hematoma calcification into management algorithms is not clearly defined in the literature. The authors report a case of a 2-year-old girl with a calcified epidural hematoma requiring surgical treatment. With the incidence of epidural hematomas rising, providers should be aware of the rare but consequential incidence of epidural hematoma ossification. After literature review and discussion of the pathophysiology, the authors present an algorithmic approach to account for this rare entity. For conservative management of asymptomatic epidural hematomas, providers should consider follow-up magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate resolution in 2 to 3 months. If the magnetic resonance imaging indicates a failure to resolve, a computed tomography scan should then be performed to evaluate ossification and possible need for surgical intervention.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 06/2015; 26(5). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001806 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Le Fort III osteotomy is commonly used in the surgical correction of midface hypoplasia, specifically in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. These osteotomies can be associated with significant complications, which are often the result of incomplete or inaccurate osteotomies. Brainlab, a technology first developed for neurosurgery, has been applied to numerous surgical subspecialties. The aim of this study was to report our initial experience using the Brainlab VectorVision2 and Brainlab Curve (Brainlab, Westchester, IL) as an intraoperative guidance system for osteotomy placement during Le Fort III advancement. Three pediatric patients with syndromic craniosynostosis and midface hypoplasia scheduled to undergo Le Fort III advancement were scanned preoperatively with 0.6-mm computed tomography cuts, which were then uploaded to the Brainlab system. All surgeries commenced with rigid fixation of the Brainlab registration device to the patient's skull. The navigation system was used intraoperatively to accurately determine osteotomy sites and trajectories. External distractors were placed without complication. Mean length of surgery was 331 minutes, and mean estimated blood loss was 500 mL. No transfusion was required with a mean postoperative hemoglobin of 8.3 g/dL. The application of Brainlab technology to Le Fort III advancement proved useful in establishing precise osteotomy lines and trajectories. Looking forward, this technology could be applied to a minimal dissection technique in order to avoid extensive blood loss. Further study would be needed to determine possible benefits such as reduced complications or operative time when using an intraoperative navigation system for image-guided osteotomy placement during Le Fort III advancement.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2015; 26(3):616-9. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001573 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A stratification system is useful in deformational plagiocephaly (DP) to help categorize patients and reproduce a consistent treatment strategy. The Argenta classification is a clinical 5-point scale for unilateral DP and 3-point scale for central DP (CDP). A retrospective review was completed for patients with DP and classified using the Argenta clinical classification by plastic surgeons at a tertiary medical center over a 12-year period. In the 4483 patients, type III was the most prevalent DP type (42%) followed by II, IV, I, and V. Within CDP, VIB was the most common (6%) followed by VIA and VIC. Right-sided DP (56.8%) was more common than left-sided (28.3%) and bilateral (20.4%) (P < 0.0001). For treatment, 89.8% used molding helmet therapy, 9.3% used positioning only, and 0.4% used sock hat. Helmet use increased with increasing type to 98% with type V. In CDP, there was a significant increase in helmet use between VIA and VIB, but helmet use decreased in VIC. There was a higher rate of positioning only in types I, II, and VIA, which diminished as severity increased. Deformational plagiocephaly corrected to type I or 0 in 83.5% of the patients with the highest correction rate in type I (90.7%). Mean age of correction was 11.4 months and time to correction was 5.7 months. Both significantly increased with severity of type in the patients with DP but not in those with CDP. The Argenta classification scale allows reliable evaluation for cranial deformities and may help predict the optimal type duration of treatment.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 04/2015; 26(3). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001511 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics discouraged prone sleeping positions because of its association with sudden infant death syndrome. After this was an increased incidence of deformational plagiocephaly (DP). A retrospective review was completed for patients with DP and craniosynostosis seen by plastic surgeons at a tertiary medical center during a 19-year period. Two groups of patients were evaluated before (1988-1995) and after (1996-2007) implementation of the "Back to Sleep" campaign. Of the 5169 patients, those with craniosynostosis (n = 279) had a mean age at initial evaluation before and after 1996 of 12.4 versus 5.6 months (P = 0.0008). There was a trend of decreasing age at initial evaluation and first surgery after 1996. For patients with DP (n = 4890), the mean age at initial evaluation before and after 1996 was 11.5 versus 6.0 months (P = 0.10). There was a trend of decreasing age at initial evaluation and DP correction after 1996. The majority of patients had right-sided DP (50.2%), followed by left-sided (24.7%) and bilateral (18.9%). There was no significant difference in DP correction rate (67% versus 87%) or the mean age that DP was corrected (12.8 versus 11.8 mo) before and after 1996. Compared with 1996 to 1999, there was a 214% and 390% increase in DP referrals from 2000 to 2003 and 2004 to 2007. For craniosynostosis, there was a 27% and 129% increase in referrals. The increasing incidence of DP since the Back to Sleep campaign is concerning, but a positive outcome is that patients are being referred and treated at a younger age.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2015; 26(1):147-50. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001401 · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Ivo A. Pestana · Lisa R. David
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    ABSTRACT: Orbital fractures are some of the most common and challenging midface fractures encountered in emergency departments and, subsequently, by head and neck reconstructive surgeons. The term “orbit” refers to the space formed by the osseous structures that surround the eye. Orbital fractures can occur alone or in combination with other facial injuries or fracture complexes, and the significance of an orbital injury is related to its effect on the orbital contents and/or the space itself. In addition to variations in the type of injury and their association with other facial fractures, debate with regard to indications, timing, and technique of fracture repair exists. Moreover, differences of opinion exist regarding the choice of incision, approach, reconstructive materials, and wound closure.
    Ferraro's Fundamentals of Maxillofacial Surgery, 01/2015: pages 209-221; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-8340-3
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    ABSTRACT: Blood loss is the leading cause of mortality after major craniofacial surgery. Autologous blood donation, short-term normovolemic hemodilution, and intraoperative blood salvage have shown low efficacy in decreasing transfusions. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic antifibrinolytic drug that competitively decreases the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, thereby suppressing fibrinolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that TXA administration has on intraoperative blood loss and blood product transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing cranial vault reconstruction. An Internal Review Board-approved retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive series of pediatric patients undergoing cranial vault reconstruction from January 2009 to June 2012. Seventeen consecutive patients who received TXA at the time of cranial vault reconstruction were compared with 20 patients who did not receive TXA. Criteria for blood product transfusion were identical for both groups. Outcomes including perioperative blood loss, volume of blood transfused, and adverse effects were analyzed. The TXA group had a significantly lower perioperative blood loss (9.4 versus 21.1 mL/kg, P < 0.0001) and lower volume of perioperative mean blood product transfusion (12.8 versus 31.3 mL/kg, P < 0.0001) compared with the non-TXA group. There was no significant difference in demographic data, infection rate, change in preoperative to postoperative hematocrit, duration of surgery, or complication rates between the TXA and non-TXA groups. No drug-related adverse effects were identified in patients who received TXA. The use of TXA in pediatric cranial vault reconstruction significantly reduces perioperative blood loss and blood product transfusion requirements. The TXA administration is safe and may improve patient outcomes by decreasing the likelihood of adverse effects related to blood product transfusion.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 12/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001271 · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Claire Sanger · Lisa David · Louis Argenta
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: To present the current surgical options for minimally invasive surgery for treatment of craniosynostosis. Recent findings: Minimally invasive procedures are well tolerated treatment options for patients with craniosynostosis. Suturectomy and helmet therapy is a treatment option for scaphocephaly with minimal blood loss and length of hospital stay. Spring-mediated cranioplasty is, in addition, a well tolerated and effective treatment option for scaphocephaly. Summary: In patients with multiple suture craniosynostosis, surgical techniques that utilize spring-assisted surgery can provide decreased morbidity with better bone formation made available for a second operation. Continued basic science research and clinical studies will expand the use and provide further minimally invasive procedures to infants with craniosynostosis.
    Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 06/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1097/MOO.0000000000000069 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue expander and implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy is the most common method of breast reconstruction. Modifications of the traditional total submuscular reconstruction (TSR) have been made using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to create an inferolateral sling and a more natural implant pocket for superior aesthetic results. The objective of this study was to assess aesthetic outcomes when using ADM in breast reconstruction. A retrospective chart review identified all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction from 2005 to 2009 at our institution. Demographic information, complications, reoperations, and aesthetic outcome data were collected for all patients meeting inclusion criteria related to adequate follow-up and postoperative photographs. Five aesthetic outcomes were evaluated for all study patients by 18 blinded evaluators using postoperative photographs. Outcomes were scored on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 representing the best possible aesthetic score. A total of 122 patients underwent 183 tissue expander-based reconstructions (ADM, n = 58; TSR, n = 125). The infection rate in patients with ADM was 16.2% compared to 5.9% in TSR patients, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). Capsular contracture was more common in TSR patients (23.5%), compared to those with ADM (8.1%), P = 0.048. Aesthetic scores from the attending plastic surgeons were as follows: natural contour (ADM, 3.36; TSR, 3.02; P = 0.0001), symmetry of shape (ADM, 3.57; TSR, 3.27; P = 0.005), symmetry of size (ADM, 3.68; TSR, 3.42; P = 0.002), position on chest wall (ADM, 3.75; TSR, 3.45; P = 0.004), and overall aesthetic appearance (ADM, 3.56; TSR, 3.20; P = 0.0001). For all 5 aesthetic parameters evaluated, the ADM group scored significantly higher than the TSR group by 18 blinded evaluators. These consistent findings suggest that the use of ADM in breast reconstruction does confer a significant advantage in aesthetic outcomes for breast reconstruction. This is likely at the cost of a higher infection rate when using ADM; however, that may be offset by the advantage of a lower rate of capsular contracture in patients with ADM.
    Annals of plastic surgery 12/2013; 72(6). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000098 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical infection remains a significant problem in implant-based breast reconstruction and is a physical and emotional strain to the breast reconstruction patient. Bacterial strikethrough of draping and gown material is a likely source of infection. Strategies to reduce infection in implant-based breast reconstruction are essential to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine if a disposable draping system is superior to reusable draping materials in the prevention of implant-based breast reconstruction infection. This single-institution, prospective, randomized, single-blinded, IRB-approved study enrolled women with breast cancer who were eligible for implant-based breast reconstruction. The primary endpoint was clinical infection by postoperative day 30. Secondary endpoints included all other complications encountered throughout the follow-up period and culture data. Demographic data recorded included patient age, body mass index, diabetes, smoking, chemotherapy, radiation, and follow-up. Procedural data recorded included procedure type, procedure length, estimated blood loss, use of acellular dermal matrix, use of muscle flap, and inpatient versus outpatient setting. From March 2010 through January 2012, 107 women were randomized and 102 completed the study. Five patients were determined not to be candidates for reconstruction after randomization. There were 43 patients in the Reusable Group and 59 patients in the Disposable Group. There were no significant differences in patient demographic data, procedural data, or the type of procedure performed between groups. In the Reusable Group, there were 5 infections (12%) within 30 days compared to 0 (0%) infections in the Disposable Group (P = 0.012). There was no significant difference in secondary complications. There was a trend for positive wound cultures (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.10) and positive drape cultures (17% vs.4%, P = 0.08) in patients with clinical infection. There were no differences in the number of colony-forming units or positive cultures between groups. Disposable draping material is superior to a reusable draping system in the prevention of clinical infection within the immediate postoperative period. This study did not demonstrate a clear link between intraoperative culture data and the development of clinical infection. A completely disposable gown and draping system is recommended during implant-based breast reconstruction.
    Annals of plastic surgery 12/2013; 72(6). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000086 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object: There has been a tremendous increase in the incidence of deformational plagiocephaly in children throughout the world. Therapeutic options include observation, active counterpositioning, external orthotics, and surgery. The current treatment in the US is highly debated, but it typically includes external orthotic helmets in patients with moderate to severe plagiocephaly presenting between 4 and 10 months of age or in children with significant comorbidities limiting passive (no-pressure) therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate 3 key issues: 1) the accuracy of the Argenta classification in defining a progressive degree of severity, 2) identification of an upper age limit when treatment is no longer effective, and 3) the effectiveness of an off-the-shelf prefabricated helmet in correcting deformational plagiocephaly. Methods: An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted of all patients at the authors' clinic in whom deformational plagiocephaly was assessed using the Argenta classification system over a 6-year period; the patients underwent helmet therapy, and a minimum of 3 clinic visits were recorded. Inclusion criteria consisted of an Argenta Type II-V plagiocephalic deformity. Patients' conditions were categorized both by severity of the deformity and by patients' age at presentation. Statistical analysis was conducted using survival analysis. Results: There were 1050 patients included in the study. Patients with Type III, IV, and V plagiocephaly required progressively longer for deformity correction to be achieved than patients with Type II plagiocephaly (53%, 75%, and 81% longer, respectively [p < 0.0001]). This finding verified that the Argenta stratification indicated a progressive severity of deformity. No statistically significant difference in the time to correction was noted among the different age categories, which suggests that the previously held upper time limit for correction may be inaccurate. An overall correction rate to Type I plagiocephaly of 81.6% was achieved irrespective of severity and degree of the original deformity. This suggests that an inexpensive off-the-shelf molding helmet is highly effective and that expensive custom-fitted orthoses may not be necessary. The patients in the older age group (> 12 months) did not have a statistically significant longer interval to correction than the patients in the youngest age group (< 3 months). The mean length of follow-up was 6.3 months. Conclusions: Patients treated with passive helmet therapy in the older age group (> 12 months) had an improvement in skull shape within the same treatment interval as the patients in the younger age group (< 3 months). This study supports the use of passive helmet therapy for improvement in deformational plagiocephaly in infants from birth to 18 months of age and verifies the stratification of degree of deformity used in the Argenta classification system.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 10/2013; 35(4):E4. DOI:10.3171/2013.8.FOCUS13258 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plastic surgery continues to be a very competitive program to match into out of medical school. To analyze the match process, all applicants to our plastic surgery residency program in 2012 were surveyed. Our results showed that with matching into plastic surgery as the primary outcome measure, those who matched applied to more plastic surgery programs, received and accepted more interview invitations, were younger, were less likely to be foreign medical graduates, reported higher costs, had higher Step 1 and Step 2 scores, were more likely to be an Alpha Omega Alpha member, and conducted more research. In addition to looking at variables that affected the success of the match, other questions regarding the match process were posed. Most interestingly, 10% of applicants still reported violations of the match communication guidelines. Furthermore, the mean cost of interviewing for the plastic surgery match was $6073.In summary, applicants with diversified strengths had the best chance of matching. On the basis of the results of this study, applicants should attend a large number of interviews to optimize their match success. With medical student debt a growing problem, programs need to find ways to control interview costs. Residency program compliance with match communication guidelines has improved, but compliance should be universal. With these data, applicants can be better prepared for the match to optimize their success and programs can work to improve the match process.
    Annals of plastic surgery 06/2013; 70(6):698-703. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31828587d3 · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 05/2013; 131:109. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000430085.56555.f8 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Article: Abstract 60
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 05/2013; 131:52. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000430002.85765.02 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Transverse rectus abdominus muscle flaps (TRAM) can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. We present our experience with bilateral pedicle TRAM breast reconstruction using a double-layered polypropylene mesh fold over technique to repair the rectus fascia. Methods: A retrospective study was performed that included patients with bilateral pedicle TRAM breast reconstruction and abdominal reconstruction using a double-layered polypropylene mesh fold over technique. Results: Thirty-five patients met the study criteria with a mean age of 49 years old and mean follow-up of 7.4 years. There were no instances of abdominal hernia and only 2 cases (5.7%) of abdominal bulge. Other abdominal complications included partial umbilical necrosis (14.3%), seroma (11.4%), partial wound dehiscence (8.6%), abdominal weakness (5.7%), abdominal laxity (2.9%), and hematoma (2.9%). Conclusions: The TRAM flap is a reliable option for bilateral autologous breast reconstruction. Using the double mesh repair of the abdominal wall can reduce instances of an abdominal bulge and hernia.
    Annals of plastic surgery 03/2013; 70(5). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31828569c0 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severity of the Harlequin deformity seen in unicoronal synostosis may be augmented when frontoparietal suture synostosis has an associated fusion of the frontosphenoidal suture or in cases of isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis. The purpose of the current study is to characterize various suture fusion patterns along the coronal ring using a modified orbital index (MOI), orbital angle (OA), and endocranial base (EB) angle.This study is a retrospective single institution cohort study. Charts were reviewed over the past 12 years; patients with isolated UCS were included. MOI, OA, and EB were used to identify 3 groups of UCS patients.Twenty-one patients were identified for inclusion in skeletal dysmorphology analysis using MOI, OA, and EB measures. Frontoparietal synostosis patients were diagnosed at significantly younger ages than frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.0001). Ipsilateral MOI measures were more severe for frontoparietal patients compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.0239). There was a trend for more severe ipsilateral OA measures in frontoparietal patients compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.181).Modified orbital index, OA, and EB measurements are useful in the diagnosis of suture fusion patterns in UCS patients. Frontoparietal synostosis has more severe Harlequin deformity compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients. Frontosphenoidal fusion coinciding with frontoparietal synostosis may blunt the severity of skeletal dysmorphology in UCS patients and be associated with a delayed diagnosis. Attention must be paid to assessing the frontosphenoidal suture to assure adequate surgical release.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 11/2012; 23(6). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31826beecc · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) occurs in more than 20% of patients with a cleft palate after primary palatoplasty. Surgical treatment focuses on pharyngoplasty to narrow the nasopharyngeal space and to decrease the distance needed for palatal closure. Persistent VPI after pharyngoplasty affects more than 20% of patients.From September 2007 to December 2009, 16 children (10 boys and 6 girls) with a mean age of 9.5 years (4-15 years) underwent surgical revision using an AlloDerm sling for persistent VPI after at least 1 previous failed pharyngoplasty. Ten children had previous sphincter pharyngoplasties, and 6 had previous pharyngeal flaps. Surgical technique involves creation of a submucosal tunnel through the limbs of the previous pharyngoplasty or pharyngeal flap. A strip of AlloDerm is threaded circumferentially, and the port is adjusted to the desired aperture.All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative analysis of VPI, including oral pharyngeal and perceptual speech examination by speech pathology with a mean follow-up of 441 days. Acoustic nasometry was used to objectively compare preoperative and postoperative nasalance values. A significant improvement in perceptual resonance was seen in 93.8% of patients, and 87.5% of patients improved to normal or mild resonance (P < 0.001). There was a significant mean reduction of nasalance using the MacKay-Kummer Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedure test (P < 0.001). Two patients developed postoperative flap dehiscence, with one being revised ultimately to have normal speech resonance.Revision pharyngoplasty using an AlloDerm sling can safely and effectively improve speech in patients with persistent VPI after failed pharyngoplasty. Long-term follow-up studies are ongoing.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2012; 23(3):645-9. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31824db8ef · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Jeyhan Wood · Daniel Couture · Lisa R David
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    ABSTRACT: A dermoid cyst is a thin-walled benign tumor formed by the entrapment of ectodermal tissue during embryologic development, resulting in the inclusion of epithelium and adnexal elements within the tumor. Dermoids are not unique to a single anatomic location but are often isolated to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. They may occur intracranially or intra-abdominally, oftentimes associated with the ovary. If presenting as a midline mass of the skull, preoperative imaging with computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to evaluate for possible intracranial extension, given the altered embryologic development behind the formation of these cysts. Differential diagnosis of a midline frontonasal mass includes epidermoid or dermoid cyst, encephalocele, glioma, and sinus pericranii. The management of suspected dermoid cysts includes complete surgical excision, which may require a combined intracranial and extracranial approach. We present a 2-year-old boy who presented to our institution with a congenital midline scalp mass separate from the anterior fontanelle with complete underlying bony erosion to the sagittal sinus demonstrated on preoperative imaging, who required early surgical excision and reconstruction of the bony defect.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2012; 23(1):131-4. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e318240fe5e · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mastectomy is a surgical choice for breast cancer, yet breast reconstruction is underused in women older than age 60 years. Because of a paucity of information examining breast cancer reconstruction in the elderly, we sought to review our experience. By retrospective chart review, we evaluated 89 women older than 60 years having mastectomy and reconstruction from January 1998 to June 2008. Mean patient age was 65 years (range, 60 to 74 years). The majority (41%) had Stage 1 disease or Stage 2 (30%). Ductal carcinoma in situ comprised 25 per cent and Stage 3 totaled 2 per cent. Mastectomy for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after radiation therapy and lumpectomy comprised 11 per cent. Most underwent immediate breast reconstruction (89%). Reconstructive techniques included two-stage implant (58%), transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap (10%), latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap with implant (2%), or deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (1%). Complications included a 12 per cent infection rate, removal of two expanders resulting from exposure, one TRAM failure, and one TRAM required débriding. Four patients undergoing mastectomy with tissue expander had radiation resulting in one expander being removed. One local skin recurrence was treated with removal of implant and skin resection. Two patients have died from metastatic disease. Age should not be a contraindication for breast reconstruction in elderly women.
    The American surgeon 12/2011; 77(12):1640-3. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To estimate the relation between consumer wealth and the demand for the most common elective and reconstructive plastic surgical procedures. Methods: A retrospective analysis was done on the five most common plastic surgery procedures within three categories (cosmetic surgical procedures, cosmetic minimally invasive procedures and reconstructive procedures) and for comparison three potentially elective procedures in general surgery (bariatric surgery, large and small bowel endoscopy) were reviewed. Regression and correlation analysis were performed using annual time-series economic data from the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis and surgery procedure volume from the National Clearinghouse of Plastic Surgery Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control Health Database. The statistical significance of the regressions and parameter estimates were established at the 5% confidence level (p=.05) using t and F tests. A Durbin-Watson test was applied to detect the presence of serial correlation. Additionally, we examined the income elasticity of demand for the surgical procedures within the same time period. Results: Three measures of consumer income/wealth are examined: the Nominal and Real house price indices as well as Real disposable income. Depending on the time period and the measure of income/wealth, Cosmetic surgical procedures have an income elasticity of demand (IOD) ranging from 5.45 to -25.14; minimally invasive procedures’ IODs ranged from 33.06 to -5.29; reconstructive procedures ranged from 10.58 to –15.88. The Bariatric surgery regression analysis provided evidence that the change in the demand for this procedure is statistically significantly related to the change in the nominal house price index [b = 4.32 (p=.027), R2=0.29], which is used to proxy for consumer wealth, implying that it is considered a luxury. Conversely, endoscopy of the small intestine and large intestine are statistically unrelated to changes in consumer wealth or income (p=0.68 and .85, respectively). Conclusions: Consumer wealth (the nominal house price index) is a better predictor of the demand for elective surgical procedures than income. Nonetheless, income elasticity is extremely variable depending on the time interval examined. We find the incongruous result that the same surgical procedure can be found to be either a luxury good (IOD>1) or an inferior good (IOD<0). The finding that nominal house prices are related to the demand for specific surgical procedures can aid in forecasting future volume.
    Plastic Surgery: The Meeting 2011; 09/2011

Publication Stats

1k Citations
108.93 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
      • • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States