Lisa R David

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (83)102.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Blood loss is the leading cause of mortality after major craniofacial surgery. Autologous blood donation, short-term normovolemic hemodilution, and intraoperative blood salvage have shown low efficacy in decreasing transfusions. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic antifibrinolytic drug that competitively decreases the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, thereby suppressing fibrinolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that TXA administration has on intraoperative blood loss and blood product transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing cranial vault reconstruction. An Internal Review Board-approved retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive series of pediatric patients undergoing cranial vault reconstruction from January 2009 to June 2012. Seventeen consecutive patients who received TXA at the time of cranial vault reconstruction were compared with 20 patients who did not receive TXA. Criteria for blood product transfusion were identical for both groups. Outcomes including perioperative blood loss, volume of blood transfused, and adverse effects were analyzed. The TXA group had a significantly lower perioperative blood loss (9.4 versus 21.1 mL/kg, P < 0.0001) and lower volume of perioperative mean blood product transfusion (12.8 versus 31.3 mL/kg, P < 0.0001) compared with the non-TXA group. There was no significant difference in demographic data, infection rate, change in preoperative to postoperative hematocrit, duration of surgery, or complication rates between the TXA and non-TXA groups. No drug-related adverse effects were identified in patients who received TXA. The use of TXA in pediatric cranial vault reconstruction significantly reduces perioperative blood loss and blood product transfusion requirements. The TXA administration is safe and may improve patient outcomes by decreasing the likelihood of adverse effects related to blood product transfusion.
    Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 12/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001271 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review To present the current surgical options for minimally invasive surgery for treatment of craniosynostosis. Recent findings Minimally invasive procedures are well tolerated treatment options for patients with craniosynostosis. Suturectomy and helmet therapy is a treatment option for scaphocephaly with minimal blood loss and length of hospital stay. Spring-mediated cranioplasty is, in addition, a well tolerated and effective treatment option for scaphocephaly. Summary In patients with multiple suture craniosynostosis, surgical techniques that utilize spring-assisted surgery can provide decreased morbidity with better bone formation made available for a second operation. Continued basic science research and clinical studies will expand the use and provide further minimally invasive procedures to infants with craniosynostosis.
    Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 06/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1097/MOO.0000000000000069 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue expander and implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy is the most common method of breast reconstruction. Modifications of the traditional total submuscular reconstruction (TSR) have been made using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to create an inferolateral sling and a more natural implant pocket for superior aesthetic results. The objective of this study was to assess aesthetic outcomes when using ADM in breast reconstruction. A retrospective chart review identified all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction from 2005 to 2009 at our institution. Demographic information, complications, reoperations, and aesthetic outcome data were collected for all patients meeting inclusion criteria related to adequate follow-up and postoperative photographs. Five aesthetic outcomes were evaluated for all study patients by 18 blinded evaluators using postoperative photographs. Outcomes were scored on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 representing the best possible aesthetic score. A total of 122 patients underwent 183 tissue expander-based reconstructions (ADM, n = 58; TSR, n = 125). The infection rate in patients with ADM was 16.2% compared to 5.9% in TSR patients, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). Capsular contracture was more common in TSR patients (23.5%), compared to those with ADM (8.1%), P = 0.048. Aesthetic scores from the attending plastic surgeons were as follows: natural contour (ADM, 3.36; TSR, 3.02; P = 0.0001), symmetry of shape (ADM, 3.57; TSR, 3.27; P = 0.005), symmetry of size (ADM, 3.68; TSR, 3.42; P = 0.002), position on chest wall (ADM, 3.75; TSR, 3.45; P = 0.004), and overall aesthetic appearance (ADM, 3.56; TSR, 3.20; P = 0.0001). For all 5 aesthetic parameters evaluated, the ADM group scored significantly higher than the TSR group by 18 blinded evaluators. These consistent findings suggest that the use of ADM in breast reconstruction does confer a significant advantage in aesthetic outcomes for breast reconstruction. This is likely at the cost of a higher infection rate when using ADM; however, that may be offset by the advantage of a lower rate of capsular contracture in patients with ADM.
    Annals of plastic surgery 12/2013; 72(6). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000098 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical infection remains a significant problem in implant-based breast reconstruction and is a physical and emotional strain to the breast reconstruction patient. Bacterial strikethrough of draping and gown material is a likely source of infection. Strategies to reduce infection in implant-based breast reconstruction are essential to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine if a disposable draping system is superior to reusable draping materials in the prevention of implant-based breast reconstruction infection. This single-institution, prospective, randomized, single-blinded, IRB-approved study enrolled women with breast cancer who were eligible for implant-based breast reconstruction. The primary endpoint was clinical infection by postoperative day 30. Secondary endpoints included all other complications encountered throughout the follow-up period and culture data. Demographic data recorded included patient age, body mass index, diabetes, smoking, chemotherapy, radiation, and follow-up. Procedural data recorded included procedure type, procedure length, estimated blood loss, use of acellular dermal matrix, use of muscle flap, and inpatient versus outpatient setting. From March 2010 through January 2012, 107 women were randomized and 102 completed the study. Five patients were determined not to be candidates for reconstruction after randomization. There were 43 patients in the Reusable Group and 59 patients in the Disposable Group. There were no significant differences in patient demographic data, procedural data, or the type of procedure performed between groups. In the Reusable Group, there were 5 infections (12%) within 30 days compared to 0 (0%) infections in the Disposable Group (P = 0.012). There was no significant difference in secondary complications. There was a trend for positive wound cultures (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.10) and positive drape cultures (17% vs.4%, P = 0.08) in patients with clinical infection. There were no differences in the number of colony-forming units or positive cultures between groups. Disposable draping material is superior to a reusable draping system in the prevention of clinical infection within the immediate postoperative period. This study did not demonstrate a clear link between intraoperative culture data and the development of clinical infection. A completely disposable gown and draping system is recommended during implant-based breast reconstruction.
    Annals of plastic surgery 12/2013; 72(6). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0000000000000086 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object There has been a tremendous increase in the incidence of deformational plagiocephaly in children throughout the world. Therapeutic options include observation, active counterpositioning, external orthotics, and surgery. The current treatment in the US is highly debated, but it typically includes external orthotic helmets in patients with moderate to severe plagiocephaly presenting between 4 and 10 months of age or in children with significant comorbidities limiting passive (no-pressure) therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate 3 key issues: 1) the accuracy of the Argenta classification in defining a progressive degree of severity, 2) identification of an upper age limit when treatment is no longer effective, and 3) the effectiveness of an off-the-shelf prefabricated helmet in correcting deformational plagiocephaly. Methods An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted of all patients at the authors' clinic in whom deformational plagiocephaly was assessed using the Argenta classification system over a 6-year period; the patients underwent helmet therapy, and a minimum of 3 clinic visits were recorded. Inclusion criteria consisted of an Argenta Type II-V plagiocephalic deformity. Patients' conditions were categorized both by severity of the deformity and by patients' age at presentation. Statistical analysis was conducted using survival analysis. Results There were 1050 patients included in the study. Patients with Type III, IV, and V plagiocephaly required progressively longer for deformity correction to be achieved than patients with Type II plagiocephaly (53%, 75%, and 81% longer, respectively [p < 0.0001]). This finding verified that the Argenta stratification indicated a progressive severity of deformity. No statistically significant difference in the time to correction was noted among the different age categories, which suggests that the previously held upper time limit for correction may be inaccurate. An overall correction rate to Type I plagiocephaly of 81.6% was achieved irrespective of severity and degree of the original deformity. This suggests that an inexpensive off-the-shelf molding helmet is highly effective and that expensive custom-fitted orthoses may not be necessary. The patients in the older age group (> 12 months) did not have a statistically significant longer interval to correction than the patients in the youngest age group (< 3 months). The mean length of follow-up was 6.3 months. Conclusions Patients treated with passive helmet therapy in the older age group (> 12 months) had an improvement in skull shape within the same treatment interval as the patients in the younger age group (< 3 months). This study supports the use of passive helmet therapy for improvement in deformational plagiocephaly in infants from birth to 18 months of age and verifies the stratification of degree of deformity used in the Argenta classification system.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 10/2013; 35(4):E4. DOI:10.3171/2013.8.FOCUS13258 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plastic surgery continues to be a very competitive program to match into out of medical school. To analyze the match process, all applicants to our plastic surgery residency program in 2012 were surveyed. Our results showed that with matching into plastic surgery as the primary outcome measure, those who matched applied to more plastic surgery programs, received and accepted more interview invitations, were younger, were less likely to be foreign medical graduates, reported higher costs, had higher Step 1 and Step 2 scores, were more likely to be an Alpha Omega Alpha member, and conducted more research. In addition to looking at variables that affected the success of the match, other questions regarding the match process were posed. Most interestingly, 10% of applicants still reported violations of the match communication guidelines. Furthermore, the mean cost of interviewing for the plastic surgery match was $6073.In summary, applicants with diversified strengths had the best chance of matching. On the basis of the results of this study, applicants should attend a large number of interviews to optimize their match success. With medical student debt a growing problem, programs need to find ways to control interview costs. Residency program compliance with match communication guidelines has improved, but compliance should be universal. With these data, applicants can be better prepared for the match to optimize their success and programs can work to improve the match process.
    Annals of plastic surgery 06/2013; 70(6):698-703. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31828587d3 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Transverse rectus abdominus muscle flaps (TRAM) can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. We present our experience with bilateral pedicle TRAM breast reconstruction using a double-layered polypropylene mesh fold over technique to repair the rectus fascia. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed that included patients with bilateral pedicle TRAM breast reconstruction and abdominal reconstruction using a double-layered polypropylene mesh fold over technique. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients met the study criteria with a mean age of 49 years old and mean follow-up of 7.4 years. There were no instances of abdominal hernia and only 2 cases (5.7%) of abdominal bulge. Other abdominal complications included partial umbilical necrosis (14.3%), seroma (11.4%), partial wound dehiscence (8.6%), abdominal weakness (5.7%), abdominal laxity (2.9%), and hematoma (2.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The TRAM flap is a reliable option for bilateral autologous breast reconstruction. Using the double mesh repair of the abdominal wall can reduce instances of an abdominal bulge and hernia.
    Annals of plastic surgery 03/2013; 70(5). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31828569c0 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Article: Abstract 60
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 01/2013; 131:52. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000430002.85765.02 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severity of the Harlequin deformity seen in unicoronal synostosis may be augmented when frontoparietal suture synostosis has an associated fusion of the frontosphenoidal suture or in cases of isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis. The purpose of the current study is to characterize various suture fusion patterns along the coronal ring using a modified orbital index (MOI), orbital angle (OA), and endocranial base (EB) angle.This study is a retrospective single institution cohort study. Charts were reviewed over the past 12 years; patients with isolated UCS were included. MOI, OA, and EB were used to identify 3 groups of UCS patients.Twenty-one patients were identified for inclusion in skeletal dysmorphology analysis using MOI, OA, and EB measures. Frontoparietal synostosis patients were diagnosed at significantly younger ages than frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.0001). Ipsilateral MOI measures were more severe for frontoparietal patients compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.0239). There was a trend for more severe ipsilateral OA measures in frontoparietal patients compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.181).Modified orbital index, OA, and EB measurements are useful in the diagnosis of suture fusion patterns in UCS patients. Frontoparietal synostosis has more severe Harlequin deformity compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients. Frontosphenoidal fusion coinciding with frontoparietal synostosis may blunt the severity of skeletal dysmorphology in UCS patients and be associated with a delayed diagnosis. Attention must be paid to assessing the frontosphenoidal suture to assure adequate surgical release.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 11/2012; 23(6). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31826beecc · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) occurs in more than 20% of patients with a cleft palate after primary palatoplasty. Surgical treatment focuses on pharyngoplasty to narrow the nasopharyngeal space and to decrease the distance needed for palatal closure. Persistent VPI after pharyngoplasty affects more than 20% of patients.From September 2007 to December 2009, 16 children (10 boys and 6 girls) with a mean age of 9.5 years (4-15 years) underwent surgical revision using an AlloDerm sling for persistent VPI after at least 1 previous failed pharyngoplasty. Ten children had previous sphincter pharyngoplasties, and 6 had previous pharyngeal flaps. Surgical technique involves creation of a submucosal tunnel through the limbs of the previous pharyngoplasty or pharyngeal flap. A strip of AlloDerm is threaded circumferentially, and the port is adjusted to the desired aperture.All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative analysis of VPI, including oral pharyngeal and perceptual speech examination by speech pathology with a mean follow-up of 441 days. Acoustic nasometry was used to objectively compare preoperative and postoperative nasalance values. A significant improvement in perceptual resonance was seen in 93.8% of patients, and 87.5% of patients improved to normal or mild resonance (P < 0.001). There was a significant mean reduction of nasalance using the MacKay-Kummer Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedure test (P < 0.001). Two patients developed postoperative flap dehiscence, with one being revised ultimately to have normal speech resonance.Revision pharyngoplasty using an AlloDerm sling can safely and effectively improve speech in patients with persistent VPI after failed pharyngoplasty. Long-term follow-up studies are ongoing.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2012; 23(3):645-9. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31824db8ef · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Jeyhan Wood, Daniel Couture, Lisa R David
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    ABSTRACT: A dermoid cyst is a thin-walled benign tumor formed by the entrapment of ectodermal tissue during embryologic development, resulting in the inclusion of epithelium and adnexal elements within the tumor. Dermoids are not unique to a single anatomic location but are often isolated to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. They may occur intracranially or intra-abdominally, oftentimes associated with the ovary. If presenting as a midline mass of the skull, preoperative imaging with computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to evaluate for possible intracranial extension, given the altered embryologic development behind the formation of these cysts. Differential diagnosis of a midline frontonasal mass includes epidermoid or dermoid cyst, encephalocele, glioma, and sinus pericranii. The management of suspected dermoid cysts includes complete surgical excision, which may require a combined intracranial and extracranial approach. We present a 2-year-old boy who presented to our institution with a congenital midline scalp mass separate from the anterior fontanelle with complete underlying bony erosion to the sagittal sinus demonstrated on preoperative imaging, who required early surgical excision and reconstruction of the bony defect.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2012; 23(1):131-4. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e318240fe5e · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mastectomy is a surgical choice for breast cancer, yet breast reconstruction is underused in women older than age 60 years. Because of a paucity of information examining breast cancer reconstruction in the elderly, we sought to review our experience. By retrospective chart review, we evaluated 89 women older than 60 years having mastectomy and reconstruction from January 1998 to June 2008. Mean patient age was 65 years (range, 60 to 74 years). The majority (41%) had Stage 1 disease or Stage 2 (30%). Ductal carcinoma in situ comprised 25 per cent and Stage 3 totaled 2 per cent. Mastectomy for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after radiation therapy and lumpectomy comprised 11 per cent. Most underwent immediate breast reconstruction (89%). Reconstructive techniques included two-stage implant (58%), transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap (10%), latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap with implant (2%), or deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (1%). Complications included a 12 per cent infection rate, removal of two expanders resulting from exposure, one TRAM failure, and one TRAM required débriding. Four patients undergoing mastectomy with tissue expander had radiation resulting in one expander being removed. One local skin recurrence was treated with removal of implant and skin resection. Two patients have died from metastatic disease. Age should not be a contraindication for breast reconstruction in elderly women.
    The American surgeon 12/2011; 77(12):1640-3. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To estimate the relation between consumer wealth and the demand for the most common elective and reconstructive plastic surgical procedures. Methods: A retrospective analysis was done on the five most common plastic surgery procedures within three categories (cosmetic surgical procedures, cosmetic minimally invasive procedures and reconstructive procedures) and for comparison three potentially elective procedures in general surgery (bariatric surgery, large and small bowel endoscopy) were reviewed. Regression and correlation analysis were performed using annual time-series economic data from the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis and surgery procedure volume from the National Clearinghouse of Plastic Surgery Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control Health Database. The statistical significance of the regressions and parameter estimates were established at the 5% confidence level (p=.05) using t and F tests. A Durbin-Watson test was applied to detect the presence of serial correlation. Additionally, we examined the income elasticity of demand for the surgical procedures within the same time period. Results: Three measures of consumer income/wealth are examined: the Nominal and Real house price indices as well as Real disposable income. Depending on the time period and the measure of income/wealth, Cosmetic surgical procedures have an income elasticity of demand (IOD) ranging from 5.45 to -25.14; minimally invasive procedures’ IODs ranged from 33.06 to -5.29; reconstructive procedures ranged from 10.58 to –15.88. The Bariatric surgery regression analysis provided evidence that the change in the demand for this procedure is statistically significantly related to the change in the nominal house price index [b = 4.32 (p=.027), R2=0.29], which is used to proxy for consumer wealth, implying that it is considered a luxury. Conversely, endoscopy of the small intestine and large intestine are statistically unrelated to changes in consumer wealth or income (p=0.68 and .85, respectively). Conclusions: Consumer wealth (the nominal house price index) is a better predictor of the demand for elective surgical procedures than income. Nonetheless, income elasticity is extremely variable depending on the time interval examined. We find the incongruous result that the same surgical procedure can be found to be either a luxury good (IOD>1) or an inferior good (IOD<0). The finding that nominal house prices are related to the demand for specific surgical procedures can aid in forecasting future volume.
    Plastic Surgery: The Meeting 2011; 09/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cranial synostosis, hypertelorism, orbital proptosis, parrot-beaked nose, short upper lip, hypoplastic maxilla, and a relative mandibular prognathism, without extremity involvement. Surgical intervention should occur at the onset of progressive craniosynostosis to treat or to prevent intracranial hypertension and visual impairment. Throughout developing countries, early treatment is often not a viable option. Often, the only option for treatment is through humanitarian missions. Appropriate preselection of surgical patients is essential, as is having a multidisciplinary team and a well-equipped hospital and staff to perform the operations and to care for the postsurgical patient. This type of humanitarian care benefits the patient selected to receive the intense logistical and financial effort when there is no possibility of timely care in their own countries. This clinical report describes a patient with Crouzon syndrome brought to the United States from a developing country through humanitarian efforts. She presented at 19 months of age with bicoronal and sagittal synostosis and advanced visual impairment and papilledema. Surgical intervention included cranial expansion and reconstruction with a multidisciplinary team. This case illustrates not only the difficulty of delayed treatment but also some of the issues arising from this type of humanitarian medical care.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2011; 22(4):1409-12. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31821cc50c · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphatic malformation (LM) is a benign cystic entity resulting from aberrant lymphatic drainage. Often evident at birth, most LMs have declared themselves by 2 years of age. They can be concerning when they occur near vital structures such as the airway or orbit. The natural history varies considerable from spontaneous gradual regression to long-term growth and debilitation. Depending on the location, structures involved, and clinical course of the LM, therapeutic options include observation, intralesional sclerosis, laser therapy, and surgical excision. The literature provides guidelines for treatment options that must be carefully applied to the facial region. We present a newborn infant who presented to our institution with giant facial lymphangioma who underwent a combination of sclerosis, laser ablation, and surgery with reconstruction.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2011; 22(4):1271-4. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31821c6cf1 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with panniculus morbidus have an abdominal panniculus that becomes a pathologic entity, associated with the development of candidal intertrigo, dermatitis, lymphedema, and ischemic panniculitis. Panniculectomy is a standard treatment for this problem. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for complications associated with panniculectomy surgery to lower the complication rate. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent panniculectomy between 1999 and 2007 by looking at data related to surgical complications, comorbidities, age, and gender. In 563 patients, we recorded the incidence of the following complications: wound-related (infection, dehiscence, and/or necrosis), hematoma/seroma, respiratory distress, blood transfusions, deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and death. Overall, 34.3% of patients suffered at least 1 complication. In patients with wound complications specifically, there was a significantly higher body mass index versus those with no wound complications (43.7% vs. 30.7%, P < 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher rate of wound complications (40.5% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.0001).
    Annals of plastic surgery 05/2011; 68(2):194-7. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e318212f39a · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:   The anesthetic risks and outcomes of the first 100 consecutive spring-assisted surgeries (SAS) for cranial expansion from a single institution are reported. The effect of number of procedures was also tested on hematocrit postoperative day 1 (POD1), anesthesia time, and surgery time of the first procedure.   The records of 100 consecutive patients undergoing SAS were reviewed. Anesthesia management and related complications are presented. Time series linear regression analysis was performed on hematocrit POD1, anesthesia time, and surgery time of the first procedure.   The average age of the first insertion procedure was 4.4 and 9.0 months for the second removal procedure. Two patients were inadvertently extubated during positioning. Thirty-eight children had a decrease in blood pressure >20% from baseline. No child was admitted to the intensive care unit. No patient received any blood or blood product transfusion. Anesthesia time, surgery time, and hematocrit POD1 were correlated with procedure number or experience. Changes in anesthetic management resulted from changing the procedure. The reduction in volume resuscitation reduces the need for invasive monitoring. Facility and comfort with the surgical procedure increase with time and number of procedures performed. This experience further reduces blood loss and risk of transfusion.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 05/2011; 21(10):1015-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03608.x · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to more definitively plan breast reconstruction after obtaining final histologic analysis of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has led several groups to advocate a staged approach to SLNB and mastectomy. Certain disadvantages are inherent in that approach, including increased patient morbidity, financial expense, and inconvenience. A retrospective review was conducted 195 procedures in which mastectomy and SLNB were performed in a single stage with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) over a 10-year period. Long-term outcomes were analyzed within the context of patient characteristics and SLNB results. Intraoperative SLNB analysis was found to be a reliable method for planning IBR, as there were no patients noted to have untoward sequelae as a result of a false-negative SLNB, and the probability of postmastectomy radiation therapy was predictable based on the intraoperative SLNB results. We advocate that SLNB be performed in a single stage with mastectomy and IBR.
    Annals of plastic surgery 02/2011; 66(5):564-7. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31820b406c · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of skin and adjacent tissue that usually affects the scalp, but any part of the body may be affected. Although ACC is more often superficial and small, it can be large and involve the underlying structures such as skull and dura, thus increasing the risk of hemorrhage, infection, and mortality. Controversy exists regarding nonsurgical versus surgical intervention for this condition. This study reviews indications and modalities for treatment of this rare congenital anomaly. Management of this anomaly depends on size, location, and structures at risk. Small lesions with intact underlying structures and lesions affecting extremities are treated in a conservative fashion with dressings and ointments followed by delayed scar excision. Aplasia cutis congenita scar excision often requires complex tissue rearrangement, tissue expansion, or skin grafting. Larger ACC lesions or lesions with exposure of vital structures require early surgical intervention. Initially, exposed vital structures and bony ridges can be protected using conservative measures. Delayed definitive repair can then be performed using scalp flaps, split- and full-thickness skin grafts, cultured epithelial autografts, delayed split rib cranioplasty, tissue expansion, and composite cranioplasty. Aplasia cutis congenita should be individually evaluated based on size, depth, location, and tissues involved. Using conservative and surgical modalities, one can achieve complete closure of the defect, thus avoiding risks of infection, hemorrhage, and further trauma.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2011; 22(1):159-65. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181f73937 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metopic craniosynostosis has traditionally been reported to be the third most common form of single-suture synostosis. The purposes of this article were to analyze the relationship between metopic craniosynostosis and positional plagiocephaly and to define more clearly the differences between the changes seen with true suture fusion compared with metopic abnormalities secondary to positional changes. This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans for abnormalities of the metopic suture in all children treated at our institution for positional plagiocephaly between 1997 and 2007. We also independently reviewed the images of all patients treated for metopic synostosis for evidence of positional plagiocephaly during the same period. Among the positional plagiocephaly group, 39% were noted to have some form of metopic suture abnormality. Of the children treated for metopic craniosynostosis, a much smaller percentage also was noted to have evidence of positional plagiocephaly. Between 1997 and 2007, we treated 93 patients (50%) for sagittal synostosis, 41 patients (22%) for unicoronal, 41 patients (22%) for metopic, 4 patients (2%) for lamdoid, and 7 patients (4%) with multiple-suture involvement. This study demonstrates an increasing trend toward metopic suture abnormalities during the past 10 years, which corresponds to the same time interval of an increased incidence of positional abnormalities. It is postulated that some of these abnormalities are related to deformational forces resulting from posterior pressure. Altered mechanical forces from supine infant positioning may be associated with early metopic suture ridging and dysmorphology distinct from true craniosynostosis.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2011; 22(1):89-95. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181f6c5a7 · 0.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
102.80 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2011
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1996–2011
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States