[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many attempts have been made to define nature of viruses and to uncover their origin. Our aim within this work was to show that there are different perceptions of viruses and many concepts to explain their emergence: the virus-first concept (also called co-evolution), the escape and the reduction theories. Moreover, a relatively new concept of polyphyletic virus origin called "three RNA cells, three DNA viruses" proposed by Forterre is described herein. In this paper, not only is each thesis supported by a body of evidence but also counter-argued in the light of various findings to give more insightful considerations to the readers. As the origin of viruses and that of living cells are most probably interdependent, we decided to reveal ideas concerning nature of cellular last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Furthermore, we discuss monophyletic ancestry of cellular domains and their relationships at the molecular level of membrane lipids and replication strategies of these three types of cells. In this review, we also present the emergence of DNA viruses requiring an evolutionary transition from RNA to DNA and recently discovered giant DNA viruses possibly involved in eukaryogenesis. In the course of evolution viruses emerged many times. They have always played a key role through horizontal gene transfer in evolutionary events and in formation of the tree of life or netlike routes of evolution providing a great deal of genetic diversity. In our opinion, future findings are crucial to better understand past relations between viruses and cells and the origin of both.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient delivery of heterologous molecules for treatment of cells is a great challenge in modern medicine and pharmacology. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) may improve efficient delivery of a wide range of macromolecular cargos including plasmid DNA, small interfering RNA, drugs, nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers and anticancer drugs. In this paper, we present history of CPPs' discovery with a special attention drawn to sequences of viral origin. We also describe different CPP families with regard to their physicochemical properties and numerous mechanisms of CPP cell uptake by direct penetration and endocytotic pathways. A detailed description is focused on formation of carrier-cargo complexes, which are needed for practical use of CPP in medicine and biotechnology. Examples of successful application of CPPs in treatment of human diseases are also presented, including decreased tumor growth and induction of cancer cell death. Finally, we review modern design approaches to novel CPPs and prediction of their activity. To sum up, the current review presents a thorough and up-to-date knowledge about CPPs and may be a valuable source of information for researchers in pharmacology designing new therapeutic agents.
The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 04/2015; 354(1). DOI:10.1124/jpet.115.223305 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial communities living in stratified lakes are known to be early indicators of ecosystem disturbances. Based on information available up to date it was hypothesized that structures of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton assemblages in the eutrophic lake are shaped by different, yet interrelated physicochemical parameters and both groups significantly influence each other. To verify this hypothesis, the species distribution of these groups along the environmental gradients in a eutrophic lake (Lake Góreckie, NW Poland) was investigated. During the study 198 phytoplankton and 26 bacteria taxa were detected in 84 samples. The analysis of their temporal and spatial distribution revealed that phytoplankton and bacteria respond to ecological gradients in a roughly independent manner. Temperature, NH4+ and total phosphorus turned out to be the most important environmental gradients for the phytoplankton, while of concentrations oxidized nitrogen forms (NO3-, NO2-) were more relevant for heterotrophic bacteria. The results obtained in this study allowed us to identify cluster of culturable bacteria connected with high concentrations of chlorophyll a (and thus with the presence of phytoplankton). The group of phytoplankton-associated bacteria includes strains identified as Bacillus megaterium, B. simplex, Paenibacillus amylolyticus, Enterobacter cancerogenus and all the detected members of genus Exiguobacterium. These results are the next step towards an understanding of the microbial food web functioning in eutrophic lakes; an understanding which is crucial in the context of the protection and management of these ecosystems.
Carpathian journal of earth and environmental sciences 02/2015; 10(1):41-52. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent data demonstrate that human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in pathologies other than ano-genital cancers, specifically head and neck malignancies, and non-cancerous conditions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). High-risk HPV16 and 18, and low risk HPV6 and 11 play the main role in HPV-related pathologies. As more and more information about the role of HPV infection in non-cervical diseases is amassed, additional questions about whether prophylactic HPV vaccines will effectively prevent these conditions are raised. HPV vaccination programs for the cervical pathology are being implemented worldwide. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for girls in 2006 and for boys in 2011. These vaccination programs were aimed at the genital, HPV-related lesions, and there was not much recognition at that time of how HPV vaccination programs might affect oral HPV infection, which is a risk factor for the development of HPV-related head and neck cancers. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy, and an extant recommendation is aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers with the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. This review is aimed at presenting the evidence-based knowledge concerning HPV vaccination and highlighting the trials and strategies for vaccine administration in HPV-dependent head and neck pathologies.
Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology 07/2014; 68(4). DOI:10.1016/j.otpol.2014.05.004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) requires the minor capsid component L2, which plays an essential role in directing appropriate endosomal trafficking. Previous studies have indicated an infection route involving multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs), and an essential element in their biogenesis is the ESCRT machinery. Here we show that the ESCRT component TSG101 is required for optimal infection with both HPV-16 and BPV-1, with loss of TSG101 resulting in a decrease in viral infection, whereas overexpressed TSG101 increases rates of infection. We find that L2 proteins from multiple PV types interact with TSG101 and show that this interaction contributes to an alteration in the subcellular distribution of L2. In addition, TSG101 can modulate the levels of L2 polyubiquitination. These results demonstrate that TSG101 plays an important part in infection with diverse PVs, and suggests that trafficking of HPV through the ESCRT machinery and MVBs is part of infectious virus entry.
Virology 07/2014; s 460–461:83–90. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.005 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated a decreased expression of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in cervical cancer cells. To identify the mechanism responsible for TSG101 downregulation during cervical cancer development, we analyzed the TSG101 promoter using cis-element cluster finder software. One of the transcription factors whose binding site was detected in the TSG101 promoter was late SV40 factor (LSF). The aim of this study was to analyze the TSG101 protein and LSF expression levels during cervical cancer development. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a previously observed decreased expression of TSG101, whereas quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed high expression of LSF in cervical, precancer and cancer cells compared with human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative non-cancer samples. High expression of LSF in cervical cancer HPV-positive cells suggests that this protein may be important in the regulation of TSG101 expression, as well as in cervical carcinogenesis. The role of LSF as a mediator in cervical cancer development must be confirmed in future studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as "Bastille group") within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86632. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086632 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has attracted significant researcher interest due to its endocrine and autocrine / paracrine activities, mitogenic effects and the involvement in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The signaling pathways used by the IGF system impact cellular metabolism in a complex manner complex and many details are still unclear. Understanding the molecular mechanism of action of IGF's and their effects on cellular activity may provide a basis to develop new anticancer drugs. This review focuses on recent studies that expand our knowledge of the signaling pathways of IGF system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the presence of disulfide bonds (which stabilize the structure), and the mechanism of action targeting outer membrane structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the frequency of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) isolation in pregnant women and their offspring, and to assess the risk of maternal-neonatal transmission. Study Design: The study included vaginal/buccal smears of 135 pregnant women, as well as the buccal smears and the respiratory discharge samples from their neonates. The material was tested for the presence of HPV DNA by means of PCR. Results: 22 HPV 11-positive cases (16.3%) were detected amongst pregnant women, along with 16 neonatal HPV 11-positive cases (11.85%). The concordance rate of maternal and neonatal HPV 11 DNA was 54.5%. Three maternal variables: the presence of HPV 11, less than 10 years of education, and common law proved significant risk factors for vertical transmission. Conclusion: Asymptomatic HPV infection of a pregnant woman rather than the mode of delivery or other obstetrical characteristics constitutes significant risk factor of vertical transmission.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 05/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.3109/14767058.2013.807238 · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family of glycine-rich plant proteins (GRPs) is a large and complex group of proteins that share, as a common feature, the presence of glycine-rich domains arranged in (Gly)n-X repeats that are suggested to be involved in protein–protein interactions, RNA binding, and nucleolar targeting. These proteins are implicated in several independent physiological processes. Some are components of cell walls of many higher plants, while others are involved in molecular responses to environmental stress, and mediated by post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. The goals of this study are to identify the coding sequence of a novel glycine-rich RNA-binding protein from Chelidonium majus and to propose its structural model. DNA fragments obtained using degenerate PCR primers showed high sequence identities with glycine-rich RNA-binding protein coding sequences from different plant species. A 439-bp nucleotide sequence is identified coding for a novel polypeptide composed of 146 amino acids, designated as CmGRP1 (C. majus glycine-rich protein 1), with a calculated MW of 14,931 Da (NCBI GenBank accession no. HM173636). Using NCBI CDD and GeneSilico MetaServer, a single conserved domain, the RNA recognition motif (RRM), was detected in CmGRP1. The C-terminal region of CmGRP1 is a glycine-rich motif (GGGGxxGxGGGxxG), and it is predicted to be disordered. Based on a 1fxl crystal structure, a 3D model of CmGRP1 is proposed. CmGRP1 can be classified as a class IVa plant GRP, implicated to play a role in plant defense.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several physiological activities have been assigned to E-peptides derived from pre-pro-insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) processing; however, the whole range of the E-peptides' functions is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate human Eb peptide (hEb) in terms of its bioactivity, cellular localization, and intracellular trafficking using human cancer cells. Human Eb fused with red fluorescence protein (RFP) or green fluorescence protein (GFP) localizes strongly to nucleoli and to a lesser extent to nuclei of HeLa and U2-OS cells. Mutagenesis of hEb nucleolus localization sequence (NoLS) leads to its partial delocalization from nuclei and nucleoli to cytoplasm of transfected cells. Thus, NoLS is not sufficient for the hEb to be localized in nucleoli of the cells and a different mechanism may be involved in hEb targeting. A BrdU ELISA showed that the proliferation index of cells expressing hEb hybrid proteins increased up to 28%. For comparison, the same assay was performed using HeLa cells treated extracellularly with synthetic hEb. A significant increase in the proliferation index was observed (41-58% for concentrations ranging from 10-100 nM, respectively). Additionally, a cell migration assay was performed using stable U2-OS cell lines expressing hEb fused with RFP or RFP alone as a negative control. The migration index of hEb expressing cells was 38.3% greater. The increase in cell proliferation index and in motile properties of hEb expressing cells demonstrate that hEb is more than a pre-pro-IGF1b processing product, and has intrinsic activity of biological significance.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 01/2013; 45(6). DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1331699 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is one of the proteins participating in the transfer of growth signals, which are responsible in certain cases for the etiology of a growth disorder.
Aim of the study: The aim of the study was an analysis of the coding sequence of the extracellular and intracellular domains of IGF-IR responsible for ligand binding (IGF-I) and kinase activity in the DNA of children with growth disorders, who have normal or slightly decreased levels of plasma IGF-I.
Material and methods: DNA isolated from the peripheral blood of 50 short-statured children was used as study material. DNA fragments of IGF-IR obtained as a result of PCR amplification were analyzed using single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing.
Results: We did not observe any changes in the IGF-IR sequences, thus it can be excluded as a factor responsible for growth disorders.
Conclusions: IGF-I receptor sequence changes are not the cause of growth disorders in the study group of children. To find the cause of growth disorders in the study group other proteins from somatotropic axis and/or signaling pathways should be studied in the future.
Endokrynologia, diabetologia i choroby przemiany materii wieku rozwojowego: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Endokrynologow Dzieciecych 01/2013; 19(3):96-99.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the south-eastern region of Poland.
The study population consisted of 56 ESCC patients and 35 controls. The controls were patients referred to our department due to other non-esophageal and non-oncological disorders with no gross or microscopic esophageal pathology as confirmed by endoscopy and histopathology. In the ESCC patients, samples were taken from normal mucosa (56 mucosa samples) and from the tumor (56 tumor samples). Tissue samples from the controls were taken from normal mucosa of the middle esophagus (35 control samples). Quantitative determination of DNA was carried out using a spectrophotometric method. Genomic DNA was isolated using the QIAamp DNA Midi Kit. HPV infection was identified following PCR amplification of the HPV gene sequence, using primers MY09 and MY11 complementary to the genome sequence of at least 33 types of HPV. The sequencing results were computationally analyzed using the basic local alignment search tool database.
In tumor samples, HPV DNA was identified in 28 of 56 patients (50%). High risk HPV phenotypes (16 or/and 18) were found in 5 of 56 patients (8.9%), low risk in 19 of 56 patients (33.9%) and other types of HPV (37, 81, 97, CP6108) in 4 of 56 patients (7.1%). In mucosa samples, HPV DNA was isolated in 21 of 56 patients (37.5%). High risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 3 of 56 patients (5.3%), low risk HPV DNA in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), and other types of HPV in 6 of 56 patients (10.7%). In control samples, HPV DNA was identified in 4 of 35 patients (11.4%) with no high risk HPV. The occurrence of HPV in ESCC patients was significantly higher than in the controls [28 of 56 (50%) vs 4 of 35 (11.4%), P < 0.001]. In esophageal cancer patients, both in tumor and mucosa samples, the predominant HPV phenotypes were low risk HPV, isolated 4 times more frequently than high risk phenotypes [19 of 56 (33.9%) vs 5 of 56 (8.9%), P < 0.001]. A higher prevalence of HPV was identified in female patients (71.4% vs 46.9%). Accordingly, the high risk phenotypes were isolated more frequently in female patients and this difference reached statistical significance [3 of 7 (42.9%) vs 2 of 49 (4.1%), P < 0.05]. Of the pathological characteristics, only an infiltrative pattern of macroscopic tumor type significantly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA in ESCC samples [20 of 27 (74.1%) vs 8 of 29 (27.6%) for ulcerative or protruding macroscopic type, P < 0.05]. The occurrence of total HPV DNA and both HPV high or low risk phenotypes did not significantly differ with regard to particular grades of cellular differentiation, phases in depth of tumor infiltration, grades of nodal involvement and stages of tumor progression.
Low risk HPV phenotypes could be one of the co-activators or/and co-carcinogens in complex, progressive, multifactorial and multistep esophageal carcinogenesis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; 18(40):5739-44. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i40.5739 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the CCHCR1 (coiled-coil α-helical rod protein 1) protein in the cell is poorly understood. It is thought to be engaged in processes such as proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, tissue-specific gene transcription and steroidogenesis. It is supposed to participate in keratinocyte transformation. It has also been found that this protein interacts with the E2 protein of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16). The oncogenic HPV forms, such as HPV16, are known to be necessary but not sufficient agents in the development of cervical carcinoma. In the present study, the CCHCR1 gene coding sequence and its expression was analyzed in normal, precancerous and cervical cancer cells. Changes in the non-coding region were found in 20.3% of the examined probes from women with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions and in 16.67% of the control probes. Most of the detected changes were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Changes in the coding region were found in 22.8% of the probes with cervical cancer and in 16.67% of the control probes and all of them were SNPs. The level of CCHCR1 transcripts was determined using the real-time PCR method and the highest gene expression was detected in the H-SIL group and slightly decreased in the cervical carcinoma cells, compared with the control probes. It suggests that CCHCR1 could have a role in the process of cervical epithelial cell transformation, but this suggestion must be confirmed experimentally.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 01/2012; 29(4):669-76. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2012.877 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is considered to be a potential chemotherapeutic drug due to its capability to regulate cell growth and differentiation. The effects of ATRA on the proliferation of cells and gene regulation are mediated by retinoid receptors (RAR and RXR), which belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand- inducible transcription factors. ATRA can act either as a growth inhibitor or growth promoter, according to the functional state of retinoic receptors. Thus, we have established the effect of ATRA on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells line HeLa and CaSki and expression of retinoids receptors as well as the viral HPV oncogenic proteins E6 and E7. ATRA had no effect on proliferation CaSki cells, but it stimulated the growth of HeLa cells, which depended on the incubation time and the concentration of ATRA in cell culture. The overexpression of RAR alpha in HeLa cells after the administration of 10(-7) mM ATRA was also observed 72 hours, and the decrease of CaSki by 60-90%. In the study of cervical cancer cell lines, the very low levels of other endogenous RAR and RXR receptors were observed. ATRA does not repress the expression of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 HPV16/18, which play a key role in carcinogenesis of the cervix. Our results support the suggestions that the cell response to vitamin A, and other retinoids in the diet, may depend on cell type, and that the cancer cells are differentially resistant to retinoids. Thus, despite the important biological functions of retinoids, the effects of retinoids in a supplementation in supra-physiological doses as well as their physiological action are difficult to define.
Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM 06/2011; 18(1):145-50. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in placentas from women with spontaneous abortions and from control women after term delivery.
Department of Obstetrics and Pathology of Pregnancy, Medical University of Lublin (Poland).
Patients whose spontaneous abortions occurred between the 6th and the 16th week of pregnancy (n=51), and women after term delivery (n=78).
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
HPV DNA prevalence rate and the fraction of HPV 16/18 infections in aborted products of conception and placentas.
Patients with spontaneous abortion did not differ from the controls in terms of mean age and the fraction of primiparas. The DNA of HPV was detected in 17.7% of aborted products of conception and in 24.4% of placentas from term deliveries. The aborted products of conception and full-term placentas were positive for HPV 16/18 in 11.8 and 12.8% cases, respectively. Patients whose material was positive for HPV DNA or those with confirmed HPV 16/18 did not differ significantly from HPV-negative women in terms of mean age and the fraction of primiparas.
The HPV 16/18 infection rate does not seem be higher in cases of spontaneous abortions. Nevertheless, further study of the consequences of HPV infection in pregnancy is still needed.