Susanne S Renner

Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (171)886.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hornworts comprise ca. 220 species and are among the oldest landplant lineages, even though their precise phylogenetic position remains unclear. Deep within-hornwort divergences, highly uneven species numbers/genus, and the assumed high stem age together suggest a history of changing diversification (i.e., speciation minus extinction) rates. To study the geographic distribution of modern hornworts and their patterns of species accumulation, we generated a mitochondrial and plastid DNA matrix for 103 species representing all major groups and then applied molecular-clock dating, using a different calibration approach than in earlier work. We used the BAMM software to fit rate-variable and constant-rate birth-death diversification models to the dataset, and we also inferred ancestral areas to a time depth of 55 Myr (Early Eocene). We analyzed diversification rates for all hornworts and separately for species-rich subclades. Under BAMM’s variable-rates model (which fits the data better than a constant-rate birth-death model, but still assumes that each species has the same speciation and extinction probability regardless of its age), hornworts have gradually increasing rates of speciation and a constant background extinction rate. No shifts in diversification rate could be detected. The implausible finding of a constant background extinction rate illustrates the limitations of diversification modeling especially as regards extinction rates.
    Taxon 02/2015; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    Guillaume Chomicki, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Ant–plant symbioses involve over 110 ant species in five subfamilies that are facultative or obligate occupants of stem, leaf or root domatia formed by hundreds of ant-plant species. The phylogenetic distribution and geological ages of these associations, and the frequency of gains or losses of domatium, are largely unknown. We compiled an up-to-date list of ant domatium-bearing plants, estimated their probable true number from model-based statistical inference, generated dated phylogenies that include c. 50% of ant-plant lineages, and traced the occurrence of domatia and extrafloral nectaries on a 1181-species tree, using likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found 681 vascular plants with domatia (159 genera in 50 families) resulting from mini-mally 158 inferred domatium origins and 43 secondary losses over the last 19 Myr. The oldest African ant–plant symbioses are younger than those in Australasia and the Neotropics. The best statistical model suggests that the true number of myrmecophytes may approach 1140 species. The phylogenetic distribution of ant-plants shows that domatia evolved from a range of pre-adapted morphological structures and have been lost frequently, suggesting that domatia have no generalizable effect on diversification. The Miocene origin of ant–plant symbioses is consistent with inferred changes in diet and behaviour during ant evolution.
    New Phytologist 01/2015; · 6.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aquatic monocot family Aponogetonaceae (Alismatales) consists of Aponogeton, with 57 species.•Today, it occurs in Africa, Madagascar, India, Southeast Asia and Australia.•We infer the history of this family in light of its Cretaceous/Eocene Northern Hemisphere fossils.•An ancient Australian species is sister to all other Aponogetonaceae.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 01/2015; 82. · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • Aretuza Sousa, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Combining molecular cytogenetics and phylogenetic modelling of chromosome number change can shed light on the types of evolutionary changes that may explain the haploid numbers observed today. Applied to the monocot family Araceae, with chromosome numbers of 2n = 8 to 2n = 160, this type of approach has suggested that descending dysploidy has played a larger role than polyploidy in the evolution of the current chromosome numbers. To test this, we carried out molecular cytogenetic analyses in 14 species from 11 genera, using probes for telomere repeats, 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA and a plastid phylogenetic tree covering the 118 genera of the family, many with multiple species. We obtained new chromosome counts for six species, modelled chromosome number evolution using all available counts for the family and carried out fluorescence in situ hybridization with three probes (5S rDNA, 45S rDNA and Arabidopsis-like telomeres) on 14 species with 2n = 14 to 2n = 60. The ancestral state reconstruction provides support for a large role of descending dysploidy in Araceae, and interstitial telomere repeats (ITRs) were detected in Anthurium leuconerum, A. wendlingeri and Spathyphyllum tenerum, all with 2n = 30. The number of ITR signals in Anthurium (up to 12) is the highest so far reported in angiosperms, and the large repeats located in the pericentromeric regions of A. wendlingeri are of a type previously reported only from the gymnosperms Cycas and Pinus. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, ●●, ●●–●●.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 01/2015; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major concern in molecular clock dating is how to use information from the fossil record to calibrate genetic distances from DNA sequences. Here we apply three Bayesian dating methods that differ in how calibration is achieved -'node dating' (ND) in BEAST, 'total evidence' (TE) dating in MrBayes, and the 'fossilized birth-death' (FBD) in FDPPDiv - to infer divergence times in the royal ferns. Osmundaceae have 16-17 species in four genera, two mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and two in South Africa and Australasia; they are the sister clade to the remaining leptosporangiate ferns. Their fossil record consists of at least 150 species in ~17 genera. For ND, we used the five oldest fossils, whereas for TE and FBD dating, which do not require forcing fossils to nodes and thus can use more fossils, we included up to 36 rhizomes and frond compression/impression fossils, which for TE dating were scored for 33 morphological characters. We also subsampled 10%, 25%, and 50% of the 36 fossils to assess model sensitivity. FBD-derived divergence ages were generally greater than those inferred from ND; two of seven TE-derived ages agreed with FBD-obtained ages, the others were much younger or much older than ND or FBD ages. We prefer the FBD-derived ages because they best fit the Osmundales fossil record (including Triassic fossils not used in our study). Under the preferred model, the clade encompassing extant Osmundaceae (and many fossils) dates to the latest Paleozoic to Early Triassic; divergences of the extant species occurred during the Neogene. Under the assumption of constant speciation and extinction rates, the FBD approach yielded speciation and extinction rates that overlapped those obtained from just neontological data. However, FBD estimates of speciation and extinction are sensitive to violations in the assumption of continuous fossil sampling; therefore, these estimates should be treated with caution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Systematic Biology 12/2014; · 11.53 Impact Factor
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    Aline C. Martins, Mark D. Scherz, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: • Over the past 75 Myr, successive groups of plants have entered the "oil bee pollination niche," meaning that they depend on oil-collecting bees for their pollination. The highly dissimilar numbers of plant species and bee species involved in these mutualisms imply evolutionary host switching, asymmetric mutual dependencies, and uncoupled diversification. Among the clades with the best field data on oil bee behavior is the Angelonieae, which we here investigate to better understand the evolutionary time frame of this pollination syndrome.• We generated nuclear and plastid data matrices for 56% of the Angelonieae species (plus outgroups) and used Bayesian methods of molecular clock dating, ancestral state reconstruction, and biogeographic inference.• We found that Angelonieae have two major clades, Angelonia (including Monopera) and Basistemon, and Monttea, Melosperma, and Ourisia.• Angelonieae date back to the Uppermost Eocene, ca. 35 (26-47) Myr ago (Ma) and diversified in dry areas of southern South America; they switched from nectar to oil as a reward four or five times over the past 25 Ma. As predicted in a previous non-clock-dated study, dispersal to Australasia dates to the Miocene/Pliocene. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
    American Journal of Botany 12/2014; 101(12):2113-2120. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A striking example of plant/pollinator trait matching is found between Andean species of Passiflora with 6-14-cm-long nectar tubes and the sword-billed hummingbird, Ensifera ensifera, with up to 11-cm-long bills. Because of the position of their anthers and stigmas, and self-incompatibility, these passionflower species depend on E. ensifera for pollination. Field observations show that the bird and plant distribution match completely and that scarcity of Ensifera results in reduced passionflower seed set. We here use nuclear and plastid DNA sequences to investigate how often and when these mutualisms evolved and under which conditions, if ever, they were lost. The phylogeny includes 26 (70%) of the 37 extremely long-tubed species, 13 (68%) of the 19 species with tubes too short for Ensifera and four of the seven bat-pollinated species for a total of 43 (69%) of all species in Passiflora supersection Tacsonia (plus 11 outgroups). We time-calibrated the phylogeny to infer the speed of any pollinator switching. Results show that Tacsonia is monophyletic and that its stem group dates to 10.7 Ma, matching the divergence at 11.6 Ma of E. ensifera from its short-billed sister species. Whether pollination by short-billed hummingbirds or by Ensifera is the ancestral condition cannot be securely inferred, but extremely long-tubed flowers exclusively pollinated by Ensifera evolved early during the radiation of the Tacsonia clade. There is also evidence of several losses of Ensifera dependence, involving shifts to bat pollination and shorter billed birds. Besides being extremely asymmetric-a single bird species coevolving with a speciose plant clade-the Ensifera/Passiflora system is a prime example of a specialized pollinator not driving plant speciation, but instead being the precondition for the maintenance of isolated populations (through reliable seed set) that then underwent allopatric speciation.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 11/2014; 281(1795). · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: UV-B radiation damage in leaves is prevented by epidermal UV-screening compounds that can be modulated throughout ontogeny. In epiphytic orchids, roots need to be protected against UV-B because they photosynthesize, sometimes even replacing the leaves. How orchid roots, which are covered by a dead tissue called velamen, avoid UV-B radiation is currently unknown.We tested for a UV-B protective function of the velamen using gene expression analyses, mass spectrometry, histochemistry, and chlorophyll fluorescence in Phalaenopsis × hybrida roots. We also investigated its evolution using comparative phylogenetic methods.Our data show that two paralogues of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family are UV-B-induced in orchid root tips, triggering the accumulation of two UV-B-absorbing flavonoids and resulting in effective protection of the photosynthetic root cortex. Phylogenetic and dating analyses imply that the two CHS lineages duplicated c. 100 million yr before the rise of epiphytic orchids.These findings indicate an additional role for the epiphytic orchid velamen previously thought to function solely in absorbing water and nutrients. This new function, which fundamentally differs from the mechanism of UV-B avoidance in leaves, arose following an ancient duplication of CHS, and has probably contributed to the family's expansion into the canopy during the Cenozoic.
    New Phytologist 10/2014; · 6.55 Impact Factor
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    Guillaume Chomicki, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Type specimens are permanently preserved biological specimens that fix the usage of species names. This method became widespread from 1935 onwards and is now obligatory.We used DNA sequencing of types and more recent collections of wild and cultivated melons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Citrullus and the correct names for its species.We discovered that the type specimen of the name Citrullus lanatus, prepared by a Linnaean collector in South Africa in 1773, is not the species now thought of as watermelon. Instead, it is a representative of another species that is sister to C. ecirrhosus, a tendril-less South African endemic. The closest relative of the watermelon instead is a West African species. Our nuclear and plastid data furthermore reveal that there are seven species of Citrullus, not four as assumed.Our study implies that sweet watermelon originates from West, not southern Africa as previously believed, and that the South African citron melon has been independently domesticated. These findings affect and explain numerous studies on the origin of these two crops that led to contradictory results because of the erroneous merging of several distinct species.
    New Phytologist 10/2014; · 6.55 Impact Factor
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    Natalie Cusimano, Susanne S. Renner
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    Juan Carlos Villarreal, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Absolute times from calibrated DNA phylogenies can be used to infer lineage diversification, the origin of new ecological niches, or the role of long distance dispersal in shaping current distribution patterns. Molecular-clock dating of non-vascular plants, however, has lagged behind flowering plant and animal dating. Here, we review dating studies that have focused on bryophytes with several goals in mind, (i) To facilitate cross-validation by comparing rates and times obtained so far; (ii) to summarize rates that have yielded plausible results and that could be used in future studies; and (iii) to calibrate a species-level phylogeny for Nothoceros, a model for plastid genome evolution in hornworts. Including the present work, there have been 18 molecular clock studies of liverworts, mosses, or hornworts, the majority with fossil calibrations, a few with geological calibrations or dated with previously published plastid substitution rate. Over half the studies cross-validated inferred divergence times by using alternative calibration approaches. Plastid substitution rates inferred for "bryophytes" are in line with those found in angiosperm studies, implying that bryophyte clock models can be calibrated either with published substitution rates or with fossils, with the two approaches testing and cross-validating each other. Our phylogeny of Nothoceros is based on 44 accessions representing all suspected species and a matrix of six markers of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA. The results show that Nothoceros comprises 10 species, nine in the Americas and one in New Zealand (N. giganteus), with the divergence between the New Zealand species and its Chilean sister species dated to the Miocene and therefore due to long-distance dispersal. Based on the new tree, we formally transfer two species of Megaceros into Nothoceros, resulting in the new combinations N. minarum (Nees) J.C.Villarreal and N. schizophyllus (Gottsche ex Steph.) J.C.Villarreal, and we also newly synonymize eight names described in Megaceros.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 09/2014; 78:25–35. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    Natalie Cusimano, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Reconstructing character states on a molecular phylogeny is a powerful tool for investigating trait evolution. Traits being “reconstructed” range from morphology and ancestral areas to ancestral ecologies and chromosome numbers. The factors determining state reconstructions are the statistical framework used, whether maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, or Bayesian methods (D.R. Maddison, 1994; W.P. Maddison, 1995; Maddison & Maddison, 2006; Pagel, 1994, 1999a; Pagel & al., 2004), the model of state change (Cunningham & al., 1998; Mooers, 2004), the density of taxon sampling (Salisbury & Kim, 2001; Mooers, 2004; Gascuel & Steel, 2010), and the extent of rate heterogeneity in a dataset (Skinner, 2010). Over the past ten years, the mathematical, statistical, and biologi- cal difficulty, or indeed the impossibility, of ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) on trees has been explored and become increasingly clear (Mossel, 2003; Ekman & al., 2008; Losos, 2011; Royer-Carenzi & al., 2013). Nevertheless, trying to infer ancestral states remains an important activity in comparative biology and can set up strong hypotheses for further testing. In this note, we focus on an underappreciated problem, namely the lack of a criterion by which to choose the best branch length model for an ASR problem at hand.
    Taxon 08/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The need for taxonomists to take full advantage of biodiversity informatics has been clear for at least 10 years. Significant progress has been made in providing access to taxonomic resources online, including images of specimens (especially types), original species descriptions, and georeferenced collection data. However, in spite of persuasive calls for e-monography, there are few, if any, completed project, even though monographic research is the only mechanism for reducing synonymous names, which are estimated to comprise 50% of all published names. Caricaceae is an economically important family of flowering plants from Africa and the Neotropics, best known for the fruit crop papaya. There is a large amount of information on the family, especially on chemistry, crop improvement, genomics, and the sex chromosomes of papaya, but up-to-date information on the 230 names and which species they might belong to was not available. A dynamically updated e-monograph of the Caricaceae now brings together all information on this family, including keys, species descriptions, and specimen data relating the 230 names to 34 species and one hybrid. This may be the first taxonomic monograph of a plant family completely published online. The curated information will be continuously updated to improve the monograph's comprehensiveness and utility.
    Cladistics 08/2014; · 6.09 Impact Factor
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    Susanne S Renner, Guillaume Chomicki, Werner Greuter
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    ABSTRACT: identical to print version). TAXON 63 (4) • August 2014: 941–942 Renner & al. • (2313) Conserve Momordica lanata (2313) Proposal to conserve the name Momordica lanata (Citrullus lanatus) (watermelon, Cucurbitaceae), with a conserved type, against Citrullus battich. rej. prop. Typus non designatus. This proposal originated as a spinoff of new results of DNA sequencing in the genus Citrullus, which put the currently accepted name for the sweet watermelon in jeopardy. While it was being drafted, a second threat to that name surfaced, which is also being taken into account. The watermelon was first validly named by Linnaeus (Sp. Pl.: 1010. 1753) as Cucurbita citrullus L. That name has not as yet been typified effectively (see details in Jarvis, Order Out of Chaos: 465. 2007). According to Jarvis the original material comprises two ele-ments, an illustration (Bauhin & al., Hist. Pl. 2: fig. on p. 236. 1651) and a specimen in the Burser Herbarium. However, the illustration is not an original element. Linnaeus's protologue reference is to Citrul-lus folio colocynthidis secto, semine nigro, on page 235 of Bauhin & al.'s work, where that plant is indeed described but not figured. The figure on the following page (236) is of Gitruli [sic] genus aliud (a different kind), which is described in the text as Citruli genus majus (a larger kind), differing in a number of features of the fruit and seed. Therefore a single original element remains: the specimen of "Anguria Citrullus dicta" in herb. Burser VII: 101 (UPS), that we here formally designate as the (obligate) lectotype. Savage (C. Lin-naei Det. Hort. Sicc. J. Burseri: 57. 1937) confirms that the specimen was examined and identified by Linnaeus before 1753. It is indeed a flowering shoot of the watermelon, as we could verify on the digital images kindly put at our disposal by Mats Hjertson. The nomenclatural history of the watermelon is chequered. For about a century (mid-19th to mid-20th) the name Citrullus vulgaris was in general use for it. However, already in 1930 Bailey (in Gentes Herbarum 2: 180–186) pointed out that "the methods of nomenclature must be liberally interpreted in this case, unless one is willing to adopt the doublet Citrullus Citrullus, and even this double name may not be without doubt". Such doubts were appropriate both at the genus and species level. Ahead of the 1950 Stockholm Congress, Hara proposed conser-vation of Citrullus Forssk. 1775 against two earlier synonyms, Anguria Mill. 1754 and Colocynthis Ludw. 1757, all said to refer to the water-melon. A corresponding preliminary entry appears in the Stockholm Code (Lanjouw & al. in Regnum Veg. 3: 137. 1952). Fosberg (in Taxon 2: 99–101. 1953), having been assigned the proposal for examination, supported it in principle but concluded that Citrullus Forssk., having been proposed without generic description for a genus comprising three species, was not a validly published name. Fosberg therefore suggested that Citrullus be conserved from its publication by Schrader in 1836, with C. vulgaris Schrad. (≡ Cucurbita citrullus L.) as its listed type; and that Citrullus Neck. 1790 be added to the entry as a rejected earlier homonym. This was approved and is what appears in the Paris Code (Lanjouw & al. in Regnum Veg. 8: 273. 1956). Since then, the only changes affecting the entry have been elimination of the Necker homonym (as Necker's generic names had been ruled not to be validly published) and replacement of Colocynthis Ludw. with the earlier, supposedly isonymous Colocynthis Mill. 1754 (Rickett & Stafleu in Taxon 9: 121. 1960). Hara (in Taxon 2: 134–135. 1953) had, in vain, objected to Fosberg's change to his proposal. Of Hara's two arguments, one is spurious (Cucurbita anguria Duchesne 1786 is an illegitimate name and cannot threaten Cucumis vulgaris), but the other is valid. "Though Forskål described three species under Citrullus, the first was the only for which he introduced a binomial … Forskål's Citrullus with only one validly published binomial … may be regarded as a monotypic genus." The Code at that time did not clearly define what a "monotypic genus" is, so both Fosberg's and Hara's interpretations were possible. When the definition eventually was given, first in Art. 42 Note 1 of the Sydney Code (Greuter & al. in Regnum Veg. 111: 39. 1983) and then in Art. 42.2 of the Tokyo Code (Greuter & al. in Regnum Veg. 131: 52. 1994), it confirmed Hara's position. Citrullus Forssk. 1775 is a validly published name, heterotypic although synonymous with Citrullus Schrad., and therefore by implication (ICN Art. 14.10) rejected in favour of the latter as an earlier homonym. [Thanks to a last-minute fix, this is now made explicit in the Citrullus entry in App. III to the Melbourne Code, McNeill & al. in Regnum Veg. 157, in press.]
    Taxon 08/2014; 63(4):941-942. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Sidonie Bellot, Susanne S Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Gene trees of holoparasitic plants usually show distinctly longer branch lengths than seen in photosynthetic closest relatives. Such substitution rate jumps have made it difficult to infer the absolute divergence times of parasites. An additional problem is that parasite clades often lack a fossil record. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences of Apodanthaceae, a worldwide family of endoparasites living inside Fabaceae and Salicaceae, we compared several new dating approaches: (i) an uncorrelated lognormal (UCLN) model calibrated with outgroup fossils, (ii) ages of host lineages as a maximal age in an UCLN model, (iii) user-assigned local clocks, and (iv) outgroup-fossil-calibrated random local clocks (RLC) with varying prior probabilities on the number of permitted rate changes (RLCu and RLCp models), a variable that has never been explored. The resulting dated phylogenies include all 10 species of the family, three in Australia, one in Iran, one in Africa, and the remainder in the Americas. All clock models infer a drastic rate jump between nonparasitic outgroups and Apodanthaceae, but since they distribute the rate heterogeneity differently, they result in much-different age estimates. Bayes factors using path and stepping-stone sampling indicated that the RLCp model fit poorly, while for matR topologically unconstrained RLCu and UCLN models did not differ significantly and for 18S, the UCLN model was preferred, Under the equally well fitting models, the Apodanthaceae appear to be a relatively old clade, with a stem age falling between 65 and 81 my, the divergence of Apodanthes from Pilostyles between 36 and 57 my ago, and the crown age of the Australian clade 8 to 18 my ago. In our study system, host-age calibrations did not yield well-constrained results, but they may work better in other parasite clades. For small data sets where statistical convergence can be reached even with complex models, random local clocks should be explored as an alternative to the exclusive reliance on UCLN clocks.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 07/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    Aline C Martins, Gabriel A R Melo, Susanne S Renner
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    ABSTRACT: The economically most important group of bees is the "corbiculates", or pollen basket bees, some 890 species of honeybees (Apis), bumblebees (Bombus), stingless bees (Meliponini), and orchid bees (Euglossini). Molecular studies have indicated that the corbiculates are closest to the New World genera Centris, with 230 species, and Epicharis, with 35, albeit without resolving the precise relationships. Instead of concave baskets, these bees have hairy hind legs on which they transport pollen mixed with floral oil, collected with setae on the anterior and middle legs. We sampled two-thirds of all Epicharis, a third of all Centris, and representatives of the four lineages of corbiculates for four nuclear gene regions, obtaining a well-supported phylogeny that has the corbiculate bees nested inside the Centris/Epicharis clade. Fossil-calibrated molecular clocks, combined with a biogeographic reconstruction incorporating insights from the fossil record, indicate that the corbiculate clade arose in the New World and diverged from Centris 84 (72-95) my ago. The ancestral state preceding corbiculae thus was a hairy hind leg, perhaps adapted for oil transport as in Epicharis and Centris bees. Its replacement by glabrous, concave baskets represents a key innovation, allowing efficient transport of plant resins and large pollen/nectar loads and freeing the corbiculate clade from dependence on oil-offering flowers. The transformation could have involved a novel function of Ubx, the gene known to change hairy into smooth pollen baskets in Apis and Bombus.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 07/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf out phenology affects a wide variety of ecosystem processes and ecological interactions and will take on added significance as leaf out times increasingly shift in response to warming temperatures associated with climate change. There is, however, relatively little information available on the factors affecting species differences in leaf out phenology. An international team of researchers from eight Northern Hemisphere temperate botanical gardens recorded leaf out dates of c. 1600 woody species in 2011 and 2012. Leaf out dates in woody species differed by as much as 3 months at a single site and exhibited strong phylogenetic and anatomical relationships. On average, angiosperms leafed out earlier than gymnosperms, deciduous species earlier than evergreen species, shrubs earlier than trees, diffuse and semi-ring porous species earlier than ring porous species, and species with smaller diameter xylem vessels earlier than species with larger diameter vessels. The order of species leaf out was generally consistent between years and among sites. As species distribution and abundance shift due to climate change, interspecific differences in leaf out phenology may affect ecosystem processes such as carbon, water, and nutrient cycling. Our open access leaf out data provide a critical framework for monitoring and modelling such changes going forward.
    New Phytologist 06/2014; · 6.55 Impact Factor
  • Constantin M Zohner, Susanne S Renner
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    ABSTRACT: A well-timed phenology is essential for plant growth and reproduction, but species-specific phenological strategies are still poorly understood. Here, we use a common garden approach to compare biannual leaf-out data for 495 woody species growing outdoors in Munich, 90% of them not native to that climate regime. For three species, data were augmented by herbarium dates for 140-year-long time series. We further meta-analysed 107 temperate-zone woody species in which leaf-out cues have been studied, half of them also monitored here. Southern climate-adapted species flushed significantly later than natives, and photoperiod- and chilling- sensitive species all flushed late. The herbarium method revealed the extent of species-specific climate tracking. Our results forecast that: (1) a northward expansion of southern species due to climate warming will increase the number of late flushers in the north, counteracting documented and expected flushing time advances; and (2) photoperiod- and chilling-sensitive woody species cannot rapidly track climate warming.
    Ecology Letters 06/2014; · 13.04 Impact Factor
  • Juliana Chacón, Natalie Cusimano, Susanne S. Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract— The lily family Colchicaceae consists of geophytic herbs distributed on all continents except the Neotropics. It is particularly diverse in southern Africa, where 80 of the 270 species occur. Colchicaceae exhibit a wide range of ploidy levels, from 2n = 14 to 2n = 216. To understand where and how this cytogenetic diversity arose, we generated multilocus phylogenies of the Colchicaceae and the Colchicum clade that respectively included 85 or 137 species plus relevant outgroups. To infer the kinds of events that could explain the observed numbers in the living species (dysploidy, polyploidization, or demi-duplication, i.e. fusion of gametes of different ploidy), we compared a series of likelihood models on phylograms, penalized likelihood ultrametric trees, and relaxed clock chronograms that contained the 58 or 112 species with published chromosome counts. While such models involve simplification and cannot address the processes behind chromosomal rearrangements, they can help frame questions about the direction of change in chromosome numbers in well-sampled groups. The results suggest that dysploidy played a large role in the Colchicaceae, with the exception of Colchicum itself for which we inferred frequent demi-duplication. While it is known that triploids facilitate the fixation of tetraploidy and that plant species often include individuals of odd ploidy level (triploids, pentaploids), we hesitate to accept the phylogenetically inferred scenario without molecular-cytogenetic work and data from experimental hybridizations.
    Systematic Botany 06/2014; 39(2). · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    Marion Chartier, Marc Gibernau, Susanne S Renner
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    ABSTRACT: Most plant/pollinator interactions are mutualistic, involving rewards provided by flowers or inflorescences to pollinators. Antagonistic plant/pollinator interactions, in which flowers offer no rewards, are rare and concentrated in a few families including Araceae. In the latter, they involve trapping of pollinators, which are released loaded with pollen but unrewarded. To understand the evolution of such systems, we compiled data on the pollinators and types of interactions, and coded 21 characters, including interaction type, pollinator order, and 19 floral traits. A new phylogenetic framework comes from a matrix of plastid and new nuclear DNA sequences for 135 species from 119 genera (5342 nucleotides). The ancestral pollination interaction in Araceae was reconstructed as probably rewarding albeit with low confidence since information is available for only 56 of the 120-130 genera. Bayesian stochastic trait mapping showed that spadix zonation, presence of an appendix, and flower sexuality were correlated with pollination interaction type. In the Araceae, having unisexual flowers appears to have provided the morphological precondition for the evolution of traps. Compared with the frequency of shifts between deceptive and rewarding pollination systems in orchids, our results indicate less lability in the Araceae, probably because of morphologically and sexually more specialized inflorescences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Evolution 05/2014; 68(5):1533-1543. · 4.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
886.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • • Department of Biology II
      • • Division of Systematic Botany and Mycology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • University of Dundee
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      TW9, England, United Kingdom
    • Imperial College London
      • Division of Ecology and Evolution
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2010
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Beijing Botanical Garden
      • • South China Botanical Garden
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Colorado State University
      • Department of Biology
      Fort Collins, CO, United States
  • 2008
    • University of New England (Australia)
      • School of Environmental and Rural Science
      Армидейл, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1998–2008
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      • Department of Biology
      Saint Louis, MI, United States
  • 2000–2005
    • Missouri Botanical Garden
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2001
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Institute of Special Botany
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany