[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of naive T-lymphocyte subsets into lymphopenic mice initiates chronic gut inflammation that mimics several aspects of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients with IBD can have profound alterations in intestinal blood flow, but whether the same is true in the T-cell transfer model has yet to be determined.
In the current study, chronic intestinal inflammation was induced in recombinase-activating gene-1-deficient (RAG(-/-)) mice by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes obtained from interleukin-10 deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice.
Four weeks later, widespread colonic inflammation was observed in the reconstituted recipients, in contrast to 2 control sets of mice injected with a different subset of lymphocytes or with vehicle alone. We observed that the resulting pathology induced in the reconstituted RAG(-/-) mice was divided distinctly into 2 subsets: 1 with blood flow near normal with very high inflammation scores, and the other with severely attenuated blood flow but with much lower signs of inflammation. Colonic and ileal blood flow rates in the latter subset of CD4(+) mice averaged only approximately 30% compared to the mice with higher inflammation scores. The lower blood flow rates were associated with greatly reduced red blood cell concentrations in the tissue, suggesting a possible loss of vascular density.
In this model of chronic intestinal inflammation, mild inflammation was associated with significant decreases in blood flow.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ingestion by mice of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colonic vasoconstriction and inflammation, with some of the effects potentially mediated by the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1).
In this study, mice given 5% 40 kD DSS for 5-6 days had elevated colonic immunostaining for ET-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). Increased ET-1 can induce microvascular constriction; however, the increase in PECAM-1 is consistent with angiogenesis that could decrease flow resistance.
Our measurements of intestinal blood flow, via infused microspheres, suggests that these 2 factors may offset each other, with only a nonsignificant tendency for a DSS-induced decrease in flow. Daily administration of the endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor SM-19712 (15 mg/kg) attenuated DSS-induced increases in colonic immunostaining of ET-1 and PECAM-1.
SM-19712 attenuated histologic signs of tissue injury and inflammation induced by DSS, and decreased the extent of loose stools and fecal blood. However, the inhibitor did not significantly decrease DSS-induced colon shortening or tissue levels of myeloperoxidase (an indicator of neutrophil infiltration).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reductions in retinal blood flow are observed early in diabetes. Venules may influence arteriolar constriction and flow; therefore, we hypothesized that diabetes would induce the constriction of arterioles that are in close proximity to venules, with the constriction mediated by thromboxane and angiotensin II.
Using nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, retinal measurements were performed three weeks following the age at which glucose levels exceeded 200 mg/dL, with accompanying experiments on age-matched normoglycemic NOD mice. The measurements included retinal arteriolar diameters and red blood cell velocities and were repeated following an injection of the thromboxane synthase inhibitor, ozagrel. Mice were subdivided into equal groups and given drinking water with or without the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan.
Retinal arterioles were constricted in hyperglycemic mice, with a significant reduction in flow. However, not all arterioles were equally affected; the vasoconstriction was limited to arterioles that were in closer proximity to venules. The arteriolar vasoconstriction (mean arteriolar diameters = 51 +/- 1 vs. 61 +/- 1 microm in controls; p < 0.01) was eliminated by both ozagrel (61 +/- 2 microm) and losartan (63 +/- 2 microm).
Venule-dependent arteriolar vasoconstriction in NOD mice is mediated by thromboxane and/or angiotensin II.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 08/2008; 15(5):379-87. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal blood flow decreases early in the progression of diabetic retinopathy; however, the mediators and mechanisms responsible for this decrease have yet to be determined. In this study, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats, and retinal blood flow was measured via intravital microscopy 1 or 3 weeks following the induction of hyperglycemia. Additionally, retinal arteriolar diameters and flow were measured prior to and following acute administration of the thromboxane synthase inhibitor ozagrel to investigate the potential role of thromboxane in the observed constriction. Minimal changes in the retinal diameters and flow were observed at 1 week of diabetes; however, at 3 weeks of diabetes, arteriolar constriction and decreases in blood flow were significant. Notably, the constriction occurred only in the arterioles that were in closer proximity to the venules draining the retina. Acute administration of ozagrel reversed the constriction of the closely venule-paired arterioles. In summary, the results suggest that thromboxane mediates localized, venule-dependent arteriolar constriction induced by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.
Microvascular Research 08/2008; 76(3):217-23. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma levels of apoptotic DNA ladders (i.e., apoptosemia) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) in diabetic outpatients and rats were investigated. Apoptotic DNA ladders were detected in plasma from 26.8% of type 1 (T1) and 18.5% of type 2 (T2) diabetic children 1-20 years of age, 25.7% of hospitalized children and 35.7% of adult RA outpatients, but in only 3.5% of adult pre-op patients. Plasma from 7.7% of young streptozotocin-induced diabetic but not control rats contained apoptotic DNA ladders. Apoptosemia was detected more often in male T1 (31%) and T2 (30.8%) diabetic outpatients than in female T1 (20.8%) and T2 (15.4%) diabetic outpatients. GGT in apoptosemic plasma was significantly higher than in nonapoptosemic plasma from T1 (P = 0.001) but not T2 diabetic children. The highest amounts of apoptotic DNA were detected most often in diabetic children > or =14 years of age. In vitro study results suggest that cell-free apoptotic DNA ladders appear prior to an increase in GGT activity in serum from human blood incubated at 37 degrees C. The results suggest that 24.7% of plasma samples from diabetic children contained apoptotic DNA ladders, the incidence and amounts of apoptotic DNA ladders were higher in the older diabetic children, and GGT was elevated in apoptosemic T1 diabetic children (P = 0.01). The results indicate that "silent" apoptosemia occurs in T1 and T2 diabetic children and suggest elevated GGT in diabetic children could be due to release from apoptotic cells.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 11/2007; 232(9):1160-9. · 2.80 Impact Factor