Brian L Hood

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (76)358.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is associated with a dismal prognosis. The identification of cancer biomarkers can advance the possibility for early detection and better monitoring of tumor progression and/or response to therapy. The authors present results from the development of a serum-based, 4-protein (biglycan, myeloperoxidase, annexin-A6, and protein S100-A9) biomarker panel for EAC.METHODSA vertically integrated, proteomics-based biomarker discovery approach was used to identify candidate serum biomarkers for the detection of EAC. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples that were collected from across the Barrett esophagus (BE)-EAC disease spectrum. The mass spectrometry-based spectral count data were used to guide the selection of candidate serum biomarkers. Then, the serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data were validated in an independent cohort and were used to develop a multiparametric risk-assessment model to predict the presence of disease.RESULTSWith a minimum threshold of 10 spectral counts, 351 proteins were identified as differentially abundant along the spectrum of Barrett esophagus, high-grade dysplasia, and EAC (P<.05). Eleven proteins from this data set were then tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in serum samples, of which 5 proteins were significantly elevated in abundance among patients who had EAC compared with normal controls, which mirrored trends across the disease spectrum present in the tissue data. By using serum data, a Bayesian rule-learning predictive model with 4 biomarkers was developed to accurately classify disease class; the cross-validation results for the merged data set yielded accuracy of 87% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 93%.CONCLUSIONS Serum biomarkers hold significant promise for the early, noninvasive detection of EAC. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A subset of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases have been characterized by the t(5;17)(q35;q21) translocation variant which fuses nucleophosmin (NPM) to retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA). The resultant NPM-RAR fusion protein blocks myeloid differentiation, and leads to a leukemic phenotype similar to that caused by the t(15;17)(q22;q21) PML-RAR fusion. The contribution of the N-terminal 117 amino acids of NPM contained within NPM-RAR has not been well studied. As a molecular chaperone, NPM interacts with a variety of proteins implicated in leukemogenesis. Therefore, a proteomic analysis was conducted to identify novel NPM-RAR associated proteins. Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein (TRADD) was identified as a relevant binding partner for NPM-RAR. This interaction was validated by co-precipitation and co-localization analysis. Biological assessment found that NPM-RAR expression impaired TNF-induced signaling through TRADD, blunting TNF-mediated activation of caspase 3 (CASP3) and caspase 8 (CASP8), to ultimately block apoptosis. Implications: This study identifies a novel mechanism through which NPM-RAR impacts leukemogenesis.
    Molecular Cancer Research 07/2014; · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways are upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Preclinical models indicate synergistic anti-tumor activity from dual blockade. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled window trial of erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor; erlotinib plus sulindac, a non-selective COX inhibitor, vs. placebo. Patients with untreated, operable Stage II-IVb HNSCC were randomized 5:5:3 to erlotinib, erlotinib-sulindac, or placebo. Tumor specimens were collected before and after 7-14 days of treatment. The primary endpoint was change in Ki-67 proliferation index. We hypothesized an ordering effect in Ki-67 reduction: erlotinib-sulindac > erlotinib > placebo. We evaluated tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry for pharmacodynamic modulation of EGFR and COX-2 signaling intermediates. From 2005-2009, 47 patients were randomized for the target 39 evaluable patients. Thirty-four tumor pairs were of sufficient quality to assess biomarker modulation. Ki-67 was significantly decreased by erlotinib or erlotinib-sulindac (omnibus comparison, two-sided Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.04). Wilcoxon pairwise contrasts confirmed greater Ki-67 effect in both erlotinib groups (erlotinib-sulindac vs. placebo p=0.043; erlobinib vs. placebo, p=0.027). There was a significant trend in ordering of Ki-67 reduction: erlotinib-sulindac > erlotinib > placebo (two-sided exact Jonckheere-Terpstra, p =0.0185). Low baseline pSrc correlated with greater Ki-67 reduction (R2 = .312, p = 0.024). Brief treatment with erlotinib significantly decreased proliferation in HNSCC, with additive effect from sulindac. Efficacy studies of dual EGFR-COX inhibition are justified. pSrc is a potential resistance biomarker for anti-EGFR therapy, and warrants investigation as a molecular target.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The determination of in situ protein levels of ERCC1 with the 8F1 monoclonal antibody is prognostic of survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The authors previously demonstrated that 8F1 recognizes a second nuclear antigen. This antigen was identified and its value as a biomarker of clinical outcomes analyzed. The second antigen was identified by mass spectrometry. Protein identity and antibody specificity were confirmed through knockdown and overexpression experiments. Immunohistochemistry of 187 early-stage NSCLC samples and 60 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) was used to examine the influence of the second antigen on 8F1 immunoreactivity and its association with patient outcomes. Choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase-α (CCTα, also known as phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 choline alpha [PCYT1A], a phospholipid synthesis enzyme regulated by RAS) is the second antigen recognized by 8F1. In NSCLC samples, CCTα contributed (rho, 0.38) to 8F1 immunoreactivity. In samples of squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, CCTα was found to be the dominant determinant of 8F1 immunoreactivity, whereas its contribution in other subtypes of lung cancer was negligible. High expression of CCTα, but not ERCC1, was found to be prognostic of longer disease-free survival (log-rank P = .002) and overall survival (log-rank P = .056). Similarly, in patients with HNSCC, CCTα contributed strongly to 8F1 immunoreactivity (rho, 0.74), and high CCTα expression was found to be prognostic of survival (log-rank P = .022 for disease-free survival and P = .027 for overall survival). CCTα is the second antigen detected by 8F1. High CCTα expression appears to be prognostic of survival in patients with NSCLC who are treated by surgery alone and patients with HNSCC. CCTα is a promising biomarker of patient survival and deserves further study. Cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The majority of patients diagnosed with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) relapse with resistant disease, and there are no biomarkers that possess clinical utility to identify or monitor these patients. This study aimed to identify secreted proteins ('secretome') collected from human EOC cell lines that differ in their inherent platinum sensitivity.Methods:Secreted proteins collected from conditioned medium from ovarian cancer cell lines that vary in their sensitivity to cisplatin were digested with trypsin and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for peptide identification.Results:Of the 1688 proteins identified, 16 possessed significant differential abundances (P<0.05) between the platinum-resistant and -sensitive cell lines. A number of these were verified by immunoblot, including COL11A1, which was also found to be associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS; N=723) and overall survival (OS; N=1183) as assessed from publicly available transcript expression data from ovarian cancer tumour specimens.Conclusion:Secretome proteomics of EOC cells resulted in the identification of a novel candidate biomarker, COL11A1. The expression level of COL11A1 correlates to worse PFS and OS, and is predicted to reside in peripheral circulation making this an attractive candidate for validation in sera as a biomarker of cisplatin resistance and poor outcome.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 31 October 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.687 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The respiratory chain of some prokaryotes was shown to be organized in supercomplexes. This association has been proposed to improve enzyme stability and the overall efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation process. Here, we have revisited recent data on the supercomplexes of Bacillus subtilis respiratory chain, by means of 1D and ∗∗2D-BN-PAGE, sucrose gradient fractionation of solubilized membranes, and mass spectrometry analysis of BN-PAGE bands detected in gel for succinate and cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities. The cytochrome bc:caa3 oxygen oxidoreductase supercomplex was observed in different stoichiometries, (bc)4:(caa3)2, (bc)2:(caa3)4 and 2[(bc)2:(caa3)4], suggesting for the first time the string association model of supercomplexes in a Gram positive bacterium. In addition, the presence of a succinate:quinone oxidoreductase:nitrate reductase supercomplex was confirmed by the co-localized succinate:nitroblue tetrazolium and methylviologen:nitrate oxidoreductase activities detected in gel and corroborated by LC-MS/MS analysis.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human studies suggest that progesterone and calcitriol may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The current study investigates the effects of progesterone, calcitriol and their combination on immortalized human endometrial epithelial cells and endometrial cancer cells and identifies their targets of action. Combination treatment with both agents enhanced vitamin D receptor expression and inhibited cell proliferation through caspase-3 activation and induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest with associated down-regulation of cyclins D1 and D3 and p27 induction. We used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to measure protein abundance differences between calcitriol-, progesterone-, or combination-exposed endometrial cells. A total of 117 proteins showed differential expression amongst these three treatments. Four proteins were then selected for validation studies: histone H1.4 (HIST1H1E), histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2 (HINT2), interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (EIF2AK2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX). Abundance levels of selected candidates were low in endometrial cancer cell lines versus the immortalized endometrial epithelial cell line. All four proteins displayed elevated expression in cancer cells upon exposure to calcitriol, progesterone or the combination. Further BAX analysis through gain or loss of function experiments revealed that upregulation of BAX decreased cell proliferation by changing the BAX:BCL-2 ratio. Knock down of BAX attenuated progesterone- and calcitriol-induced cell growth inhibition. Our results showed that progesterone and calcitriol up-regulate the expression of BAX along with other apoptosis-related proteins, which induce inhibition of endometrial cancer cell growth by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
    Cancer Prevention Research 05/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that changes in serum phosphate levels influence pathological states associated with aging such as cancer, bone metabolism, and cardiovascular function, even in individuals with normal renal function. The causes are only beginning to be elucidated but are likely a combination of endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and cell autonomous effects. We have used an integrated quantitative biology approach, combining transcriptomics and proteomics to define a multi-phase, extracellular phosphate-induced, signaling network in pre-osteoblasts as well as primary human and mouse mesenchymal stromal cells. We identified a rapid mitogenic response stimulated by elevated phosphate that results in the induction of immediate early genes including c-fos. The mechanism of activation requires FGF receptor signaling followed by stimulation of N-ras and activation of AP-1 and serum response elements. A distinct long-term response also requires FGF receptor signaling and results in N-ras activation and expression of genes and secretion of proteins involved in matrix regulation, calcification, and angiogenesis. The late response is synergistically enhanced by addition of FGF23 peptide. The intermediate phase results in increased oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production and is necessary for the late response providing a functional link between the phases. Collectively, the results define elevated phosphate, as a mitogen and define specific mechanisms by which phosphate stimulates proliferation and matrix regulation. Our approach provides a comprehensive understanding of the cellular response to elevated extracellular phosphate, functionally connecting temporally coordinated signaling, transcriptional, and metabolic events with changes in long-term cell behavior. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/2012; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteosarcomas rarely occur in older adults. Proteomics has not been reported to date in osteosarcoma occurring in the older adult population. This proteomic investigation was conducted to identify differentially expressed proteins in osteosarcoma occurring in various backgrounds from older adults. Desmoid tumors, known to recur locally but not metastasize, were also analyzed. Protein digests isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimen representing 14 primary osteosarcomas of soft tissue and bone and 18 desmoid tumors were analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification and relative quantification by spectral counting. Elevated abundance levels of several proteins including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), elastin microfibril interface-located protein 1, and clusterin were identified in osteosarcoma with slight differences in proteomic profiles. Desmoids had an abundance of collagen II and periostin only. The findings were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for HSP90 and clusterin in the experimental samples and additionally in 16 posttherapy conventional osteosarcomas in tissue microarrays constructed from heterogeneous sarcomas and benign lesions. All osteosarcomas were positive for HSP90 and clusterin to a variable extent. One case of well-differentiated parosteal osteosarcoma was negative. Thirty of 75 other high-grade sarcomas including cases of chondrosarcoma were positive for HSP90. Low-grade and benign lesions and scars and 18 desmoid tumors had little or no expression of these proteins. HSP90 and clusterin represent candidate markers of aggressiveness in osteosarcoma occurring in older adults and may be indicative of drug resistance.
    Human pathology 10/2012; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA-binding protein pathology now represents one of the best characterized pathologic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with TDP-43 or FUS pathology (FTLD-TDP and FTLD-FUS). Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified altered levels of the RNA-binding motif 45 (RBM45) protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients. This protein contains sequence similarities to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) that are contained in cytoplasmic inclusions of ALS and FTLD-TDP or FTLD-FUS patients. To further characterize RBM45, we first verified the presence of RBM45 in CSF and spinal cord tissue extracts of ALS patients by immunoblot. We next used immunohistochemistry to examine the subcellular distribution of RBM45 and observed in a punctate staining pattern within nuclei of neurons and glia in the brain and spinal cord. We also detected RBM45 cytoplasmic inclusions in 91 % of ALS, 100 % of FTLD-TDP and 75 % of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. The most extensive RBM45 pathology was observed in patients that harbor the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. These RBM45 inclusions were observed in spinal cord motor neurons, glia and neurons of the dentate gyrus. By confocal microscopy, RBM45 co-localizes with ubiquitin and TDP-43 in inclusion bodies. In neurons containing RBM45 cytoplasmic inclusions we often detected the protein in a punctate pattern within the nucleus that lacked either TDP-43 or ubiquitin. We identified RBM45 using a proteomic screen of CSF from ALS and control subjects for candidate biomarkers, and link this RNA-binding protein to inclusion pathology in ALS, FTLD-TDP and AD.
    Acta Neuropathologica 09/2012; 124(5):717-32. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATM is a protein kinase that initiates a well-characterized signaling cascade in cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the role for ATM in coordinating critical protein interactions and subsequent exchanges within DNA damage response (DDR) complexes is unknown. We combined SILAC-based tandem mass spectrometry and a subcellular fractionation protocol to interrogate the proteome of irradiated cells treated with or without the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933. We developed an integrative network analysis to identify and prioritize proteins that were responsive to KU55933, specifically in chromatin, and that were also enriched for physical interactions with known DNA repair proteins. This analysis identified 53BP1 and annexin A1 (ANXA1) as strong candidates. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that the exchange of GFP-53BP1 in DDR complexes decreased with KU55933. Further, we found that ANXA1 knockdown sensitized cells to IR via a mechanism that was not potentiated by KU55933. Our study reveals a role for ATM kinase activity in the dynamic exchange of proteins in DDR complexes and identifies a role for ANXA1 in cellular radioprotection.
    Journal of Proteome Research 08/2012; 11(10):4983-91. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among women with gynecologic malignancies and accounts for approximately 6% of cancer deaths among women. Cisplatin and its analogues form the backbone of the most active chemotherapy regimens in advanced EOC; however, development of platinum resistance is common and typically marks a transition in which curing the patient is no longer possible. An emerging theme in many cancers is that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to an aggressive carcinogenic phenotype. We hypothesized that changes in the mitochondrial proteome are required to support development of cisplatin resistance in human EOC. To investigate this hypothesis, an organellar proteomics approach was utilized to quantify alterations in protein abundance in mitochondria enriched from isogenic cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and -resistant (A2780-CP20) human EOC cells. Protein isolates from mitochondria-enriched fractions were analyzed by high resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and relative abundance of identified proteins was quantified by spectral counting. Pathway analyses revealed significant increases in notch signaling pathways, cell survival, and alternate apoptotic pathways in the A2780-CP20 subtype. Among the alterations identified in the mitochondrial proteomic composition in cisplatin-resistant EOC cells, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (AKAP12) and A kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) were elevated, while nestin was diminished in the mitochondrial fraction of A2780-CP20 relative to A2780. This was verified by immunoblot analysis. These results confirm that important changes in the mitochondrial proteome, many of which promote evasion of apoptosis and tumor invasiveness and metastasis, are present in cisplatin-resistant EOC.
    Journal of Proteome Research 08/2012; 11(9):4605-14. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of the large number of reports on the aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli, from gene transcription regulation to enzyme kinetics and structural studies, an integrative perspective of this pathway is yet to be produced. Here, a multi-level analysis of the aerobic respiratory chain of E. coli was performed to find correlations between gene transcription, enzyme activity, growth dynamics, and supercomplex formation and composition. The transcription level of all genes encoding the aerobic respiratory chain of E. coli varied significantly in response to bacterial growth. Coordinated expression patterns were observed between the genes encoding NADH : quinone oxidoreductase and complex I (NDH-1), alternative NADH : quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) and cytochrome bdI, and also between sdhA and appC, encoding succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bdII, respectively. In general, the rates of the respiratory chain activities increased from mid-exponential to late-stationary phase, with no significant further variation occurring until the mid-stationary phase. Multi-level correlations between gene transcription, enzyme activity and growth dynamics were also found in this study. The previously reported NADH dehydrogenase and formate : oxygen oxidoreductase supercomplexes of E. coli were already assembled at mid-exponential phase and remained throughout growth. A new succinate oxidase supercomplex composed of succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bdII was identified, in agreement with the suggestion provided by the coordinated transcription of sdhA and appC.
    Microbiology 06/2012; 158(Pt 9):2408-18. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States. A well recognized disparity by race in both incidence and survival outcome exists for this cancer. Specifically Caucasians are about two times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than are African-Americans. However, African-American women are more likely to die from this disease than are Caucasians. The basis for this disparity remains unknown. Previous studies have identified differences in the types and frequencies of gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Caucasians and African-Americans suggesting that the tumors from these two groups might have differing underlying genetic defects. We performed a gene expression microarray study in an effort to identify differentially expressed transcripts between African-American and Caucasian women's endometrial cancers. Our gene expression screen identified a list of potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed between these two groups of cancers. Of these we identified a poorly characterized transcript with a region of homology to phospho serine phosphatase (PSPH) and designated phospho serine phosphatase like (PSPHL) as the most differentially over-expressed gene in cancers from African-Americans. We further clarified the nature of expressed transcripts. Northern blot analysis confirmed the message was limited to a transcript of under 1 kB. Sequence analysis of transcripts confirmed two alternate open reading frame (ORF) isoforms due to alternative splicing events. Splice specific primer sets confirmed both isoforms were differentially expressed in tissues from Caucasians and African-Americans. We further examined the expression in other tissues from women to include normal endometrium, normal and malignant ovary. In all cases PSPHL expression was more often present in tissues from African-Americans than Caucasians. Our data confirm the African-American based expression of the PSPHL transcript in endometrial cancer and also identify its expression in other tissues from African-Americans including ovary and ovarian cancer. PSPHL represents a candidate gene that might influence the observed racial disparity in endometrial and other cancers.
    Frontiers in Oncology 01/2012; 2:65.
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of mitochondria as oxygen sensors as well as producers of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has recently become a focal point of cancer research. However, in the case of melanoma, little information is available to what extent cellular bioenergetics processes contribute to the progression of the disease and related to it, whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has a prominent role in advanced melanoma. In this study we demonstrate that compared to melanocytes, metastatic melanoma cells have elevated levels of OXPHOS. Furthermore, treating metastatic melanoma cells with the drug, Elesclomol, which induces cancer cell apoptosis through oxidative stress, we document by way of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) that proteins participating in OXPHOS are downregulated. We also provide evidence that melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis are more resistant to Elesclomol. We further show that Elesclomol upregulates hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), and that prolonged exposure of melanoma cells to this drug leads to selection of melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis. Taken together, our findings suggest that molecular targeting of OXPHOS may have efficacy for advanced melanoma.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e40690. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and metastasis. CLT1 (CGLIIQKNEC), a peptide that binds to tumor interstitial spaces in the presence of fibrin-fibronectin, has structural similarity to the anti-angiogenic β-sheet peptides anastellin and anginex. This similarity is reflected in the ability of CLT1 to form co-aggregates with fibronectin that induce an unfolded protein response and cause autophagic cell death in proliferating endothelial cells. CLT1 cytotoxicity is mediated at least in parts by a novel CLT1 binding protein, Chloride Intracellular Channel 1 (CLIC1), which promotes internalization of CLT1-fibronectin co-aggregates in a mechanism that depends on the LIIQK amino acid sequence of CLT1. LIIQK encompasses amino acid residues relevant for CLT1 binding to CLIC1 and in addition, facilitates the formation of CLT1-fibronectin co-aggregates, which in turn promote translocation of CLIC1 to the endothelial cell surface through ligation of integrin αvβ3. Paralleling the in vitro results, we found that CLT1 co-localizes with CLIC1 and fibronectin in angiogenic blood vessels in vivo, and that CLT1 treatment inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Our findings show that CLT1 is a new anti-angiogenic compound, and its mechanism of action is to form co-aggregates with fibronectin, which bind to angiogenic endothelial cells through integrins, become internalized through CLIC1 and elicit a cytotoxic unfolded protein response. The simple structure and high potency of CLT1 make it a potentially useful compound for anti-angiogenic treatments.
    Angiogenesis 12/2011; 15(1):115-29. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) is a proximal fluid directly derived from the prostate and, in the case of prostate cancer (PCa), is hypothesized to contain a repertoire of cancer-relevant proteins. Quantitative analysis of the EPS proteome may enable identification of proteins with utility for PCa diagnosis and prognosis. The present investigation demonstrates selective quantitation of proteins in EPS samples from PCa patients using a stable isotope labeled proteome standard (SILAP) generated through the selective harvest of the "secretome" from the PC3 prostate cancer cell line grown in stable isotope labeled cell culture medium. This stable isotope labeled secretome was digested with trypsin and equivalently added to each EPS digest, after which the resultant mixtures were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for peptide identification and quantification. Relative quantification of endogenous EPS peptides was accomplished by comparison of reconstructed mass chromatograms to those of the chemically identical SILAP peptides. A total of 86 proteins were quantified from 263 peptides in all of the EPS samples, 38 of which were found to be relevant to PCa. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a SILAP secretome standard to simultaneously quantify many PCa-relevant proteins in EPS samples.
    Journal of Proteome Research 11/2011; 11(2):1089-99. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroglobin protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo; however, the underlying mechanisms for this effect remain poorly understood. Most of the neuroglobin is present in a hexacoordinate state with proximal and distal histidines in the heme pocket directly bound to the heme iron. At equilibrium, the concentration of the five-coordinate neuroglobin remains very low (0.1-5%). Recent studies have shown that post-translational redox regulation of neuroglobin surface thiol disulfide formation increases the open probability of the heme pocket and allows nitrite binding and reaction to form NO. We hypothesized that the equilibrium between the six- and five-coordinate states and secondary reactions with nitrite to form NO could be regulated by other hypoxia-dependent post-translational modification(s). Protein sequence models identified candidate sites for both 14-3-3 binding and phosphorylation. In both in vitro experiments and human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells exposed to hypoxia and glucose deprivation, we observed that 1) neuroglobin phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions with 14-3-3 increase during hypoxic and metabolic stress; 2) neuroglobin binding to 14-3-3 stabilizes and increases the half-life of phosphorylation; and 3) phosphorylation increases the open probability of the heme pocket, which increases ligand binding (CO and nitrite) and accelerates the rate of anaerobic nitrite reduction to form NO. These data reveal a series of hypoxia-dependent post-translational modifications to neuroglobin that regulate the six-to-five heme pocket equilibrium and heme access to ligands. Hypoxia-regulated reactions of nitrite and neuroglobin may contribute to the cellular adaptation to hypoxia.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2011; 286(49):42679-89. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to establish a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis of laser microdissected (LMD) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) uterine tissue. High resolution bioimage analysis of a large endometrial cancer tissue microarray immunostained for the breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein enabled precise counting of cells to establish that there is an average of 600 cells/nL of endometrial cancer tissue. We sought to characterize the peptide recovery from various volumes of tissue gathered by LMD and processed/digested using the present methodology. We observed a nearly linear increase in peptide recovery amount with increasing tissue volume dissected. There was little discernible difference in the peptide recovery from stromal versus malignant epithelium, and there was no apparent difference in the day-to-day recovery. This methodology reproducibly results in 100 ng of digested peptides per nL of endometrial tissue, or ∼25 pg peptides/endometrial cancer cell. Results from liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS experiments to assess the impact of total peptide load on column on the total number of peptides and proteins identified from FFPE tissue digests prepared with the present methodology indicate a demonstrable increase in the total number of peptides identified up to 1000 ng, beyond which diminishing returns were observed. Furthermore, we observed no impact on the peptide identification rates from analyses of equivalent peptide amounts derived from lower volume LMD samples. These results show that this single-tube collection-to-injection proteomics (CTIP) workflow represents a straightforward, scalable, and highly reliable methodology for sample preparation to enable high throughput LMD-MS analysis of tissues derived from biopsy or surgery.
    Journal of Proteome Research 09/2011; 10(11):5264-71. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isothiocyanates (ITCs), such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN), are effective cancer chemopreventive compounds. It is believed that the major mechanism for the cancer preventive activity of ITCs is through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the upstream molecular targets of ITCs have been underexplored until recently. To identify proteins that are covalently modified by ITCs, human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells were treated with (14)C-PEITC and (14)C-SFN, and the cell lysates were extracted for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. After superimposing the colloidal Coomassie blue protein staining pattern with the pattern of radioactivity obtained from X-ray films, it was clear that only a small fraction of cellular proteins contained radioactivity, presumably resulting from selective binding with PEITC or SFN via thiocarbamation. More than 30 proteins with a variety of biological functions were identified with high confidence. Here, we report the identities of these potential ITC target proteins and discuss their biological relevance. The discovery of the protein targets may facilitate studies of the mechanisms by which ITCs exert their cancer preventive activity and provide the molecular basis for designing more efficacious ITC compounds.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2011; 24(10):1735-43. · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
358.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • New University of Lisbon
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2010–2012
    • Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2011
    • Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Georgetown University
      • Department of Oncology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2006
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      La Jolla, CA, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States