James J Pekar

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (130)559.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: A steady pulsed imaging and labeling (SPIL) scheme is proposed to obtain high-resolution multislice perfusion images of mice brain using standard preclinical MRI equipment. Theory and Methods: The SPIL scheme repeats a pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) module together with a short mixing time to extend the temporal duration of the generated PASL bolus to the total experimental time. Multislice image acquisition takes place during the mixing times. The mixing time is also used for magnetization recovery following image acquisition. The new scheme is able to yield multislice perfusion images rapidly. The perfusion kinetic curve can be measured by a multipulsed imaging and labeling (MPIL) scheme, i.e., acquiring single-slice ASL signals before reaching steady-state in the SPIL sequence. Results: When applying the SPIL method to normal mice, and to mice with unilateral ischemia, high-resolution multislice (five slices) CBF images could be obtained in 8 min. Perfusion data from ischemic mice showed clear CBF reductions in ischemic regions. The SPIL method was also applied to postmortem mice, showing that the method is free from magnetization transfer confounds. Conclusion: The new SPIL scheme provides for robust measurement of CBF with multislice imaging capability in small animals. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117531. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117531 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Feng Xu, Peiying Liu, James J Pekar, Hanzhang Lu
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    ABSTRACT: Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (p<0.001), global CMRO2 did not change significantly. Instead, the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 01/2015; 110. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.01.046 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new acquisition scheme for T2-weighted spin-echo BOLD fMRI is introduced. It uses a T2-preparation module to induce blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, followed by a single-shot three-dimensional (3D) fast gradient-echo readout with short echo time (TE). It differs from most spin-echo BOLD sequences in that BOLD contrast is generated before the readout, which eliminates the "dead time" due to long TE required for T2 contrast, and substantially improves acquisition efficiency. This approach, termed "3D T2prep-GRE," was implemented at 7 Tesla (T) with a typical spatial (2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm(3) ) and temporal (TR = 2.3 s) resolution for functional MRI (fMRI) and whole-brain coverage (55 slices), and compared with the widely used 2D spin-echo EPI sequence. In fMRI experiments of simultaneous visual/motor activities, 3D T2prep-GRE showed minimal distortion and little signal dropout across the whole brain. Its lower power deposition allowed greater spatial coverage (55 versus 17 slices with identical TR, resolution and power level), temporal SNR (60% higher) and CNR (35% higher) efficiency than 2D spin-echo EPI. It also showed smaller T2* contamination. This approach is expected to be useful for ultra-high field fMRI, especially for regions near air cavities. The concept of using T2-preparation to generate BOLD contrast can be combined with many other sequences at any field strength. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 12/2014; 72(6). DOI:10.1002/mrm.25055 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8–12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain–behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN–occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON–DMN connections. For all CON–DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.
    11/2014; 7. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.11.011
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    ABSTRACT: A recent interest in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) lies in subdividing the human brain into anatomically and functionally distinct regions of interest. For example, brain parcellation is often a necessary step for defining the network nodes used in connectivity studies. While inference has traditionally been performed on group-level data, there is a growing interest in parcellating single subject data. However, this is difficult due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of rsfMRI data, combined with typically short scan lengths. A large number of brain parcellation approaches employ clustering, which begins with a measure of similarity or distance between voxels. The goal of this work is to improve the reproducibility of single-subject parcellation using shrinkage-based estimators of such measures, allowing the noisy subject-specific estimator to "borrow strength" in a principled manner from a larger population of subjects. We present several empirical Bayes shrinkage estimators and outline methods for shrinkage when multiple scans are not available for each subject. We perform shrinkage on raw inter-voxel correlation estimates and use both raw and shrinkage estimates to produce parcellations by performing clustering on the voxels. While we employ a standard spectral clustering approach, our proposed method is agnostic to the choice of clustering method and can be used as a pre-processing step for any clustering algorithm. Using two datasets - a simulated dataset where the true parcellation is known and is subject-specific and a test-retest dataset consisting of two 7-minute resting-state fMRI scans from 20 subjects - we show that parcellations produced from shrinkage correlation estimates have higher reliability and validity than those produced from raw correlation estimates. Application to test-retest data shows that using shrinkage estimators increases the reproducibility of subject-specific parcellations of the motor cortex by up to 30%. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 09/2014; 112. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.042 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to the BOLD scan, quantitative functional MRI studies require measurement of both cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) dynamics. The ability to detect CBV and CBF responses in a single additional scan would shorten the total scan time and reduce temporal variations. Several approaches for simultaneous CBV and CBF measurement during functional MRI experiments have been proposed in two-dimensional (2D) mode covering one to three slices in one repetition time (TR). Here, we extended the principles from previous work and present a three-dimensional (3D) whole-brain MRI approach that combines the vascular-space-occupancy (VASO) and flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques, allowing the measurement of CBV and CBF dynamics, respectively, in a single scan. 3D acquisitions are complicated for such a scan combination as the time to null blood signal during a steady state needs to be known. We estimated this using Bloch simulations and demonstrate that the resulting 3D acquisition can detect activation patterns and relative signal changes of quality comparable to that of the original separate scans. The same was found for temporal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). This approach provides improved acquisition efficiency when both CBV and CBF responses need to be monitored during a functional task.
    NeuroImage 08/2014; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.08.025 · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • Organization for Human Brain Mapping; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is used to investigate synchronous activations in spatially distinct regions of the brain, which are thought to reflect functional systems supporting cognitive processes. Analyses are often performed using seed-based correlation analysis, allowing researchers to explore functional connectivity between data in a seed region and the rest of the brain. Using scan-rescan rs-fMRI data, we investigate how well the subject-specific seed-based correlation map from the second replication of the study can be predicted using data from the first replication. We show that one can dramatically improve prediction of subject-specific connectivity by borrowing strength from the group correlation map computed using all other subjects in the study. Even more surprisingly, we found that the group correlation map provided a better prediction of a subject's connectivity than the individual's own data. While further discussion and experimentation is required to understand how this can be used in practice, results indicate that shrinkage-based methods that borrow strength from the population mean should play a role in rs-fMRI data analysis.
    NeuroImage 05/2014; 102. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.043 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have illustrated that motion-related artifacts remain in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data even after common corrective processing procedures have been applied, but the extent to which head motion distorts the data may be modulated by the corrective approach taken. We compare two different methods for estimating nuisance signals from tissues not expected to exhibit BOLD fMRI signals of neuronal origin: 1) the more commonly used mean signal method and 2) the principal components analysis approach (aCompCor: Behzadi et al., 2007). Further, we investigate the added benefit of ``scrubbing" (Power et al., 2012) following both methods. We demonstrate that the use of aCompCor removes motion artifacts more effectively than tissue-mean signal regression. In addition, inclusion of more components from anatomically defined regions of no interest better mitigates motion-related artifacts and improves the specificity of functional connectivity estimates. While scrubbing further attenuates motion-related artifacts when mean signals are used, scrubbing provides no additional benefit in terms of motion artifact reduction or connectivity specificity when using aCompCor.
    NeuroImage 03/2014; 96. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.028 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that motor impairments are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relate to the social and communicative deficits at the core of the diagnosis and may reflect abnormal connectivity within brain networks underlying motor control and learning. Parcellation of resting-state functional connectivity data using spectral clustering approaches has been shown to be an effective means of visualizing functional organization within the brain but has most commonly been applied to explorations of normal brain function. This article presents a parcellation of a key area of the motor network, the primary motor cortex (M1), a key area of the motor control network, in adults, typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD and introduces methods for selecting the number of parcels, matching parcels across groups and testing group differences. The parcellation is based solely on patterns of connectivity between individual M1 voxels and all voxels outside of M1, and within all groups, a gross dorsomedial to ventrolateral organization emerged within M1 which was left-right symmetric. Although this gross organizational scheme was present in both groups of children, statistically significant group differences in the size and segregation of M1 parcels within regions of the motor homunculus corresponding to the upper and lower limbs were observed. Qualitative comparison of the M1 parcellation for children with ASD with that of younger and older TD children suggests that these organizational differences, with a lack of differentiation between lower limb/trunk regions and upper limb/hand regions, may be due, at least in part, to a delay in functional specialization within the motor cortex. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 02/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22188 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG)-repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Early changes that may precede clinical manifestation of movement disorder include executive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to identify functional network correlates of impaired higher cognitive functioning in relation to HD stage. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional-magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural-MRI were performed in 53 subjects with the HD-mutation (41 prodromals, 12 early affected) and 52 controls. Disease stage was estimated for each subject with HD-mutation based on age, length of the CAG-repeat expansion mutation and also putaminal atrophy. The Tower of London test was administered with three levels of complexity during fMRI as a challenge of executive function. Functional brain networks of interest were identified based on cortical gray matter voxel-clusters with significantly enhanced task-related functional coupling to the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) area. While prodromal HD-subjects showed similar performance levels as controls, multivariate analysis of task-related functional coupling to the MPFC identified reduced connectivity in prodromal and early manifest HD-subjects for a cluster including mainly parts of the left premotor area. Secondary testing indicated a significant moderator effect for task complexity on group differences and on the degree of correlation to measures of HD stage. Our data suggest that impaired premotor-MPFC coupling reflects HD stage related dysfunction of cognitive systems involved in executive function and may be present in prodromal HD-subjects that are still cognitively normal. Additional longitudinal studies may reveal temporal relationships between impaired task-related premotor-MPFC coupling and other brain changes in HD.
    Cortex 06/2013; 49(10). DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.05.015 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurological recovery in patients with severe spinal cord injury (SCI) is extremely rare. We have identified a patient with chronic cervical traumatic SCI, who suffered a complete loss of motor and sensory function below the injury for 6 weeks after the injury, but experienced a progressive neurological recovery that continued for 17 years. The extent of the patient's recovery from the severe trauma-induced paralysis is rare and remarkable. A detailed study of this patient using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), and resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) revealed structural and functional changes in the central nervous system that may be associated with the neurological recovery. Sixty-two percent cervical cord white matter atrophy was observed. DTI-derived quantities, more sensitive to axons, demonstrated focal changes, while MTI-derived quantity, more sensitive to myelin, showed a diffuse change. No significant cortical structural changes were observed, while rs-fMRI revealed increased brain functional connectivity between sensorimotor and visual networks. The study provides comprehensive description of the structural and functional changes in the patient using advanced MR imaging technique. This multimodal MR imaging study also shows the potential of rs-fMRI to measure the extent of cortical plasticity.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 06/2013; 7:290. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00290 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia, and persons at risk for schizophrenia may show subtle deficits in attention and working memory. In this study, we investigated the relationship between integrity of functional brain networks and performance in attention and working memory tasks as well as schizophrenia risk.Methods:A total of 235 adults representing 3 levels of risk (102 outpatients with schizophrenia, 70 unaffected first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia, and 63 unrelated healthy controls [HCs]) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a battery of attention and working memory tasks (Brief Test of Attention, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test) on the same day. Functional networks were defined based on coupling with seeds in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and primary visual cortex. Networks were then dissected into regional clusters of connectivity that were used to generate individual interaction matrices representing functional connectivity within each network.Results:Both patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives showed cognitive dysfunction compared with HCs. First canonicals indicated an inverse relationship between cognitive performance and connectivity within the DLPFC and MPFC networks. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed multivariate main effects of higher schizophrenia risk status on increased connectivity within the DLPFC and MPFC networks.Conclusions:These data suggest that excessive connectivity within brain networks coupled to the DLPFC and MPFC, respectively, accompany cognitive deficits in persons at risk for schizophrenia. This might reflect compensatory reactions in neural systems required for cognitive processing of attention and working memory tasks to brain changes associated with schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 06/2013; 40(3). DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt077 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitory control commonly recruits a number of frontal regions: pre-SMA, FEFs, and right-lateralized posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsal anterior insula (DAI), dorsolateral pFC, and inferior frontal junction. These regions may directly implement inhibitory motor control or may be more generally involved in executive control functions. Two go/no-go tasks were used to distinguish regions specifically recruited for inhibition from those that additionally show increased activity with working memory demand. The pre-SMA and IFG were recruited for inhibition in both tasks and did not have greater activation for working memory demand on no-go trials, consistent with a role in inhibitory control. Activation in pre-SMA also responded to response selection demand and was increased with working memory on go trials specifically. The bilateral FEF and right DAI were commonly active for no-go trials. The FEF was also recruited to a greater degree with working memory demand on go trials and may be involved in top-down biasing when stimulus-response mappings change. The DAI responded to increased working memory demand on both go and no-go trials and may be involved in accessing sustained task information, alerting, or autonomic changes when cognitive demands increase. The dorsolateral pFC had increased activation for working memory demand during both go and no-go trials, consistent with a role in working memory retrieval. The inferior frontal junction, on the other hand, had greater activation with working memory specifically for no-go trials and may detect salient stimuli when the task requires frequent updating of working memory representations.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 03/2013; DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00394 · 4.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a computational technique for revealing latent factors that underlie sets of measurements or signals. It has become a standard technique in functional neuroimaging. In functional neuroimaging, so called group ICA (gICA) seeks to identify and quantify networks of correlated regions across subjects. This paper reports on the development of a new group ICA approach, Homotopic Group ICA (H-gICA), for blind source separation of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Resting state brain functional homotopy is the similarity of spontaneous fluctuations between bilaterally symmetrically opposing regions (i.e. those symmetric with respect to the mid-sagittal plane) (Zuo et al., 2010). The approach we proposed improves network estimates by leveraging this known brain functional homotopy. H-gICA increases the potential for network discovery, effectively by averaging information across hemispheres. It is theoretically proven to be identical to standard group ICA when the true sources are both perfectly homotopic and noise-free, while simulation studies and data explorations demonstrate its benefits in the presence of noise. Moreover, compared to commonly applied group ICA algorithms, the structure of the H-gICA input data leads to significant improvement in computational efficiency. A simulation study comfirms its effectiveness in homotopic, non-homotopic and mixed settings, as well as on the landmark ADHD-200 dataset. From a relatively small subset of data, several brain networks were found including: the visual, the default mode and auditory networks, as well as others. These were shown to be more contiguous and clearly delineated than the corresponding ordinary group ICA. Finally, in addition to improving network estimation, H-gICA facilitates the investigation of functional homotopy via ICA-based networks.
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    ABSTRACT: Although an extensive literature exists on the neurobiological correlates of dyslexia (DYS), to date no studies have examined the neurobiological profile of those who exhibit poor reading comprehension despite intact word-level abilities (Specific Reading Comprehension Deficits, or S-RCD). Here we investigated for the first time the word-level abilities of S-RCD as compared to typically developing readers (TD) and those with DYS by examining BOLD response to words varying on frequency. Understanding whether S-RCD process words in the same manner as TD, or show alternate pathways to achieve normal word-reading abilities may provide insights into the origin of this disorder. Results showed that as compared to TD, DYS showed abnormal covariance during word processing with right hemisphere homologues of the left hemisphere reading network in conjunction with left occipito-temporal underactivation. In contrast, S-RCD showed intact neurobiological response to word stimuli in occipito-temporal regions (associated with fast and efficient word processing); however, inferior frontal gyrus abnormalities were observed. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, a coupling-by-reading group interaction was found, such that left inferior frontal gyrus covaried to a greater extent with hippocampal, parahippocampal, and pre-frontal areas in S-RCD than in TD, for low as compared to high frequency words. Given the greater lexical access demands of low frequency as compared to high frequency words, these results may suggest specific weaknesses in accessing lexical-semantic representations during word recognition. These novel findings provide foundational insights into the nature of S-RCD, and set the stage for future investigations of this common but understudied reading disorder.
    12/2012; DOI:10.1089/brain.2012.0116
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    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful tool for the in vivo study of the pathophysiology of brain disorders and disease. In this manuscript, we propose an analysis stream for fMRI functional connectivity data and apply it to a novel study of Alzheimer's disease. In the first stage, spatial independent component analysis is applied to group fMRI data to obtain common brain networks (spatial maps) and subject-specific mixing matrices (time courses). In the second stage, functional principal component analysis is utilized to decompose the mixing matrices into population-level eigenvectors and subject-specific loadings. Inference is performed using permutation-based exact logistic regression for matched pairs data. The method is applied to a novel fMRI study of Alzheimer's disease risk under a verbal paired associates task. We found empirical evidence of alternative ICA-based metrics of connectivity when comparing subjects evidencing mild cognitive impairment relative to carefully matched controls.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e49340. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0049340 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of behavioral changes occur between late childhood and adulthood, including maturation of social cognition, reward receptivity, impulsiveness, risk-taking and cognitive control. Although some of these abilities show linear improvements with age, some abilities may temporarily worsen, reflecting both the restructuring and/or strengthening of connections within some brain systems. The current study uses resting state functional connectivity to examine developmental differences between late childhood and adulthood in task positive (TP) regions, which play a role in cognitive control functions, and task negative (TN) regions, which play a role in social cognition, self-referential, and internally-directed thought. Within the TP network, developmental differences in connectivity were found with the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within the TN network, developmental differences in connectivity were found with a broad area of the medial prefrontal cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus. Connections between the two networks also showed significant developmental differences. Stronger anticorrelations were found in the TN maps of the adult group for the right anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior parietal lobule and an anterior portion of the right posterior cingulate cortex. There was a significant brain-behavior relationship between the strength of anticorrelation in these regions and inhibitory control performance on two Go/No-go tasks suggesting that the development of anticorrelations between late childhood and adulthood supports mature inhibitory control. Overall, maturation of these networks occurred in specific regions which are associated with cognitive control of goal-directed behavior, including those involved in working memory, social cognition, and inhibitory control.
    Neuropsychologia 11/2012; 51(1). DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.11.011 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI is a promising new technique for cellular and molecular imaging. This contrast allows the detection of tumors and ischemia without the use of gadolinium as well as the design of microenvironment-sensitive probes that can be discriminated based on their exchange contrast properties and saturation frequency. Current acquisition schemes to detect and analyze this contrast suffer from sensitivity to spatial B(0) inhomogeneity and low contrast-to-noise-ratio, which is an obstacle to widespread adoption of the technology. A new method to detect chemical exchange saturation transfer contrast is proposed here, termed "length and offset varied saturation" which acquires a set of images with the saturation parameters varied so as to modulate the exchange contrast. Either fast fourier transform or the general linear model can be employed to decompose the modulation patterns into separate sources of water signal loss. After transformation, a length and offset varied saturation phase map is generated, which is insensitive to B(0) inhomogeneity. When collected on live mice bearing 9L gliosarcomas, and compared to the conventional asymmetry in the magnetization transfer ratio map using offset increment correction, the results show that length and offset varied saturation phase mapping obtains about three to four times contrast-to-noise-ratio and exhibits less B(0) artifacts. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 10/2012; 68(4):1074-86. DOI:10.1002/mrm.23312 · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
559.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Kennedy Krieger Institute
      • • Department of Neuropsychology
      • • Department of Developmental Cognitive Neurology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Vanderbilt Institute of Imaging Science
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2004
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1996
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Clinical Brain Disorders Branch
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1990–1995
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics
      • • Laboratory of Research Technologies
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1992
    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
      Maryland, United States