Fuh-Cherng Jeng

Ohio University, Athens, OH, United States

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Publications (23)42.08 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch has shown great potential to examine pitch processing mechanisms in human participants and animals, few reports have addressed the test-retest reliability of such a response in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of recording such a response in an animal model and to evaluate the extent to which the response could be separated from background noise. A Chinese monosyllable with a rising pitch was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in four guinea pigs. Four objective measures (Root-Mean-Square, Amplitude, Tracking Accuracy, Frequency Error, and Slope Error) were computed from recorded brain waves and were used to examine the phase-locking magnitude and test-retest reliability of the response. Results demonstrated that the animal model produced FFR trends that were repeatable, reliable, and significantly different from responses to the background noise.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 06/2014; 118(3):681-90. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • Fuh-Cherng Jeng, Jiong Hu
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch has been widely examined in research laboratories and has demonstrated its potential to be transformed into a useful tool for patients with hearing, speech, and language disorders in the clinic. During the past decade, many aspects of the FFR have been reported. The presence of such a response, however, still relies on subjective interpretation of the observer. Aside from a recent study reporting two algorithms for detecting such a response, there has been limited number of studies reporting the development of an automated procedure for FFR. The purpose of this study is (1) to develop an automated procedure that utilizes the statistical properties of the temporal and spectral energy distributions in the recorded waveforms and (2) to explore the effectiveness, accuracy, and efficiency of the automated procedure and compare them with those obtained from conventional algorithms and human judgments.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):3285. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Fuh-Cherng Jeng, Kevin S Peris, Jiong Hu, Chia-Der Lin
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    ABSTRACT: To date, observations of the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch have depended on subjective interpretation of the experimenter. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated procedure for detecting the presence of a response. Twenty American (9 boys, 1-3 days) and 20 Chinese (10 boys, 1-3 days) neonates were recruited. A Chinese monosyllable that mimicked the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used as the stimulus. Three objective indices (Frequency Error, Tracking Accuracy, and Pitch Strength) were computed from the recorded brain waves and the test results were compared with human judgments to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. Results demonstrated that the automated procedure produced sensitivity values between 53-90% and specificity values between 80-100%, and could be used to assess the presence of an FFR for neonates who were born in a tonal or non-tonal language environment.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 04/2013; 116(2):456-65. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    Fuh-Cherng Jeng, Ronny P Warrington
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    ABSTRACT: Human frequency-following responses (FFRs) to voice pitch have provided valuable information on how the human brain processes speech information. Recordings of the FFR to voice pitch, however, may overlap when insufficient silent intervals are used. To determine the shortest silent interval that can be used with no overlap between adjacent response waveforms, FFRs were recorded from 12 Chinese adults using a wide range of silent intervals. The stimulus token was a Chinese monosyllable with a rising pitch of 117-166 Hz and a duration of 250 ms. A high stimulus intensity at 70 dB SPL was used to maximize overlaps in the response waveforms. A total of seven silent intervals, ranging from the full length of the stimulus duration down to approximately half period of the fundamental frequency of the stimulus token, were administered at a random order across participants. Two distinct methods (Hilbert transform and root-mean-square amplitudes) were used to delineate the envelopes and overlaps of the response waveforms. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was significant (p = 0.038) in defining the magnitude of overlaps for the 10 ms pre-stimulus interval. The results indicated the shortest silent interval that could be used without compromising the response is between 35 and 45 ms.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 10/2011; 130(4):2545. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When the fundamental frequency (f0) is removed from a complex stimulus, the pitch of the f0 is still perceived by the listener. Through the use of the scalp-recorded frequency-following response, this study examined the relative contributions of thef0 and its harmonics in pitch processing by systematically manipulating the speech stimulus to remove component frequencies. 12 American and 12 Chinese adults were recruited. There were statistically significant effects of pitch strength and frequency error for the experimental-condition factor. There were significantly larger responses to the harmonics-only conditions than those obtained in the f0-only and control conditions. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of participants. These findings indicate that neural responses associated with individual harmonics dominate the pitch processing in the human brainstem, irrespective of whether the listener's native language is nontonal or tonal.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 08/2011; 113(1):67-86. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that the frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch can be a useful method to evaluate the signal-processing mechanisms and neural plasticity in the human brainstem. The purpose of this study was to examine the quantitative properties of the FFR trends with an exponential curve-fitting model. FFR trends obtained with increasing number of sweeps (up to 8000 sweeps) at three stimulus intensities (30, 45, and 60 dB nHL) were fit to an exponential model that consisted of estimates of background noise amplitude, asymptotic response amplitude, and a time constant. Five objective indices (Frequency Error, Slope Error, Tracking Accuracy, Pitch Strength and RMS Ratio) were used to represent different perspectives of pitch processing in the human brainstem. Study Sample: Twenty-three native speakers (16 males; age = 24.7 ± 2.1 years) of Mandarin Chinese were recruited. The results demonstrated that the exponential model provided a good fit (r(2) = 0.89 ± 0.10) to the FFR trends with increasing number of sweeps for the five objective indices. The exponential model, combined with the five objective indices, can be used for difficult-to-test patients and may prove to be useful as an assessment and diagnostic method in both clinical and basic research efforts.
    International journal of audiology 07/2011; 50(9):582-93. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-language studies, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, have shown the influence of dominant linguistic environments on the encoding of voice pitch at the brainstem level in normal-hearing adults. Research questions that remained unanswered included the characteristics of the FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their immediate postnatal period and the relative contributions of the biological capacities present at birth versus the influence of the listener's postnatal linguistic experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their first few days of life and to examine the relative contributions of the "biological capacity" versus "linguistic experience" influences on pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twelve American neonates (five males, 1-3 days old) and 12 Chinese neonates (seven males, 1-3 days old) were recruited to examine the characteristics of the FFRs during their immediate postnatal days of life. Twelve American adults (three males; age: mean ± SD = 24.6 ± 3.0 yr) and 12 Chinese adults (six males; age: mean ± SD = 25.3 ± 2.6 yr) were also recruited to determine the relative contributions of biological and linguistic influences. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in all participants. Two-way analysis of variance (i.e., the language [English versus Chinese] and age [neonate versus adult] factors) showed a significant difference in Pitch Strength for language (p = 0.035, F = 4.716). A post hoc Tukey-Kramer analysis further demonstrated that Chinese adults had significantly larger Pitch Strength values than Chinese neonates (p = 0.024). This finding, coupled with the fact that American neonates and American adults had comparable Pitch Strength values, supported the linguistic experience model. On the other hand, Pitch Strength obtained from the American neonates, American adults, and Chinese neonates were not significantly different from each other, supporting the biological capacity model. This study demonstrated an early maturation of voice-pitch processing in neonates starting from 1 to 3 days after birth and a significant effect of linguistic experience on the neural processing of voice pitch at the brainstem level. These findings provide a significant conceptual advancement and a basis for further examination of developmental maturation of subcortical representation of speech features, such as pitch, timing, and harmonics. These findings can also be used to help identify neonates at risk for delays in voice-pitch perception and provide new directions for preventive and therapeutic interventions for patients with central auditory processing deficits, hearing loss, and other types of communication disorders.
    Ear and hearing 05/2011; 32(6):699-707. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a noninvasive method for altering cortical excitability, is becoming a therapeutic strategy in auditory research institutions worldwide. Application of inhibiting rTMS on these overactive cortical regions can result in effective tinnitus suppression. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of theta-burst rTMS in patients with chronic tinnitus. Parallel randomized control study. Tertiary referral center. We enrolled 2 female and 20 male patients in this study. The evaluative tools included tinnitus frequency- and loudness-matching, tinnitus questionnaires (TQ), and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The orthogonal projection of the auditory cortex on the scalp was focalized. A figure-eight coil was placed on the surface of the skull over the targeted region with the intensity setting at 80% of the resting motor threshold. We delivered 900 pulses of theta-burst rTMS daily for 10 business days. Nine of twelve patients (75%) in the active-stimulation group reported tinnitus suppression following treatment with rTMS. The treatment led to reductions of 8.58 and 8.33 in the mean TQ global and THI scores, respectively. Tinnitus loudness also decreased significantly after delivering rTMS. Descriptive analysis of the TQs revealed that patients experienced significant improvements in emotional distress levels and somatic symptoms. Our preliminary results demonstrate that theta-burst rTMS treatments offer a method of modulating tinnitus. Patients could benefit from emotional improvements, even more than auditory perceptive relief. Further studies are needed to establish a standard protocol and to clarify nervous propagation along the auditory and psychological projection following treatment with rTMS.
    Audiology and Neurotology 03/2011; 17(2):112-20. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Ximing Li, Fuh-Cherng Jeng
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    ABSTRACT: Speech communication usually occurs in the presence of background noise. This study examined noise tolerance in the brainstem's processing of voice pitch, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) from 12 normal-hearing adults. By systematically manipulating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across three different stimulus intensities, the results indicated that Frequency Error, Slope Error, and Tracking Accuracy remained relatively stable until SNR was degraded to 0 dB or lower (i.e., a turning point). This turning point not only provided physiological evidence supporting pitch tolerance of noise but also allowed recommendation of a minimal SNR when evaluating pitch processing in difficult-to-test patients.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 01/2011; 129(1):EL21-6. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural plasticity of pitch processing mechanisms at the human brainstem, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, has been reported for normal-hearing adults. Characteristics and maturation of such a response during the first year of life have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in normal-hearing infants and to make a direct comparison with adults using the same stimulus and recording parameters. 9 infants and 9 adults were recruited. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch. The results demonstrated that infant FFRs showed slightly larger Pitch Strength but comparable Frequency Error, Slope Error, and Tracking Accuracy to those obtained from adults. Early maturation of FFRs was also observed in the infants starting from 1 to 3 mo. of age.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 12/2010; 111(3):765-84. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voice pitch carries important cues for speech perception in humans. Recent studies have shown the feasibility of recording the frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch in normal-hearing listeners. The presence of such a response, however, has been dependent on subjective interpretation of experimenters. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an automated procedure including a control-experimental protocol and response-threshold criteria suitable for extracting FFRs to voice pitch, and compare the results to human judgments. A set of four Mandarin tones (Tone 1 flat; Tone 2 rising; Tone 3 dipping; and Tone 4 falling) were prepared to reflect the four contrastive pitch contours. Two distinctive algorithms, short-term autocorrelation in the time domain and narrow-band spectrogram in the frequency domain, were used to estimate the Frequency Error, Slope Error, Tracking Accuracy, Pitch Strength and Pitch-Noise Ratio of the recordings from individual listeners as well as the power and false-positive rates of each algorithm. Eleven native speakers (five males; age: mean ± SD = 31.4 ± 4.7 years) of Mandarin Chinese were recruited. The results demonstrated that both algorithms were suitable for extracting FFRs and the objective measures showed comparable results to human judgments. The automated procedure used in this study, including the use of the control-experimental protocol and response thresholds used for each of the five objective indices, can be used for difficult-to-test patients and may prove to be useful as an assessment and diagnostic method in both clinical and basic research efforts.
    International journal of audiology 11/2010; 50(1):14-26. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persons with a prosthesis implanted in a cochlea with residual acoustic sensitivity can, in some cases, achieve better speech perception with "hybrid" stimulation than with either acoustic or electric stimulation presented alone. Such improvements may involve "across auditory-nerve fiber" processes within central nuclei of the auditory system and within-fiber interactions at the level of the auditory nerve. Our study explored acoustic-electric interactions within feline auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) so as to address two goals. First, we sought to better understand recent results that showed non-monotonic recovery of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) following acoustic masking (Nourski et al. 2007, Hear. Res. 232:87-103). We hypothesized that post-masking changes in ANF temporal properties and responsiveness (spike rate) accounted for the ECAP results. We also sought to describe, more broadly, the changes in ANF responses that result from prior acoustic stimulation. Five response properties-spike rate, latency, jitter, spike amplitude, and spontaneous activity-were examined. Post-masking reductions in spike rate, within-fiber jitter and across-fiber variance in latency were found, with the changes in temporal response properties limited to ANFs with high spontaneous rates. Thus, our results suggest how non-monotonic ECAP recovery occurs for ears with spontaneous activity, but cannot account for that pattern of recovery when there is no spontaneous activity, including the results from the presumably deafened ears used in the Nourski et al. (2007) study. Finally, during simultaneous (electric+acoustic) stimulation, the degree of electrically driven spike activity had a strong influence on spike rate, but did not affect spike jitter, which apparently was determined by the acoustic noise stimulus or spontaneous activity.
    Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 03/2009; 10(3):425-45. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve in response to amplitude-modulated pulse trains varies over time, but the response amplitudes are not linearly proportional to the level of stimulus pulses. At least two mechanisms could contribute to the deviations of the ECAP response pattern from that of the stimulus envelope. The first mechanism is time-invariant or stationary that reflects the non-linear growth of response amplitude with changes in stimulus level that is evident in the response to single pulses. This can be considered a time-invariant or stationary effect. The second mechanism is time-variant or non-stationary and reflects neural refractoriness and adaptation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the auditory nerve responses to amplitude-modulated pulse trains and also to evaluate the extent to which the stationary and non-stationary effects may contribute to those responses. ECAP amplitudes were predicted from single-pulse growth functions of the auditory nerve to account for time-invariant effects. Linear regression was performed on the measured vs. predicted ECAP amplitudes to quantify the discrepancies between the two datasets, thereby separating the influence of non-linear growth from time-varying effects on ECAP amplitudes. The results demonstrated a bandpass function of the modulated response amplitudes, with a low-cutoff modulation frequency at 300Hz and a high-cutoff modulation frequency at 800Hz, depending on the carrier pulse rate. The relative contribution of the temporal effects on ECAP amplitudes is greatest at low stimulus levels and low modulation depths.
    Hearing research 12/2008; 247(1):47-59. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cochlear implant speech processors typically extract envelope information of speech signals for presentation to the auditory nerve as modulated trains of electric pulses. Recent studies showed the feasibility of recording, at the scalp, the electrically evoked auditory steady-state response using amplitude-modulated electric stimuli. Sinusoidally amplitude-modulated electric stimuli were used to elicit such responses from guinea pigs in order to characterize this response. Response latencies were derived to provide insight regarding neural generator sites. Two distinct sites, one cortical and another more peripheral, were indicated by latency estimates of 22 and 2 ms, respectively, with the former evoked by lower (13-49 Hz) and the latter by higher (55-320 Hz) modulation frequencies. Furthermore, response amplitudes declined with increasing carrier frequency, exhibited a compressive growth with increasing modulation depths, and were sensitive to modulation depths to as low as 5%.
    Audiology and Neurotology 02/2008; 13(3):161-71. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the time course of the effects of acoustic and electric stimulation on the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). Adult guinea pigs were used in acute experimental sessions. Bursts of acoustic noise and high-rate (5000 pulses/s) electric pulse trains were used as maskers. Biphasic electric pulses were used as probes. ECAPs were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk. Simultaneous masking of the ECAP with acoustic noise featured an onset effect and a decrease in the amount of masking to a steady state. It was characterized by a two-component exponential function. The amount of masking increased with masker level and decreased with probe level. Post-stimulatory ECAP recovery often featured a non-monotonic time course, described by a three-component exponent. Electric maskers produced similar post-stimulatory effects in hearing and acutely deafened subjects. Acoustic stimulation affects the ECAP in a level- and time-dependent manner. Simultaneous masking follows a time course comparable to that of adaptation to an acoustic stimulus. Refractoriness, spontaneous activity, and adaptation are suggested to play a role in ECAP recovery. Post-stimulatory changes in synchrony, possibly due to recovery of spontaneous activity and an additional hair-cell independent mechanism, are hypothesized to contribute to the observed non-monotonicity of recovery.
    Hearing Research 11/2007; 232(1-2):87-103. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Binaural interactions within the inferior colliculus (IC) elicited by electric and acoustic stimuli were investigated in this study. Using a guinea pig model, binaural acoustic stimuli were presented with different time delays, as were combinations of binaural electric and acoustic stimuli. Averaged evoked potentials were measured using electrodes inserted into the central nucleus of the IC to obtain the binaural interaction component (BIC), computed by subtracting the sum of the two monaural responses from the binaural response. The BICs to acoustic-acoustic stimulation and electric-acoustic stimulation were found to be similar. The BIC amplitude increased with stimulus intensity, but the shapes of the delay functions were similar across the levels tested. The gross-potential data are thus consistent with the thesis that the central auditory system processes binaural electric and acoustic stimuli in a similar manner. These results suggest that the binaural auditory system can process combinations of electric and acoustic stimulation presented across ears and that evoked gross potentials may be used to measure such interaction.
    International Journal of Audiology 07/2007; 46(6):309-20. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most cochlear implant systems available today provide the user with information about the envelope of the speech signal. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of recording electrically evoked auditory steady-state response (ESSR) and in particular to evaluate the degree to which the response recorded using electrical stimulation could be separated from stimulus artifact. Sinusoidally amplitude-modulated electrical stimuli with alternating polarities were used to elicit the response in adult guinea pigs. Separation of the stimulus artifact from evoked neural responses was achieved by summing alternating polarity responses or by using spectral analysis techniques. The recorded response exhibited physiological response properties including a pattern of nonlinear growth and their abolishment following euthanasia or administration of tetrodotoxin. These findings demonstrate that the ESSR is a response generated by the auditory system and can be separated from electrical stimulus artifact. As it is evoked by a stimulus that shares important features of cochlear implant stimulation, this evoked potential may be useful in either clinical or basic research efforts.
    Audiology and Neurotology 02/2007; 12(2):101-12. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly all studies on auditory-nerve responses to electric stimuli have been conducted using chemically deafened animals so as to more realistically model the implanted human ear that has typically been profoundly deaf. However, clinical criteria for implantation have recently been relaxed. Ears with "residual" acoustic sensitivity are now being implanted, calling for the systematic evaluation of auditory-nerve responses to electric stimuli as well as combined electric and acoustic stimuli in acoustically sensitive ears. This article presents a systematic investigation of single-fiber responses to electric stimuli in acoustically sensitive ears. Responses to 250 pulse/s electric pulse trains were collected from 18 cats. Properties such as threshold, dynamic range, and jitter were found to differ from those of deaf ears. Other types of fiber activity observed in acoustically sensitive ears (i.e., spontaneous activity and electrophonic responses) were found to alter the temporal coding of electric stimuli. The electrophonic response, which was shown to greatly change the information encoded by spike intervals, also exhibited fast adaptation relative to that observed in the "direct" response to electric stimuli. More complex responses, such as "buildup" (increased responsiveness to successive pulses) and "bursting" (alternating periods of responsiveness and unresponsiveness) were observed. Our findings suggest that bursting is a response unique to sustained electric stimulation in ears with functional hair cells.
    Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 10/2006; 7(3):195-210. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivity. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk in response to electric pulse trains both during and after the presentation of acoustic white noise. Simultaneously presented acoustic noise produced a decrease in ECAP amplitude. The effect of the acoustic masker on the electric probe was greatest at the onset of the acoustic stimulus and it was followed by a partial recovery of the ECAP amplitude. Following cessation of the acoustic noise, ECAP amplitude recovered over a period of approximately 100-200 ms. The effects of the acoustic noise were more prominent at lower electric pulse rates (interpulse intervals of 3 ms and higher). At higher pulse rates, the ECAP adaptation to the electric pulse train alone was larger and the acoustic noise, when presented, produced little additional effect. The observed effects of noise on ECAP were the greatest at high electric stimulus levels and, for a particular electric stimulus level, at high acoustic noise levels.
    Hearing Research 05/2005; 202(1-2):141-53. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With experimental animals, the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) can be recorded from multiple sites (e.g., round window, intracranial and intracochlear sites). However, human ECAPs are typically recorded from intracochlear electrodes of the implanted array. To bridge this difference, we obtained ECAPs from cats using both intracochlear and nerve-trunk recording sites. We also sought to determine how recording the site influences the acquired evoked potential and how those differences may provide insight into basic excitation properties. In the main experiment, ECAPs were recorded from four acutely deafened cats after implanting a Nucleus-style banded electrode array. Potentials were recorded from an electrode positioned on the nerve trunk and an intracochlear electrode. We manipulated stimulus level, electrode configuration (monopolar vs bipolar) and stimulus polarity, variables that influence the site of excitation. Intracochlear ECAPs were found to be an order of magnitude greater than those obtained with the nerve-trunk electrode. Also, compared with the nerve-trunk potentials, the intracochlear ECAPs more closely resembled those obtained from humans in that latencies were shorter and the waveform morphology was typically biphasic (a negative peak followed by a positive peak). With anodic monophasic stimuli, the ECAP had a unique positive-to-negative morphology which we attributed to antidromic action potentials resulting from a relatively central site of excitation. We also collected intracochlear ECAPs from twenty Nucleus 24 implant users. Compared with the feline ECAPs, the human potentials had smaller amplitudes and longer latencies. It is not clear what underlies these differences, although several factors are considered.
    Hearing Research 01/2005; 198(1-2):75-86. · 2.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

144 Citations
42.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Ohio University
      • • Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders
      • • School of Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences
      Athens, OH, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
      Iowa City, IA, United States
  • 2007
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea