Fernandes Denardi

University of Campinas, Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (35)46.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To subjectively and objectively compare an accessible interactive electronic library using Moodle with lectures for urology teaching of medical students.Methods Forty consecutive fourth-year medical students and one urology teacher were exposed to two teaching methods (4 weeks each) in the form of problem-based learning: - lectures and - student-centered group discussion based on Moodle (modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment) full time online delivered (24/7) with video surgeries, electronic urology cases and additional basic principles of the disease process.ResultsAll 40 students completed the study. While 30% were moderately dissatisfied with their current knowledge base, online learning course delivery using Moodle was considered superior to the lectures by 86% of the students. The study found the following observations: 1) the increment in learning grades ranged from 7.0 to 9.7 for students in the online Moodle course compared to 4.0 to 9.6 to didactic lectures; 2) the self-reported student involvement in the online course was characterized as large by over 60%; 3) the teacher-student interaction was described as very frequent (50%) and moderately frequent (50%); and 4) more inquiries and requisitions by students as well as peer assisting were observed from the students using the Moodle platform.Conclusions The Moodle platform is feasible and effective, enthusing medical students to learn, improving immersion in the urology clinical rotation and encouraging the spontaneous peer assisted learning. Future studies should expand objective evaluations of knowledge acquisition and retention.
    International Journal of Medical Informatics. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To assess total testosterone and prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics among diverse chemical castrations, advanced-stage prostate cancer patients were randomized into three groups of 20: Group 1, Leuprolide 3.75 mg; Group 2, Leuprolide 7.5 mg; and Group 3, Goserelin 3.6 mg. All groups were treated with monthly application of the respective drugs. The patients' levels of serum total testosterone and PSA were evaluated at two time periods: before the treatment and 3 months after the treatment. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was utilized to verify the hypothesis of linear correlation between total testosterone and PSA levels. At the beginning the patients' age, stage, grade, PSA, and total testosterone were similar within the three groups, with median age 72, 70, and 70 years in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Three months after the treatment, patients who received Leuprolide 7.5 mg presented significantly lower median total testosterone levels compared with Goserelin 3.6 mg and Leuprolide 3.75 mg (9.5 ng/dL vs. 20.0 ng/dL vs. 30.0 ng/dL, respectively; p = .0072), while those who received Goserelin 3.6 mg presented significantly lower PSA levels compared with Leuprolide 7.5 mg and Leuprolide 3.75 mg (0.67 vs. 1.86 vs. 2.57, respectively; p = .0067). There was no linear correlation between total testosterone and PSA levels. Overall, regarding castration levels of total testosterone, 28.77% of patients did not obtain levels ≤50 ng/dL and 47.80% did not obtain levels ≤20 ng/dL. There was no correlation between total testosterone and PSA kinetics and no equivalence among different pharmacological castrations.
    American journal of men's health 10/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pharmacological treatment may promote a decrease in prostate vascularization and bladder neck relaxation with theoretical improvement in prostate biopsy morbidity, though never explored in the literature. Methods. Among 242 consecutive unselected patients who underwent prostate biopsy, after excluding those with history of prostate biopsy/surgery or using medications not for BPH, we studied 190 patients. On the 15th day after procedure patients were questioned about symptoms lasting over a week and classified according to pharmacological BPH treatment. Results. Thirty-three patients (17%) were using alpha-blocker exclusively, five (3%) 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor exclusively, twelve (6%) patients used both medications, and 140 (74%) patients used none. There was no difference in regard to age among groups (P = 0.5). Postbiopsy adverse effects occurred as follows: hematuria 96 (50%), hematospermia 53 (28%), hematochezia 22 (12%), urethrorrhagia 19 (10%), fever 5 (3%), and pain 20 (10%). There was a significant negative correlation between postbiopsy hematuria and BPH pharmacological treatment with stronger correlation for combined use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor and alpha-blocker over 6 months (P = 0.0027). Conclusion. BPH pharmacological treatment, mainly combined for at least 6 months seems to protect against prostate biopsy adverse effects. Future studies are necessary to confirm our novel results.
    Advances in urology. 01/2014; 2014:271304.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients who failed a catheter-free trial after acute urinary retention and one week of full dose alpha-blocker and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor were offered Diethylstilbestrol 1 mg plus Aspirin 100 mg over 4 weeks. Prostate volume, age, serum creatinine, and initial retention drained urine volume were recorded. After excluding cardiovascular morbidity (n = 7), upper urinary tract dilation (n = 3), compromised renal function (n = 2), urinary tract infection (n = 2), neurological diagnosis (n = 2), or preferred immediate channel transurethral resection of prostate (n = 5), 48 of 69 consecutive patients ≥70 years were included. Mean age was 76.6 years (70-84), mean prostate volume 90 cm(3) (42-128), and mean follow-up 204 days; 58% (28/48) were passing urine and 42% (20/48) were catheter dependent after 4 weeks Diethylstilbestrol trial. Mean age and drained urine volume of catheter dependent patients were 82.4 years and 850 mL compared with 74.6 years and 530 mL in catheter-free men, respectively. Age and drained urine volume were independent predictors of catheter-free trial (both P < 0.01). Seventy-five percent (6/8) of patients 80 years and older were catheter dependent. Transient nipple/breast tenderness and gynecomastia were the only adverse effects reported by 21% (10/48) and 4% (2/48), respectively. No patient presented severe complications.
    Advances in Urology 01/2014; 2014:984382.
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the impact of psychotherapy associated to the use of Tadalafil in the improvement of erectile function after radical prostatectomy. From 132 patients surgically treated for prostate cancer, thirty sequential patients with bilateral nerve sparing, low risk controlled disease and post-surgery erectile dysfunction (ED) took Tadalafil 20mg and underwent psychotherapy sessions, both weekly for three months. Patients were interviewed to establish the quality of erection using the instrument IIEF-5 and to measure psychological features impacting erectile function, aspects related to function, dysfunction, physical and emotional discomfort were evaluated with the help of an intensity scale. The average age was 62.5 (46 to 77 years), 96.7% had a stable relationship, 56.6% of the patients accepted the diagnosis and 43.2% exhibited defense mechanisms (3.3% negation, 6.6% revulsion, 33.3% concern). A positive correlation was observed between erectile function and time exposed to treatment (IIEF-5 - 9.7 to 13.3, p=0.0006), with increased satisfaction with life in general (2.1 to 2.7, P=.028) and sexual life (3.1 to 3.7, P=.028), added to facilitation of expressing feelings/emotions (1.8 to 3.0, P=.0008). Satisfaction with relationship and intimacy with partner did not present significant improve (P=.12 and P=.61, respectively). A holistic patient care with more complete ED rehabilitation includes psychotherapy with a positive correlation between erectile function and treatment exposition. Psychotherapy allowed the identification of important spouse related factors in this scenario.
    Actas urologicas españolas 12/2013; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective and randomized comparison of electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve versus oxybutynin versus their combination for treatment of women with overactive bladder syndrome Abstract Objective To verify whether the combination of trans-cutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS) with oxy-butynin in the treatment of women with overactive bladder (OAB) would be more effective than isolated treatments. Methods We randomized 75 women with OAB, in three groups: GI—30 min TENS, twice a week; GII—daily slow release 10 mg oxybutynin; and GIII—TENS ? oxybutynin (multimodal); all for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated with validated questionnaires International Consultation on Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), International Con-sultation on Incontinence-OAB (ICIQ-OAB), Symptom bother, and 3-day Voiding diary at weeks 0, 12, and 24. Results The groups were similar before treatment. After treatment, all groups significantly improved in OAB symptoms and quality of life (QoL). At week 12, ICIQ-OAB scores were 5.9, 4.6, and 2.9, in groups I, II, and III, respectively, p = 0.01. At week 24, GI and GIII kept the scores of the end of treatment (week 12), while GII increased ICIQ-OAB from 4.6 to 9.2, p = 0.0001, ICIQ-SF from 9.8 to 13.3, p = 0.0006, and Symptom bother score from 3.4 to 7.0, p = 0.0001. Conclusions The multimodal treatment was more effec-tive and TENS alone or in association presented longer lasting results for improvement of clinical symptoms of OAB and QoL. Keywords Overactive bladder Á Anticholinergics Á Transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS) Á Multimodal treatment Á Non-drug active therapies Á Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) Introduction
    World Journal of Urology 05/2013; 32(1). · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Protective factors against Gleason upgrading and its impact on outcomes after surgery warrant better definition. Patients and Methods. Consecutive 343 patients were categorized at biopsy (BGS) and prostatectomy (PGS) as Gleason score, ≤6, 7, and ≥8; 94 patients (27.4%) had PSA recurrence, mean followup 80.2 months (median 99). Independent predictors of Gleason upgrading (logistic regression) and disease-free survival (DFS) (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank) were determined. Results. Gleason discordance was 45.7% (37.32% upgrading and 8.45% downgrading). Upgrading risk decreased by 2.4% for each 1 g of prostate weight increment, while it increased by 10.2% for every 1 ng/mL of PSA, 72.0% for every 0.1 unity of PSA density and was 21 times higher for those with BGS 7. Gleason upgrading showed increased clinical stage (P = 0.019), higher tumor extent (P = 0.009), extraprostatic extension (P = 0.04), positive surgical margins (P < 0.001), seminal vesicle invasion (P = 0.003), less "insignificant" tumors (P < 0.001), and also worse DFS, χ (2) = 4.28, df = 1, P = 0.039. However, when setting the final Gleason score (BGS ≤6 to PGS 7 versus BGS 7 to PGS 7), avoiding allocation bias, DFS impact is not confirmed, χ (2) = 0.40, df = 1, P = 0.530.Conclusions. Gleason upgrading is substantial and confers worse outcomes. Prostate weight is inversely related to upgrading and its protective effect warrants further evaluation.
    Advances in Urology 01/2013; 2013:710421.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To standardize digital rectal examination (DRE) and set how it correlates with the comprehensive evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods. After scaled standardization of DRE based on fingertips graphical schema: 10 cubic centimeters-cc for each fingertip prostate surface area on DRE, four randomly selected senior medical students examined 48 male patients presenting with LUTS in an outpatient clinical setting, totaling 12 DRE each. Standardized DRE, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), serum PSA, transabdominal ultrasound (US), urodynamic evaluation, and postvoid residue were compared. Results. The mean and median PVs were US-45 and 34.7 cc (5.5 to 155) and DRE-39 and 37.5 cc (15 to 80). Comparing DRE and US by simple linear regression: US PV = 11.93 + 0.85 × (DRE PV); P = 0.0009. Among patients classified as nonobstructed, inconclusive, and obstructed, the US PVs were 29.8, 43.2, and 53.6 cc (P = 0.033), and DRE PVs were 20, 35, and 60 cc (P = 0.026), respectively. Conclusion. This is the first attempt to DRE standardization focusing on teaching-learning process, establishing a linear correlation of DRE and US PVs with only 12 examinations by inexperienced hands, satisfactorily validated in an outpatient clinical setting.
    Advances in Urology 01/2013; 2013:797096.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To measure the impact of psychotherapy associated to the use of Tadalafil in the improvement of erectile function after radical prostatectomy. Methods From 132 patients surgically treated for prostate cancer, thirty sequential patients with bilateral nerve sparing, low risk controlled disease and post-surgery erectile dysfunction (ED) took Tadalafil 20 mg and underwent psychotherapy sessions, both weekly for three months. Patients were interviewed to establish the quality of erection using the instrument IIEF-5 and to measure psychological features impacting erectile function, aspects related to function, dysfunction, physical and emotional discomfort were evaluated with the help of an intensity scale. Results The average age was 62.5 (46 to 77 years), 96.7% had a stable relationship, 56.6% of the patients accepted the diagnosis and 43.2% exhibited defense mechanisms (3.3% negation, 6.6% revulsion, 33.3% concern). A positive correlation was observed between erectile function and time exposed to treatment (IIEF-5 - 9.7 to 13.3, p = 0.0006), with increased satisfaction with life in general (2.1 to 2.7, P = .028) and sexual life (3.1 to 3.7, P = .028), added to facilitation of expressing feelings/emotions (1.8 to 3.0, P = .0008). Satisfaction with relationship and intimacy with partner did not present significant improve (P = .12 and P = .61, respectively). Conclusions A holistic patient care with more complete ED rehabilitation includes psychotherapy with a positive correlation between erectile function and treatment exposition. Psychotherapy allowed the identification of important spouse related factors in this scenario.
    Actas urologicas españolas 01/2013; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation may play a key role in androgen-independent tumor progression. The prognostic significance of plasma chromogranin-A (CgA) was assessed in a series of consecutive patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Twenty-three patients presenting high-risk PCa and 8 healthy individuals, as control group, had their blood samples collected to evaluate CgA, free and total prostate specific antigen, and free and total testosterone in a pilot study. The correlations of serum CgA levels with PSA, testosterone, Gleason score, number of foci of hypercaptation in bone scan, age, and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. Patients with PCa had significantly higher levels of plasma CgA (mean, 8.7; range, 1.9-73) than healthy patients (mean, 3.45; range, 0.6-5.6), P = 0.02. Analyzing only the patients group through correlation of the ranks, it was observed that CgA has low, insignificant correlations with PSA (P = 0.07) and with metastatic extension (P = 0.09). No association was found between the plasma CgA levels and the Gleason score (P = 0.20), age (P = 0.15), or disease progression (P = 0.27). The serum levels of CgA were significantly increased in the group with PCa compared with the healthy group. However, there were low correlations between serum CgA and known prognostic factors (such as total and free PSA, age, Gleason score, and bone metastases) or clinical deterioration. Although future studies are needed with larger samples and longer follow-up, the presented data envisage a limited role to serum CgA as high-risk PCa prognostic factor.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 12/2010; 58(8):957-60. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate psychological and demographic aspects of men who received DRE during the PCa screening in an outpatient clinical setting. Patients (345) who underwent DRE for the first time from February 2006 to December 2007 were evaluated for their psychological reactions and feelings after the examination. The average age of the patients was 52.8 years (25 - 85 years); 40.94% had felt fear (examination fear 15.94%, and diagnosis fear 25%), 26.45% shame and 48.26% indicated they were not thinking about anything. There was no correlation between age, educational level and emotional reactions. Most patients (96.8%) would undergo a DRE again and 52.35% had considered it better than they had imagined. Of these patients, 41.81% were illiterate/incomplete elementary school. Only 4.12% described having a negative experience. The factors that persuaded the patients to book an appointment were: 50.1% made their own decision, 26.67% were recommended by a physician, 18.55% family/friends and 6.67% were influenced by the media. Wives booked 24.06% of the consultations. Although 85.47% of patients had some previous knowledge about the examination, 80.81% felt they had further clarification afterward. Lower educational level was related to lack of information about DRE, while 52.38% who made their own decision had previous knowledge of the importance of DRE. The majority of the patients found DRE less awkward than they had imagined it to be and would repeat the examination in the future. Fear and shame before the examination are present and are barriers to the DRE.
    The Aging Male 10/2010; 14(1):66-71. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the widespread early detection programs for prostate cancer, there has been a downward stage migration and a marked decrease in the percentage of men with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) compared with previous data. We evaluated clinicopathologic findings that are associated with SVI to select patients for potential seminal vesicle-sparing surgery. We reviewed our radical prostatectomy database from 1997 to 2006 to evaluate the incidence and clinical correlates of SVI. Variables analyzed included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, percentage of positive cores with cancer, Gleason score on biopsy, age, prostate weight, and urethral and vesical surgical margins. Statistical analysis included univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Of 267 patients, 32 (12%) had SVI. Preoperative PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and percentage of positive cores were highly predictive of SVI on multivariate analysis. SVI was present in only 1/98 patients (1.02 %) with biopsy Gleason score ≤6, 0/23 patients (0%) with serum PSA level <4 ng/mL, and only 1 patient with ≤12.8% of positive cores on biopsy. In all cases of distal SVI, there was proximal involvement. Serum PSA level, Gleason score, and percentage of positive cores on biopsy are statistically significant predictors of SVI on multivariate analysis. Seminal vesiculectomy does not benefit almost 99% of patients with biopsy Gleason score ≤6, PSA level <4 ng/mL, and with <12% cores with cancer. In cases of seminal vesicle-sparing surgery, frozen section of the proximal portion may be of adjunct usefulness for the triple.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 09/2010; 24(9):1535-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since accurate tumor localization and quantification are essential requisites avoiding prostate cancer overtreatment, we analyzed the impact of core fragmentation and the relation between core biopsy taken and pathological information in regard to cancer extension and aggressiveness (Gleason score). One hundred and ninety-nine men submitted to trans-rectal prostate biopsy by the same urologist between October 2006 and October 2008 were included, and the number of cores obtained by biopsy compared to the number of cores examined by the same pathologist. Total core number obtained by biopsy was 21.54 (± 3.56) compared to 24.08 (± 4.77) examined by the pathologist, P < 0.01. Dividing prostate gland by areas such as base, mid and apical right and left, all areas showed statistically different core number between biopsy and pathological examination report (P < 0.01). Mean ratio of positive core cancer length was 0.41 (± 0.12) and 0.32 (± 0.8) comparing individual and overall cores analysis, respectively (P < 0.01). The mean Gleason score in the individual and overall cores analysis were 6.6 (6-9) and 6.3 (6-9), respectively, P < 0.01. Considering the ongoing trend for earlier diagnosis of increasing numbers of younger men with low-risk prostate cancer, this study is original and demonstrates the possibility of core fragmentation, explaining in part over- and under-staging. One core per container and an overall Gleason score and percentage of adenocarcinoma for each container are encouraged.
    International Urology and Nephrology 03/2010; 42(4):965-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeProstate inflammation can lead to an increase in serum prostate specific antigen concentration and confound the use of prostate specific antigen kinetics. Repeat prostate specific antigen measurements after a period of observation or a course of empirical antibiotics are controversial in terms of the optimal approach to reduce the confounding impact on prostate cancer screening. This issue was analyzed in patients with a diagnosis of type IV or asymptomatic prostatitis (National Institutes of Health classification) and high prostate specific antigen.Materials and MethodsWe studied 200 men between 50 and 75 years old with a high prostate specific antigen (between 2.5 and 10 ng/dl). Of these patients 98 (49%) had a diagnosis of type IV prostatitis. In a prospective, double-blind trial they were randomized to receive placebo (49 patients, group 1) or 500 mg ciprofloxacin (49 patients, group 2) twice a day for 4 weeks. Prostate specific antigen was determined after treatment and all patients underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate.ResultsIn group 1, 29 (59.18%) patients presented with a decrease in prostate specific antigen and 9 (31%) had cancer on biopsy, while in group 2 there were 26 (53.06%) patients with a decrease in prostate specific antigen and 7 (26.9%) with prostate cancer. There was no statistical difference in either group in relation to prostate specific antigen decrease after treatment or the presence of tumor.ConclusionsA considerable number of patients (49%) were diagnosed with type IV prostatitis and high prostate specific antigen in agreement with the current literature. Of the patients 26.9% to 31% presented with a decrease in prostate specific antigen after the use of antibiotic or placebo and harbor cancer as demonstrated on prostate biopsy. Prostate specific antigen decreases do not indicate the absence of prostate cancer.
    The Journal of urology 03/2010; · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Endourology Part B, Videourology. 01/2010; 24(1).
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2010; 183(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Testicular tumors represent the most common type of solid neoplasia in men aged between 18 and 35 years. Its cure rate is approximately 90% 1,2. In some cases, tumoral vascular invasion can occur and demands surgical resection to stop disease progression and prevent thromboembolic events. That is the only valuable therapeutic choice although it is a high risk procedure. We present a case report of a patient who underwent successful chemotherapy and surgery for a right-sided testicular tumor associated with an inferior vena cava tumor thrombus extending from the renal vein to the right atrium and extensive retroperitoneal lymph node disease.
    Actas urologicas españolas 10/2009; 33(9):1032-5. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence-based medicine allows the best available external clinical evidence from systematic literature research to be graded in order to determine the strength of its recommendation. This guideline aims to assist physicians and health professionals in clinical decisions related to prostate cancer treatment, particularly in urology, clinical oncology and radiotherapy. The publications used as information sources were obtained from structured data search in electronic databases, such as CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials) and MEDLINE (online). Each item of this guideline derived from an original question which was distributed to the participants. Search strategies were prepared to select the studies presenting the best methodological quality, according to predefined levels of evidence. All the recommendations were followed by a level of evidence (LE) and a degree of recommendation (DR). We used a formal ranking system to help the reader to judge the strength of the evidence behind the results published in support of each recommendation. The existing parameters should be viewed as guidelines of conduct. The final trial on which the clinical procedure or treatment plan is most suitable for a particular patient should be done by a physician, who should discuss the available treatment options with the patient according to the diagnosis.
    Actas urologicas españolas 05/2009; 33(4):344-50. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies used for surgical management of renal cell carcinoma with tumoral thrombus extension in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and evaluate patient's prognosis. METODS: Fifteen patients with renal tumor and IVC thrombus, underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy, and were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were followed for 0 to 36 months (mean of 9.5 months). Computed tomography (CT) scan with three-dimensional reconstruction was used to define IVC thrombus level. The mean age was 54 years, range from 16 to 79. The thrombus was classified as level I -- 13.5%, level II -- 40%, level III -- 26.5% and level IV -- 20%. Surgery was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in six (40%) cases, three (50%) without sternotomy. There was one (13%) death during the intraoperative period; this patient presented extensive metastatic tumor, with the thrombus reaching the right atrium. Patients with lymph node or metastatic disease at initial presentation had poorer overall survival in Kaplan-Meier curve. Both, tumor stage (p = 0.380), and thrombus extension (p = 0.174) were not related to survival. Despite its morbidity and mortality, radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy should be performed in case of renal cell carcinoma with tumoral thrombus, because it can offers the possibility of local control. Patients with lymph node and distant metastatic disease have poor prognoses.
    Actas urologicas españolas 05/2009; 33(4):372-7. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the best technique for arterial anastomosis in kidney transplantation, end-to-side anastomosis to the external iliac artery or end-to-end anastomosis to the internal iliac artery. A total of 38 patients with end-stage renal disease who received a kidney transplant from a deceased donor were randomized into two groups in order to undergo either end-to-end anastomosis to the internal iliac artery or end-to-side anastomosis to the external iliac artery. Length of arterial anastomosis, cold ischemia time, hospital stay, serum creatinine level, recovery of urinary output, and surgical and clinical complications during hospitalization were evaluated. After 3 years, in the patients with a functioning allograft, creatinine clearance measure, Doppler ultrasonographic study, survival, graft loss, and erectile function were compared between the two groups. Postoperative analyses showed similar recovery of urinary output (P = .39) and creatinine (P = .95) between the two groups. No differences in clinical (P = .55) and surgical (P = .80) complications or in hospital stay (P = .90) were noted. The 3-year follow-up demonstrated no differences in Doppler ultrasonography results, creatinine clearance (P = .80), patient survival (P = .22), and graft loss (P = .72). Erectile dysfunction was similar, being related only to pre-operative medical history and age. Both techniques showed similar results in short- and long-term follow-ups. Larger prospective studies are warranted to clarify the risk of renal artery stenosis and development of erectile dysfunction.
    Urology journal 01/2009; 6(4):260-6. · 0.56 Impact Factor