R D Palmiter

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (438)4739.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Beige fat, which expresses the thermogenic protein UCP1, provides a defense against cold and obesity. Although a cold environment is the physiologic stimulus for inducing beige fat in mice and humans, the events that lead from the sensing of cold to the development of beige fat remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the efferent beige fat thermogenic circuit, consisting of eosinophils, type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4/13, and alternatively activated macrophages. Genetic loss of eosinophils or IL-4/13 signaling impairs cold-induced biogenesis of beige fat. Mechanistically, macrophages recruited to cold-stressed subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production, factors required for browning of scWAT. Conversely, administration of IL-4 to thermoneutral mice increases beige fat mass and thermogenic capacity to ameliorate pre-established obesity. Together, our findings have uncovered the efferent circuit controlling biogenesis of beige fat and provide support for its targeting to treat obesity.
    Cell. 06/2014; 157(6):1292-1308.
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    ABSTRACT: Beige fat, which expresses the thermogenic protein UCP1, provides a defense against cold and obesity. Although a cold environment is the physiologic stimulus for inducing beige fat in mice and humans, the events that lead from the sensing of cold to the development of beige fat remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the efferent beige fat thermogenic circuit, consisting of eosinophils, type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4/13, and alternatively activated macrophages. Genetic loss of eosinophils or IL-4/13 signaling impairs cold-induced biogenesis of beige fat. Mechanistically, macrophages recruited to cold-stressed subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production, factors required for browning of scWAT. Conversely, administration of IL-4 to thermoneutral mice increases beige fat mass and thermogenic capacity to ameliorate pre-established obesity. Together, our findings have uncovered the efferent circuit controlling biogenesis of beige fat and provide support for its targeting to treat obesity.
    Cell 06/2014; · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During Pavlovian conditioning, pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with a reward leads to conditioned reward-approach responses (CRs) that are elicited by presentation of the CS. CR behaviors can be sign tracking, in which animals engage the CS, or goal tracking, in which animals go to the reward location. We investigated CR behaviors in mice with only ∼5% of normal dopamine in the striatum using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. These mice had severely impaired acquisition of the CR, which was ameliorated by pharmacological restoration of dopamine synthesis with l-dopa. Surprisingly, after they had learned the CR, its expression decayed only gradually in following sessions that were conducted without l-dopa treatment. To assess specific contributions of dopamine signaling in the dorsal or ventral striatum, we performed virus-mediated restoration of dopamine synthesis in completely dopamine-deficient (DD) mice. Mice with dopamine signaling only in the dorsal striatum did not acquire a CR, whereas mice with dopamine signaling only in in the ventral striatum acquired a CR. The CR in mice with dopamine signaling only in the dorsal striatum was restored by subjecting the mice to instrumental training in which they had to interact with the CS to obtain rewards. We conclude that dopamine is essential for learning and performance of CR behavior that is predominantly goal tracking. Furthermore, although dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum is sufficient to support a CR, dopamine signaling only in the dorsal striatum can also support a CR under certain circumstances.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; 111(7):2764-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that inhibition of adult neurogenesis impairs the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it is not known whether increasing adult neurogenesis affects the persistence of hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis are not fully defined. We recently reported that the conditional and targeted knock-out of ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions of the mouse brain attenuates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and disrupts several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we developed a gain-of-function knock-in mouse model to specifically activate endogenous ERK5 in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain. We report that the selective and targeted activation of ERK5 increases adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by enhancing cell survival, neuronal differentiation, and dendritic complexity. Conditional ERK5 activation also improves the performance of challenging forms of spatial learning and memory and extends hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. We conclude that enhancing signal transduction of a single signaling pathway within adult neural stem/progenitor cells is sufficient to increase adult neurogenesis and improve the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, activation of ERK5 may provide a novel therapeutic target to improve long-term memory.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2014; 34(6):2130-47. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Martin Darvas, Charles W Henschen, Richard D Palmiter
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    ABSTRACT: Although the cardinal features of Parkinson's disease (PD) are motor symptoms, PD also causes cognitive deficits including cognitive flexibility and working memory, which are strongly associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. Yet, early stage PD is not characterized by pathology in the PFC but by a loss of dopaminergic (DA) projections from the substantia nigra to the dorsal striatum. Moreover, the degree to which PD symptoms can be ascribed to the loss of DA alone or to the loss of DA neurons is unknown. We addressed these issues by comparing mouse models of either chronic DA depletion or loss of DA projections to the dorsal striatum. We achieved equal levels of striatal DA reduction in both models which ranged from mild (~25%) to moderate (~60%). Both models displayed DA concentration-dependent reductions of motor function as well as mild deficits of cognitive flexibility and working memory. Interestingly, whereas both motor function and cognitive flexibility were more severely impaired after mild ablation of DA neurons as compared to mild loss of DA alone, both models had equal deficits after moderate loss of DA. Our results confirm contributions of nigro-striatal dopamine signaling to cognitive behaviors that are affected in early stage PD. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the phenotype after ablation of DA neurons accrues from factors beyond the mere loss of DA.
    Neurobiology of Disease 01/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to numerous health problems including neurological and muscular degeneration, cardiomyopathies, cancer, diabetes, and pathologies of aging. Severe mitochondrial defects can result in childhood disorders such as Leigh syndrome, for which there are no effective therapies. Here, we report that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, robustly enhances survival and attenuates disease progression in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome. Administration of rapamycin to these mice, which are deficient in the mitochondrial respiratory chain subunit NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4 (Ndufs4), delays onset of neurological symptoms, reduces neuroinflammation, and prevents brain lesions. While the precise mechanism of rescue remains to be determined, rapamycin induces a metabolic shift toward amino acid catabolism and away from glycolysis, alleviating the buildup of glycolytic intermediates. This therapeutic strategy may prove relevant for a broad range of mitochondrial diseases.
    Science 11/2013; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to numerous health problems including neurological and muscular degeneration, cardiomyopathies, cancer, diabetes, and pathologies of aging. Severe mitochondrial defects can result in childhood disorders such as Leigh syndrome, for which there are no effective therapies. Here, we report that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, robustly enhances survival and attenuates disease progression in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome. Administration of rapamycin to these mice, which are deficient in the mitochondrial respiratory chain subunit NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4 (Ndufs4), delays onset of neurological symptoms, reduces neuroinflammation, and prevents brain lesions. While the precise mechanism of rescue remains to be determined, rapamycin induces a metabolic shift toward amino acid catabolism and away from glycolysis, alleviating the buildup of glycolytic intermediates. This therapeutic strategy may prove relevant for a broad range of mitochondrial diseases.
    Science 11/2013; · 31.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Appetite suppression occurs after a meal and in conditions when it is unfavourable to eat, such as during illness or exposure to toxins. A brain region proposed to play a role in appetite suppression is the parabrachial nucleus, a heterogeneous population of neurons surrounding the superior cerebellar peduncle in the brainstem. The parabrachial nucleus is thought to mediate the suppression of appetite induced by the anorectic hormones amylin and cholecystokinin, as well as by lithium chloride and lipopolysaccharide, compounds that mimic the effects of toxic foods and bacterial infections, respectively. Hyperactivity of the parabrachial nucleus is also thought to cause starvation after ablation of orexigenic agouti-related peptide neurons in adult mice. However, the identities of neurons in the parabrachial nucleus that regulate feeding are unknown, as are the functionally relevant downstream projections. Here we identify calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing neurons in the outer external lateral subdivision of the parabrachial nucleus that project to the laterocapsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala as forming a functionally important circuit for suppressing appetite. Using genetically encoded anatomical, optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools, we demonstrate that activation of these neurons projecting to the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses appetite. In contrast, inhibition of these neurons increases food intake in circumstances when mice do not normally eat and prevents starvation in adult mice whose agouti-related peptide neurons are ablated. Taken together, our data demonstrate that this neural circuit from the parabrachial nucleus to the central nucleus of the amygdala mediates appetite suppression in conditions when it is unfavourable to eat. This neural circuit may provide targets for therapeutic intervention to overcome or promote appetite.
    Nature 10/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diphtheria toxin-mediated, acute ablation of hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP) in adult mice leads to anorexia and starvation within 7 d that is caused by hyperactivity of neurons within the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Because NMDA glutamate receptors are involved in various synaptic plasticity-based behavioral modifications, we hypothesized that modulation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor in PBN neurons could contribute to the anorexia phenotype. We observed by Western blot analyses that ablation of AgRP neurons results in enhanced expression of NR2B along with a modest suppression of NR2A. Interestingly, systemic administration of LiCl in a critical time window before AgRP neuron ablation abolished the anorectic response. LiCl treatment suppressed NR2B levels in the PBN and ameliorated the local Fos induction that is associated with anorexia. This protective role of LiCl on feeding was blunted in vagotomized mice. Chronic infusion of RO25-6981, a selective NR2B inhibitor, into the PBN recapitulated the role of LiCl in maintaining feeding after AgRP neuron ablation. We suggest that the accumulation of NR2B subunits in the PBN contributes to aphagia in response to AgRP neuron ablation and may be involved in other forms of anorexia.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Charles W Henschen, Richard D Palmiter, Martin Darvas
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    ABSTRACT: Striatal dopamine is important for motivated behaviors, including maternal behavior. Recent evidence linking the dorsal striatum with goal-directed behavior suggests that dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, not just the nucleus accumbens, could be involved in maternal behavior. To investigate this question, we tested the maternal behavior of mice with dopamine genetically restricted to the dorsal striatum. These mice had a mild deficit in pup retrieval but had normal licking/grooming and nursing behavior; consequently pups were weaned successfully. We also tested a separate group of mice with severely depleted dopamine in all striatal areas. They had severe deficits in pup retrieval and licking/grooming behavior, while nursing behavior was left intact; again, pups survived to weaning at normal rates. We conclude that dopamine signaling in the striatum is a part of the circuitry mediating maternal behavior and is specifically relevant for active, but not passive, maternal behaviors. In addition, dopamine in the dorsal striatum is sufficient to allow for active maternal behavior.
    Endocrinology 08/2013; · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Locomotion and cue-dependent behaviors are modified through corticostriatal signaling whereby short-term increases in dopamine availability can provoke persistent changes in glutamate release that contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and drug dependence. We found that withdrawal of mice from repeated amphetamine treatment caused a chronic presynaptic depression (CPD) in glutamate release that was most pronounced in corticostriatal terminals with a low probability of release and lasted >50 d in treated mice. An amphetamine challenge reversed CPD via a dopamine D1-receptor-dependent paradoxical presynaptic potentiation (PPP) that increased corticostriatal activity in direct pathway medium spiny neurons. This PPP was correlated with locomotor responses after a drug challenge, suggesting that it may underlie the sensitization process. Experiments in brain slices and in vivo indicated that dopamine regulation of acetylcholine release from tonically active interneurons contributes to CPD, PPP, locomotor sensitization, and cognitive ability. Therefore, a chronic decrease in corticostriatal activity during withdrawal is regulated around a new physiological range by tonically active interneurons and returns to normal upon reexposure to amphetamine, suggesting that this paradoxical return of striatal activity to a more stable, normalized state may represent an additional source of drug motivation during abstinence.
    Journal of Neuroscience 06/2013; 33(25):10405-26. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kisspeptin (Kiss1) signaling to gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons is widely acknowledged to be a prerequisite for puberty and reproduction. Animals lacking functional genes for either kisspeptin or its receptor exhibit low gonadotropin secretion and infertility. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that genetic ablation of nearly all Kiss1-expressing neurons (Kiss1 neurons) does not impair reproduction, arguing that neither Kiss1 neurons nor their products are essential for sexual maturation. We posited that only minute quantities of kisspeptin are sufficient to support reproduction. If this were the case, animals having dramatically reduced Kiss1 expression might retain fertility - testifying to the redundancy of Kiss1 neurons and their products. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether males and females differ in the required amount of kisspeptin needed for reproduction, we used a mouse (Kiss1-CreGFP) that has a severe reduction in Kiss1 expression. Mice that are heterozygous and homozygous for this allele (Kiss1(Cre/+) and Kiss1(Cre/Cre)) have 50% and 95% reductions in Kiss1 transcript, respectively. We found that although male Kiss1(Cre/Cre) mice sire normal-sized litters, female Kiss1(Cre/Cre) mice exhibit significantly impaired fertility and ovulation. These observations suggest that males require only 5% of normal Kiss1 expression to be reproductively competent, whereas females require higher levels for reproductive success.
    Endocrinology 06/2013; · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Benjamin B Whiddon, Richard D Palmiter
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    ABSTRACT: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons have been ascribed many roles based on studies of MCH-deficient mice. However, MCH neurons express other neurotransmitters, including GABA, nesfatin, and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript. The importance of these other signaling molecules made by MCH neurons remains incompletely characterized. To determine the roles of MCH neurons in vivo, we targeted expression of the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) to the gene for MCH (Pmch). Within 2 weeks of diphtheria toxin injection, heterozygous Pmch(DTR/+) mice lost 98% of their MCH neurons. These mice became lean but ate normally and were hyperactive, especially during a fast. They also responded abnormally to psychostimulants. For these phenotypes, ablation of MCH neurons recapitulated knock-out of MCH, so MCH appears to be the critical neuromodulator released by these neurons. In contrast, MCH-neuron-ablated mice showed improved glucose tolerance when compared with MCH-deficient mutant mice and wild-type mice. We conclude that MCH neurons regulate glucose tolerance through signaling molecules other than MCH.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2013; 33(5):2009-16. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    Kiara C Eldred, Richard D Palmiter
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) is associated with synaptic modifications that are thought to underlie learning and memory. Because AMPH enhances extracellular dopamine in the striatum where dopamine and glutamate signaling are essential for learning, one might expect that the molecular and morphological changes that occur in the striatum in response to AMPH, including changes in synaptic plasticity, would affect learning. To ascertain whether AMPH sensitization affects learning, we tested wild-type mice and mice lacking NMDA receptor signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons in several different learning tests (motor learning, Pavlovian association, U-maze escape test with strategy shifting) with or without prior sensitization to AMPH. Prior sensitization had minimal effect on learning in any of these paradigms in wild-type mice and failed to restore learning in mutant mice, despite the fact that the mutant mice became sensitized by the AMPH treatment. We conclude that the changes in synaptic plasticity and many other signaling events that occur in response to AMPH sensitization are dissociable from those involved in learning the tasks used in our experiments.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e59964. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2012; 32(43):15093-105. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The striatum regulates motor control, reward and learning. Abnormal function of striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is believed to contribute to the deficits in these processes that are observed in many neuropsychiatric diseases. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR88 is robustly expressed in MSNs and is regulated by neuropharmacological drugs, but its contribution to MSN physiology and behavior is unclear. We found that, in the absence of GPR88, MSNs showed increased glutamatergic excitation and reduced GABAergic inhibition, which promoted enhanced firing rates in vivo, resulting in hyperactivity, poor motor coordination and impaired cue-based learning in mice. Targeted viral expression of GPR88 in MSNs rescued the molecular and electrophysiological properties and normalized behavior, suggesting that aberrant MSN activation in the absence of GPR88 underlies behavioral deficits and its dysfunction may contribute to behaviors observed in neuropsychiatric disease.
    Nature Neuroscience 10/2012; · 15.25 Impact Factor
  • Mitochondrion 09/2012; 12(5):566–567. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene delivery vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have great potential as therapeutic agents. rAAV1 and rAAV6, efficiently target striated muscle, but the mechanisms that determine their tropism remain unclear. It is known that AAV6, but not AAV1, interacts with heparin-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPGs are not primary receptors for AAV6, but heparin interactions may affect tissue tropism and transduction. To investigate these possibilities, we generated rAAV1 and rAAV6 capsids that do or do not bind heparin. We evaluated the transduction profile of these vectors in vivo across multiple routes of administration, and found that heparin-binding capability influences tissue transduction in striated muscle and neuronal tissues. Heparin-binding capsids transduce striated muscle more efficiently than non-binding capsids, via both intramuscular and intravenous injection. However, rAAV6 achieved greater muscle transduction than the heparin-binding rAAV1 variant, suggesting that there are additional factors that influence differences in transduction efficiency between AAV1 and AAV6. Interestingly, the opposite trend was found when vectors were delivered via intracranial injection. Non-binding vectors achieved robust and widespread gene expression, whereas transduction via heparin-binding serotypes was substantially reduced. These data indicate that heparin-binding capability is an important determinant of transduction that should be considered in the design of rAAV-mediated gene therapies.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 2 August 2012; doi:10.1038/gt.2012.60.
    Gene therapy 08/2012; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dopamine is a key neuromodulator in the retina and brain that supports motor, cognitive, and visual function. Here, we developed a mouse model on a C57 background in which expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase, is specifically disrupted in the retina. This model enabled assessment of the overall role of retinal dopamine in vision using electrophysiological (electroretinogram), psychophysical (optokinetic tracking), and pharmacological techniques. Significant disruptions were observed in high-resolution, light-adapted vision caused by specific deficits in light responses, contrast sensitivity, acuity, and circadian rhythms in this retinal dopamine-depleted mouse model. These global effects of retinal dopamine on vision are driven by the differential actions of dopamine D1 and D4 receptors on specific retinal functions and appear to be due to the ongoing bioavailability of dopamine rather than developmental effects. Together, our data indicate that dopamine is necessary for the circadian nature of light-adapted vision as well as optimal contrast detection and acuity.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/2012; 32(27):9359-68. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leigh syndrome (LS) is a subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy with gliosis in several brain regions that usually results in infantile death. Loss of murine Ndufs4, which encodes NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) iron-sulfur protein 4, results in compromised activity of mitochondrial complex I as well as progressive neurodegenerative and behavioral changes that resemble LS. Here, we report the development of breathing abnormalities in a murine model of LS. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense bilateral lesions in the dorsal brain stem vestibular nucleus (VN) and cerebellum of severely affected mice. The mutant mice manifested a progressive increase in apnea and had aberrant responses to hypoxia. Electrophysiological recordings within the ventral brain stem pre-Bötzinger respiratory complex were also abnormal. Selective inactivation of Ndufs4 in the VN, one of the principle sites of gliosis, also led to breathing abnormalities and premature death. Conversely, Ndufs4 restoration in the VN corrected breathing deficits and prolonged the life span of knockout mice. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction within the VN results in aberrant regulation of respiration and contributes to the lethality of Ndufs4-knockout mice.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2012; 122(7):2359-68. · 15.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

36k Citations
4,739.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1980–2014
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Genome Sciences
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Orthodontics
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Asan Medical Center
      • Asan Institute of Life Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1988–2005
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1994–2004
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2003
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1995
    • Riley Hospital for Children
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1987–1995
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Animal Biology
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1988–1994
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Pathobiological Sciences
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 1993
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Albany Medical College
      Albany, New York, United States
  • 1987–1992
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1991
    • University of South Florida
      • Department of Chemistry
      Tampa, FL, United States
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Agricultural Research Service
      Kerrville, Texas, United States
  • 1987–1991
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 1989–1990
    • Maryland Department Of Agriculture
      Annapolis, Maryland, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Genetics and Development
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology
      Boston, MA, United States