[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) directly affects the quality of life, mood, and sustained attention of individuals, but it has not yet been established in the literature, if these changes also affect patients with mild OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate such negative effects on the parameters described above.
A controlled study was held at the Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Department of Psychobiology. Thirty-nine mild OSA patients and 25 controls were included. Volunteers could be of both genders with body mass index (BMI) ≤35 kg/m(2) and age between 18 and 65 years. Both groups were subjected to full-night polysomnography (PSG), the subjective assessment of mood (Beck Inventory of Anxiety and Depression), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) five times during the day. We considered mild OSA patients those with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score between 5 and 15. The control group included subjects with AHI scores <5, respiratory disturbance index (RDI) scores ≤5, arousal index values ≤15, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) values ≤9.
Mild OSA patients were older and more obese than the controls. After adjusting for age, BMI, and schooling years, there was an increased number of total lapses (3.90 ± 4.16 and 2.43 ± 5.55, p = 0.004).
Patients with mild OSA showed increased sustained attention lapses compared with normal subjects.
Sleep And Breathing 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11325-015-1279-7 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To compare patterns of sleep and the presence of sleep disturbances in individuals in at-risk mental states (ARMS) for psychosis and bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control (HC) group.
This was a comparative study involving 20 individuals in ARMS for psychosis or BD, according to the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Quality of sleep in the previous month was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, diurnal somnolence was evaluated using The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and chronotype was determined using the Questionnaire of Morningness/Eveningness (QME). All of the participants underwent polysomnography (PSG) during the entire night for two consecutive nights. The first night aimed to adapt the subject to the environment, and only the data from the second night were used for the analysis.
Compared with the HC group, individuals in the ARMS group reported significantly worse sleep quality, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Both groups had scores consistent with daytime sleepiness on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and there were no differences with regard to chronotype between the groups, with a predominance of the indifferent type in both groups. In the PSG assessment, we observed increased Sleep Latency (SL) and increased Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Onset Latency (REMOL) in the ARMS group, compared to the HC group.
The results of this study indicated that sleep abnormalities could be found early in the course of mental diseases, even in at-risk stages, and support the further investigation of their predictive value in the transition to psychosis and BD.
Schizophrenia Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.08.023 · 3.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters the fluctuation of submaximal isometric torque of the knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis (OA).
The study included 60 male volunteers, aged 40 to 70 years, divided into four groups: Group 1 (G1) - Control (n=15): without OA and without OSA; Group 2 (G2) (n=15): with OA and without OSA; Group 3 (G3) (n=15): without OA and with OSA; and Group 4 (G4) (n=15) with OA and with OSA. Five patients underwent maximal isometric contractions of 10 seconds duration each, with the knee at 60° of flexion to determine peak torque at 60°. To evaluate the fluctuation of torque, 5 submaximal isometric contractions (50% of maximum peak torque) of 10 seconds each, which were calculated from the standard deviation of torque and coefficient of variation, were performed.
Significant differences were observed between groups for maximum peak torque, while G4 showed a lower value compared with G1 (p=0.005). Additionally, for the average torque exerted, G4 showed a lower value compared to the G1 (p=0.036). However, no differences were found between the groups for the standard deviation (p=0.844) and the coefficient of variation (p=0.143).
The authors concluded that OSA did not change the parameters of the fluctuation of isometric submaximal torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade OA.
Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 09/2015; 19(ahead):00-00. DOI:10.1590/bjpt-rbf.2014.0106 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective evaluation of sleep bruxism (SB) using whole-night polysomnography (PSG) is relevant for diagnostic confirmation. Nevertheless, the PSG electromyogram (EMG) scoring may give rise to controversy, particularly when audiovisual monitoring is not performed. Therefore, the present study assessed the concordance between two independent scorers to visual SB on a PSG performed without audiovisual monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has a negative impact on health and behavior of millions of individuals worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disorder is a multifactorial process related to a variety of mechanisms, including selective activation of inflammatory response pathways. A number of inflammatory factors, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, can be found in high concentrations in subjects with OSAS and may serve as biological markers of this disease. The concentration of these cytokines contributes to weight gain in patients with OSAS and can also modify the risk of obesity-related metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which specific genes are associated with these processes are still poorly known. In addition to gene expression studies, investigations aiming at the identification of epigenetic factors associated with OSAS are still scarce in the literature. The documented data support the hypothesis that the molecular changes that mediate inflammatory response are important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of OSAS, sleepiness, insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps by leading to a more severe OSAS. Often, systemic changes may not be detected in mild OSA; however, molecular changes, which are much more sensitive to the mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress, may be present.
This review aimed to show an updated view on the studies evaluating the genetic basis of inflammatory response in many aspects of OSAS and to highlight potential research areas not fully explored to date in this field.
Sleep And Breathing 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11325-015-1226-7 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea–hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Patients with craniocervical junction malformations (CCJM) tend to suffer more frequently from sleep respiratory disturbances, which are more frequent and severe in patients with basilar invagination. Here we evaluate if patients with CCJM and sleep respiratory disorders (SRD) present smaller airway dimensions than patients without SRD.
Patients with CCCM with and without sleep respiratory disturbances were evaluated clinically by Bindal's score, modified Mallampati classification, full-night polysomnography and upper airway cone beam tomography.
Eleven patients had sleep respiratory disorders (SRD), and nine patients performed control group without SRD. CCJM patients with SRD were predominantly female, older, had higher BMI, were more likely to have Mallampati grades 3 and 4 and had statistically significant smaller anteroposterior diameter of the upper airway than patients without SRD.
Patients with CCJM and sleep respiratory disturbances have higher BMI, higher Mallampati score and smaller anterior posterior diameter of the upper airway.
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 05/2015; 73(4). DOI:10.1590/0004-282X20150008 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones) is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique) and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To systematically analyze the studies that have examined the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Design - meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indexed in PubMed and Ovid (All Journals@Ovid). participants: individuals with resistant hypertension and OSA; interventions - CPAP treatment.
A total of six studies met the inclusion criteria for preintervention to postintervention analyses. The pooled estimates of mean changes after CPAP treatment for the ambulatory (24-h) SBP and DBP from six studies were -7.21 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -9.04 to -5.38; P < 0.001; I² 58%) and -4.99 mmHg (95% CI: -6.01 to -3.96; P < 0.001; I² 31%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the ambulatory SBP and DBP from the four RCTs showed a mean net change of -6.74 mmHg [95% CI: -9.98 to -3.49; P < 0.001; I² 61%] and -5.94 mmHg (95% CI: -9.40 to -2.47; P = 0.001; I² 76%), respectively, in favor of the CPAP group.
The pooled estimate shows a favorable reduction of BP with CPAP treatment in patients with resistant hypertension and OSA. The effects sizes are larger than those previously reported in patients with OSA without resistant hypertension.
Journal of Hypertension 09/2014; 32(12). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000372 · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopausal women through inflammatory and immunological changes. Recent results from self-report questionnaires have shown improvements in sleep pattern and quality of life following massage therapy. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms, particularly insomnia, and indicate that it is a promising line of research.