[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introdução
o sucesso da cirurgia faríngea no tratamento da síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) depende da adequada seleção de pacientes.
propor um novo estadiamento para indicação de cirurgia faríngea na SAOS.
estudo retrospectivo, onde foram inclusos, 54 pacientes submetidos a amigdalectomia ampliada, divididos em 6 estádios. Estádio I: pacientes com tonsilas palatinas graus 3/4 e índice de Mallampati modificado (IMM) 1/2; Estádio II: tonsilas palatinas 3/4 e IMM 3/4; Estádio III: tonsilas palatinas 1/2 e IMM 1/2; Estádio IV: tonsilas palatinas 1/2 e IMM 3/4; Estádio V: IMC (índice de massa corpórea) ≥ com tonsilas palatinas 3/4 e IMM 1,2,3 ou 4. Estádio VI: IMC ≥ kg/m2 com tonsilas palatinas 1ou2 e IMM 1, 2, 3, ou 4.
as taxas de sucesso cirúrgico foram de 88,9%; 75,0%; 35,7%; 38,5% e 100,0% nos estádios I a V.
a presença de tonsilas palatinas hipertróficas foi o fator anatômico em comum nos estádios de maior sucesso (I, II e V), independente do IMC. Apesar do IMM classe III e IV diminuir a taxa de sucesso da cirurgia em pacientes com tonsilas hipertróficas (estádio II), a presença de IMM classe I e II não favoreceu o sucesso cirúrgico em pacientes com tonsilas normotróficas (estádio III).
Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology 11/2014; · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 09/2014; · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently present visual hallucinations (VHs) that have been associated with depression, old age, and cognitive impairment. Sleep abnormalities are also related to these factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate risk factors, particularly sleep alterations, associated with VHs in PD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional evaluation of consecutive patients from a Movement Disorder's clinics. Patients were clinically evaluated, and behavioral questionnaires were applied in a face-to-face interview. Results: Among 100 PD patients (67% male, mean age = 65·0 ± 10·4), VHs were present in 28% of cases; individuals with VHs had worse sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) and more severe sleep disturbances [Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS)]. Logistic regression analysis showed that vivid dreams and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) I scores (i.e., mentation, behavior, and mood symptoms) are independently associated with VHs. Our data show that the presence of vivid dreams is associated with VHs in PD and reaffirm that VHs are linked to cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Investigating vivid dreams may help the identification of VHs in PD. Identifying vivid dreams can be hard considering that patients may fail to report symptoms for the fear of the stigma associated with psychosis and dementia.
Neurological Research 07/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Although many studies have shown the evolution of sleep parameters across the lifespan, not many have included a representative sample of the general population. The objective of this study was to describe age-related changes in sleep structure, sleep respiratory parameters and periodic limb movements of the adult population of São Paulo.
We selected a representative sample of the city of São Paulo, Brazil that included both genders and an age range of 20–80 years. Pregnant and lactating women, people with physical or mental impairments that prevent self-care and people who work every night were not included. This sample included 1024 individuals who were submitted to polysomnography and structured interviews. We subdivided our sample into five-year age groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare age groups. Pearson product–moment was used to evaluate correlation between age and sleep parameters.
Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep showed a significant age-related decrease (P < 0.05). WASO (night-time spent awake after sleep onset), arousal index, sleep latency, REM sleep latency, and the percentage of stages 1 and 2 showed a significant increase (P < 0.05). Furthermore, apnea–hypopnea index increased and oxygen saturation decreased with age. The reduction in the percentage of REM sleep significantly correlated with age in women, whereas the reduction in the percentage of slow wave sleep correlated with age in men. The periodic limb movement (PLM) index increased with age in men and women.
Sleep structure and duration underwent significant alterations throughout the aging process in the general population. There was an important correlation between age, sleep respiratory parameters and PLM index. In addition, men and women showed similar trends but with different effect sizes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency of sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome and insomnia in overweight/obese postmenopausal women seen in a climacteric sleep disorders clinic.
Thirty-four postmenopausal women were selected using the following inclusion criteria: age between 50 and 70 years; at least 12 months of amenorrhea; body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2; and sleep-related complaints with at least one previous polysomnography. Patients provided responses to 6 questionnaires related to sleep characteristics and menopausal symptoms. Weight and height were measured using standardized scales, and abdomen and hip circumferences were also measured. The statistical analyses were performed using the χ2 test for qualitative variables and using Student's t-test for quantitative variables.
Patients' characteristics were as follows: mean age of 60.35 years; mean BMI of 31.62; an average of 11.61 postmenopausal years and an average Kupperman Index of 19. A total of 85.2% of the patients had a waist/hip ratio of less than 0.8. The Epworth Scale score was greater than or equal to 9 in 50% of patients; 68% had sleep disturbances according to the Pittsburgh Index, and 68% were classified as high-risk for sleep apnea by the Berlin Questionnaire. On polysomnography, 70.58% of the patients had a sleep efficiency lower than 85%; 79.41% had a sleep latency of less than 30 min; 58.82% had a REM sleep latency of less than 90 min, and 44.11% had mild apnea. When the groups were compared, a linear association was identified between BMI and the AHI average, and a relationship between high BMI and use of drugs for thyroid treatment was found.
There was a high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, and thyroid disorders in the group with higher BMI.
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 02/2014; 36(2):90-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to increasing demand for sleep services, there has been growing interest in ambulatory models of care for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The implementation of alternative approaches to the current management by full polysomnography (PSG) in the sleep laboratory is necessary for diagnosing this syndrome due to the high cost of full-night PSG. A good alternative option for OSA diagnosis is portable monitoring (PM), which is known for its accuracy, ease of management and lower cost when compared with full PSG. PM has not been well validated for OSA diagnosis in patients with medical comorbidities or in elderly individuals and children. PM may be recommended as an alternative method to PSG for patients with high clinical risk for OSA. In the present review, we describe the use of PM for OSA diagnosis and evaluate the current progress, costs, limitations and applications of these devices in various groups of patients, particularly for patients with comorbid diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory markers like tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) have been related to erectile dysfunction (ED) and may interact with other cardiovascular risk factors such as obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). The aim of this study was to examine the inflammatory, metabolic and hormonal profile of men with or without ED complaints and/or OSAS recruited through the Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). A sample of 363 men completed sexual questionnaires for ED and had physical and blood examinations. OSAS was evaluated by polysomnography and clinical assessment. The blood samples were used for determination of TNF-α, interleukin-6, leptin, cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, homocysteine, glucose and hormonal levels. After controlling for confounding factors, men with ED complaints presented higher systolic blood pressure and TNF-α, independent of OSAS. Significant interaction between ED and OSAS was only observed for neck circumference, which was higher in ED men with OSAS than men with OSAS without ED and men with ED without OSAS. Binary logistic regression showed that the predictor factors for ED were age >43 years, myocardial infarction events, TNF-α and systolic blood pressure. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristics curve suggested a cut-off point of 9.95 pg/mL for TNF-α with sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 59% in men with ED complaints. Furthermore, there was a significant association between high levels of TNF-α (>9.95 pg/mL) and the presence of ED complaints. The results showed that there was an association between TNF-α levels and ED complaints in men independent of OSAS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep architecture changes, such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) percentage variations and reductions in latency and density of rapid eye movement (REM), are found in most patients with schizophrenia and are considered to be an important part of the pathophysiology of the disorder. In addition to these sleep parameters changes, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and the sleep/circadian rhythm also occur in these patients. Sleep/circadian rhythm abnormalities negatively affect neocortical plasticity and cognition and often precede the diagnosis of the illness. Thus, it has been suggested that the sleep/circadian rhythm might be involved in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Recent advances in the identification of individuals at a high risk for developing schizophrenia allow us to investigate several neurobiological processes involved in the development of psychosis. In this article, we review the current evidence of the effects of sleep parameter abnormalities, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and misalignments of sleep circadian rhythm on the early stages of schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the preliminary evidence of sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during the prodromal stages of psychosis and propose that these abnormalities can be explored as potential predictors, as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis, of developing a psychotic disorder in at risk populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goals of the present study were to determine the prevalence of depression in the adult population of Sao Paulo, Brazil and to explore the relationship among sociodemographic, physical and psychological factors, sleep-related symptoms and polysomnography parameters. Participants of a cross-sectional study (N=1101) were administered questionnaires and submitted to polysomnography. A score >20 in the Beck Depression Inventory was used to describe depression. Results revealed that the prevalence of depression was 10.9%. Estimates were higher in women and were significantly higher among housewives, non-workers and individuals with lower education and income. A combination of sleep-related symptoms and impaired quality of life was 2.5 times more frequent among depressed than non-depressed. Co-morbid insomnia and anxiety were positively associated to depressive symptomatology. There were no alterations in the polysomnography parameters, in either group. The occurrence of sleep apnea with values on the apnea-hypopnea index ≥5 was similar and frequent in both groups (around 30%). The findings suggest that depressive symptoms were associated with low education, low income, severe comorbid symptomatology, and impaired quality of life. Considering the high prevalence of sleep apnea, these results point to potential social and financial burdens associated with the depressive symptomatology and various sleep diagnoses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in the general population using a representative sample of 1,042 individuals who answered questionnaires and underwent polysomnography (PSG) examinations. After PSG, the individuals were classified into 3 groups: absence of SB, low-frequency SB, and high-frequency SB. The results indicated that the prevalence of SB, indicated by questionnaires and confirmed by PSG, was 5.5%. With PSG used exclusively as the criterion for diagnosis, the prevalence was 7.4% regardless of SB self-reported complaints. With questionnaires alone, the prevalence was 12.5%. Of the 5.5% (n = 56) with confirmed SB, 26 were classified as low-frequency SB, and 30 as high-frequency. The episodes of SB were more frequent in stage 2 sleep, and the phasic bruxism events were more frequent than tonic or mixed events in all sleep stages in individuals with SB. A positive association was observed between SB and insomnia, higher degree of schooling, and a normal/overweight body mass index (BMI). These findings demonstrate the prevalence of SB in a population sampled by PSG, the gold standard methodology in the investigation of sleep disorders, combined with validated questionnaires (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00596713).
Journal of dental research 05/2013; · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) exhibit reduced quality of life (QoL) due to their daytime symptoms that restricted their social activities. The available data for QoL after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are inconclusive, and few studies have assessed QoL after treatment with speech therapy or other methods that increase the tonus of the upper airway muscles or with a combination of these therapies. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of speech therapy alone or combined with CPAP on QoL in patients with OSA using three different questionnaires. METHODS: Men with OSA were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: placebo, 24 patients had sham speech therapy; speech therapy, 27 patients had speech therapy; CPAP, 27 patients had treatment with CPAP; and combination, 22 patients had treatment with CPAP and speech therapy. All patients were treated for 3months. Participants were assessed before and after treatment and after 3weeks of a washout period using QoL questionnaires (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire [FOSQ], World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQoL-Bref], and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]). Additional testing measures included an excessive sleepiness scale (Epworth sleepiness scale [ESS]), polysomnography (PSG), and speech therapy assessment. RESULTS: A total of 100 men aged 48.1±11.2 (mean±standard deviation) years had a body mass index (BMI) of 27.4±4.9kg/m(2), an ESS score of 12.7±3.0, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 30.9±20.6. After treatment, speech therapy and combination groups showed improvement in the physical domain score of the WHOQoL-Bref and in the functional capacity domain score of the SF-36. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that speech therapy alone as well as in association with CPAP might be an alternative treatment for the improvement of QoL in patients with OSA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether plasma chitotriosidase activity is related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) conditions and correlated with biochemical variables present in the EPISONO database. This is the first study conducted in an epidemiological and nutritional transition country using subjects from the EPISONO population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Chitotriosidase (CHIT) activity was determined by fluorimetric assay. OSA classification was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index. The correlations were investigated using a multiple regression linear model and statistical criteria, with CHIT as the dependent variable and correlated variables (from the EPISONO database) as independent variables, to access the contribution of each one to the variation in CHIT activity. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed when comparing the mean CHIT activities of different apnea groups. The prevalence of the CHIT1 24-bp duplication from patients with severe apnea was higher than in controls. In a multiple regression linear model, CHIT concentration was positively associated with age, creatine and testosterone. Age was the strongest predictor of CHIT variation, followed by gender, waist circumference and TNFα levels. The whole regression model explained 14% of the CHIT variation. CONCLUSION: Many variables are related to CHIT activity and show evidence of the multifactor and potentially synergistic character of this enzyme. In this study, we found that age, gender, TNFα, Hcy, sleep efficiency and waist circumference were responsible for approximately 14% of CHIT variation. Further studies are needed to elucidate additional parameters that may be related to CHIT activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate neuropsychological performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the relationships between these factors.
This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 14 patients (36.0±6.5 years old) with obstructive sleep apnea and 13 controls (37.3±6.9 years old). All of the participants were clinically evaluated and underwent full-night polysomnography as well as neuropsychological tests. Blood samples were used to assay superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and homocysteine, as well as vitamins E, C, B11 and B12.
The patients performed poorly relative to the controls on several neuropsychological tests, such as the attention test and tests of long-term memory and working memory/executive function. They also had lower levels of vitamin E (p<0.006), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001) and vitamin B11 (p<0.001), as well as higher concentrations of homocysteine (p<0.02). Serum concentrations of vitamin C, catalase, glutathione and vitamin B12 were unaltered. Vitamin E levels were related to performance in the backward digit span task (F = 15.9; p = 0.002) and this correlation remained after controlling for age and body mass index (F = 6.3, p = 0.01). A relationship between superoxide dismutase concentrations and executive non-perseveration errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (F = 7.9; p = 0.01) was also observed.
Decreased levels of antioxidants and lower performance on the neuropsychological tasks were observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. This study suggests that an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants may contribute to neuropsychological alterations in this patient population.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 04/2013; 68(4). · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There are few studies evaluating the association between practice of physical activity and mood in a population sample. This study evaluated the frequency of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the population of the city of Sao Paulo and their association with the report of practice of regular physical activity. METHODS: This survey was conducted with the adult population of Sao Paulo between July and December of 2007. The sample was composed of 1042 volunteers (both genders) with a mean age of 41.9±14.4 years. The volunteers were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and two simple questions designed to evaluate and classify physical activity. Socioeconomic status was also determined according to Brazil's Economic Classification Criterion. RESULTS: People who do not engage in physical activity are two times more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression (PR: 2.1) and anxiety (PR: 2.5) compared with those who regularly practice physical activity and a higher prevalence of symptoms for anxiety (9.8%) and depression (10.9%) was observed among those claiming to not practice regular physical activity and 63.2% related did not practice any physical activity regularly. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results suggest that people who do not practice physical activity have a higher chance of exhibiting symptoms of depression and anxiety when compared to those who perform physical activity regularly. In this sense, regular physical activity must be encouraged, and this incentive should be routine in both current and future public health policies. Although the methodology in the present study does not allow assigning a relation of cause and effect, we observed associations between symptoms of depression, anxiety and physical activity.
Journal of affective disorders 03/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The few studies that examine the effect of nasal abnormalities on continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP) adherence are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of nasal abnormalities in CPAP adherence. METHODS: We included patients with moderate to severe OSA. The patients were submitted to rhinoscopy, nasofibroscopy, nasal inspiratory peak flow, and acoustic rhinometry. The patients who used a CPAP for 4 h or more per night for at least 70 % of the nights over a 6-month period were considered to have good adherence. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients finished the study. Eleven (33.4 %) were female and 23 (67.6 %) were male. Sixteen (47.1 %) patients had good adherence. The body mass index (p = 0.030), neck circumference (p = 0.006), and apnea-hypopnea index (p = 0.032) were higher, and the oxyhemoglobin saturation minimum was lower (p = 0.041) in the good adherence group. Nasal parameters showed no differences between good and poor adherence groups. In Spearman's correlation, surprisingly, there was a negative correlation between the highest number of hours of CPAP use with smaller values of nasal minimal cross-sectional areas in the supine position (r, 0.375; p = 0.029). In the linear regression model, the nasal findings that predicted increased of the CPAP use were the following: lower scores of nasal symptoms (p = 0.007) and lower nasal volume in supine position (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the nasal parameters evaluated in this study did not influence CPAP adherence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent hypoxia, which is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), leads to an increase in the degradation of adenosine triphosphatase into xanthine, which in turn increases uric acid concentrations.
The current study aimed to determine whether an association exists between OSAS and uric acid levels in the peripheral blood from a representative population of Sao Paulo (Brazil).
A population-based survey adopting a probabilistic 3-stage cluster sample of Sao Paulo was used to represent the population according to gender, age, and socioeconomic class. A total of 1,042 volunteers underwent polysomnography recordings for OSAS diagnosis, blood pressure assessment, and biochemical blood analysis, and answered questionnaires.
Uric acid levels were correlated with most important risk factors for OSAS, such as AHI, desaturation time and index, minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI, triglycerides and arousal, and with OSAS itself. Also, uric acid was increased in OSAS volunteers even after controlling for all confounders. Hyperuricemic volunteers presented lower mean and minimum SpO2 and increased desaturation index. Importantly, minimum SpO2 was a significant predictor of uric acid levels, which in turn was considered an independent predictor for OSAS in the binary logistic model. However, a ROC curve analysis for establishing cut-off points for uric acid levels as a biomarker of OSAS revealed moderate sensitivity and specificity.
A strong association was found between uric acid levels and OSAS in a representative sample of the population of Sao Paulo. Although they do not qualify for a biomarker alone, uric acid levels may be involved in OSAS severity and should be considered in sleep apnea management in the future.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66891. · 3.53 Impact Factor