Dale P Sandler

University of Bergen, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway

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Publications (287)1323.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Limited prior data suggests an association between traffic-related air pollution and incident asthma in adults. No published studies assess the effect of long-term exposures to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) on adult incident asthma. Objectives: To estimate the association between ambient air pollution exposures (PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide, NO2) and development of asthma and incident respiratory symptoms. Methods: The Sister Study is a US cohort study of risk factors for breast cancer and other health outcomes (n=50,884) in sisters of women with breast cancer (enrollment: 2003-2009). Annual average (2006) ambient PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were estimated at participants' addresses using a national land-use/kriging model incorporating roadway information. Outcomes at follow-up (2008-2012) included incident self-reported wheeze, chronic cough, and doctor-diagnosed asthma in women without baseline symptoms. Measures and Main Results: Adjusted analyses included 254 incident cases of asthma, 1,023 of wheeze, and 1,559 of chronic cough. For an interquartile range (IQR) difference (3.6 µg/m3) in estimated PM2.5 exposure, the adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) was 1.20 (95% CI=0.99-1.46, P=0.063) for incident asthma and 1.14 (95% CI=1.04-1.26, P=0.008) for incident wheeze. For NO2, there was evidence for an association with incident wheeze (aOR=1.08, 95% CI=1.00-1.17, P=0.048 per IQR of 5.8 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with incident cough (PM2.5: aOR=0.95, 95% CI=0.88-1.03, P=0.194, NO2: aOR=1.00, 95% CI=0.93-1.07, P=0.939). Conclusions: Results suggest that PM2.5 exposure increases the risk of developing asthma and PM2.5 and NO2 increase the risk of developing wheeze, the cardinal symptom of asthma, in adult women.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2014; · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Autoantibodies are of growing interest in cancer research as potential biomarkers; yet the determinants of autoimmunity are not well understood. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are common in the general population, and are more prevalent in women and older adults. Here we examined the relationship of ANA with reproductive and hormonal factors in a representative sample of U.S. women. Methods:We analyzed data on reproductive history and exogenous hormone use in relation to serum ANA in 2,037 females ages 12 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999-2004). Estimated ANA prevalences were adjusted for sampling weights. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for age, race and poverty-income-ratio, and models were stratified by menopause status. Results:In premenopausal women ages 20 and older, ANA prevalence was associated with parity (p<0.001; parous versus nulliparous POR=2.0; 95%CI 1.2, 3.4), but in parous women ANA did not vary by number of births, age at first birth, years since last birth or breastfeeding. In postmenopausal women, ANA prevalence was associated with an older age at menarche (p=0.019; age 16-20 versus 10-12 years POR=3.0, 95%CI 1.6, 5.9), but not with parity. Oral contraceptives and estrogen therapy were not associated with a higher ANA prevalence. Conclusions:Childbearing (having had one or more births) may explain age-associated elevations in ANA prevalence seen in premenopausal women. Impact:These findings highlight the importance of considering reproductive history in studies of autoimmunity and cancer in women.
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    ABSTRACT: Farmers may be at increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes compared with the general population due to their regular exposures to dusts, animals and chemicals. However, early life farm exposures to microbial agents may result in reduced risk. Understanding respiratory disease risk among farmers and identifying differences between farmers and other populations may lead to better understanding of the contribution of environmental exposures to respiratory disease risk in the general population.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 07/2014; 71(7):484-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2014; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, thousands of workers may have been exposed to various potentially harmful chemicals found in crude oil including benzene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and toluene. These and total hydrocarbons (THC) (a composite of all the volatile chemicals in crude oil) were monitored. Over 150 000 personal measurements were taken, but many of the measurements of individual chemicals were below the analytic method's limit of detection (LOD), making estimation of exposure levels challenging. The concentration of each chemical relative to THC is related to the concentration of the chemical and THC in the source crude oil. Knowing these relationships, we can develop models to predict concentrations of individual chemicals from THC concentrations when only a THC concentration was detectable. The goal of this study was to determine the correlations between concentrations of the various oil chemicals and THC for use in situations where only THC was above the LOD.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A102-3.
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    ABSTRACT: After the Deepwater Horizon, response vessels were brought near the wellhead area to stop the leak, collect oil and drill the relief wells. The objective of this paper is to characterise inhalation exposure on these vessels for various exposure groups (EGs) to total hydrocarbons (THCs).
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A105.
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    ABSTRACT: BP contractors collected nearly 25 000 personal passive dosimeter samples (about 150 000 individual exposure measurements, primarily benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene and total hydrocarbon (THC)), related to the response and cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. BP used a sampling strategy based on compliance with applicable occupational exposure limits (OELs). Most of the measurements were below the reported limit of detection (censored). This occurred because the analytic laboratories calibrated their instruments relative to the chemicals' OELs and they reported measurements below the lowest calibration standard (approximately 5% of the OEL) as less than the LOD. In an epidemiology study, however, all exposure levels are of interest rather than only those levels related to an OEL. Published evaluation studies on the analytical methods indicate that the methods were capable of measuring much lower concentrations than those reported. This presentation discusses the process used to recalculate the measurement data to the analytic method's LOD.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A103-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Workers and communities impacted by previous oil spills have shown increases in adverse mental health outcomes. The GuLF STUDY is investigating potential health effects among workers involved in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill clean-up response. Participants confronted physical and psychosocial stressors including exposures to oil and dispersants, income uncertainties, and challenges of family and community disruption.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A29.
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have linked pesticide use to various health outcomes, including cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a previous analysis from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in the US, use of certain pesticides was linked to shorter relative telomere length (RTL) measured in buccal cell DNA. In this analysis we examined the associations between occupational pesticide use and RTL measured in blood DNA.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A14-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Organic solvents are ubiquitous in occupational settings where they may contribute to risks for carcinogenesis. However, there is limited information on organic solvents as human breast carcinogens. We examined the relationship between occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer in a prospective study of 47,661 women with an occupational history in the Sister Study cohort. Occupational solvent exposure was categorized using self-reported job-specific solvent use collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess breast cancer risk, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. A total of 1,798 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up, including 1,255 invasive cases. Overall the risk of invasive breast cancer was not associated with lifetime exposure to solvents [HR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-1.24]. Parous women who worked with solvents before their first full-term birth had an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer compared with women who never worked with solvents (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.86). A significantly elevated risk for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer was associated with solvent exposure among clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.73). Occupational exposure to solvents before first birth, a critical period of breast tissue differentiation, may result in increased vulnerability for breast cancer. Our findings suggest a need for future studies in this area to focus on exposure time windows and solvent types in different occupational settings. Cancer Res; 74(11); 3076-83. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer research. 06/2014; 74(11):3076-3083.
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    ABSTRACT: Farming and exposure to pesticides have been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma (MM) in previous studies. We evaluated use of insecticides, fungicides and fumigants and risk of NHL, including MM and other NHL sub-types in the Agricultural Health Study, a US-based prospective cohort study.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A36.
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    ABSTRACT: Over 150 000 measurements taken on workers responding to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill are being used to develop exposure estimates for the participants in the GuLF STUDY. A large portion of the measurements, however, has values below the limit of detection (left-censored). The β-substitution method has been shown to provide accurate estimates for handling censored data, but a comparison to a Bayesian method, which permits the estimation of uncertainty and accounts for prior information, is currently lacking. The goal of this research was to compare the two methods.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A104.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the activities of the GuLF STUDY participants responding to the Deepwater Horizon oil release in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and the process of developing job exposure matrices (JEMs) of exposure group/location/time period combinations to link inhalation and dermal exposures to the participants.
    Occupational and environmental medicine. 06/2014; 71 Suppl 1:A37.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased gut permeability, inflammation, and colonic α-synuclein pathology are present in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and have been proposed to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Peptidoglycan is a structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) maintain healthy gut microbial flora by regulating the immune response to both commensal and harmful bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that variants in genes that encode PGRPs are associated with PD risk. Participants in two independent case-control studies were genotyped for 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four PGLYRP genes. Using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounding variables, we conducted analyses in each study, separately and pooled. One SNP failed the assay, and three had little to no variation. The ORs were similar in both study populations. In pooled analyses, three of seven PGLYRP2 SNPs (rs3813135, rs733731, rs892145), one of five PGLYRP3 SNPs (rs2987763), and six of nine PGLYRP4 SNPs (rs10888557, rs12063091, rs3006440, rs3006448, rs3006458, and rs3014864) were significantly associated with PD risk. Association was strongest for PGLYRP4 5'untranslated region (UTR) SNP rs10888557 (GG reference, CG OR 0.6 [95%CI 0.4-0.9], CC OR 0.15 [95%CI 0.04-0.6]; log-additive P-trend, 0.0004). Common variants in PGLYRP genes are associated with PD risk in two independent studies. These results require replication, but they are consistent with hypotheses of a causative role for the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal immune response in PD. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 05/2014; · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate associations between use of specific agricultural pesticides and incident diabetes in women. We used data from the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. For comparability with previous studies of farmers, we limited analysis to 13 637 farmers' wives who reported ever personally mixing or applying pesticides at enrolment (1993-1997), who provided complete data on required covariates and diabetes diagnosis and who reported no previous diagnosis of diabetes at enrolment. Participants reported ever-use of 50 specific pesticides at enrolment and incident diabetes at one of two follow-up interviews within an average of 12 years of enrolment. We fit Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time scale and adjusting for state and body mass index to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for each of the 45 pesticides with sufficient users. Five pesticides were positively associated with incident diabetes (n=688; 5%): three organophosphates, fonofos (HR=1.56, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.19), phorate (HR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16) and parathion (HR=1.61, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.46); the organochlorine dieldrin (HR=1.99, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.54); and the herbicide 2,4,5-T/2,4,5-TP (HR=1.59, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.51). With phorate and fonofos together in one model to account for their correlation, risks for both remained elevated, though attenuated compared with separate models. Results are consistent with previous studies reporting an association between specific organochlorines and diabetes and add to growing evidence that certain organophosphates also may increase risk.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 04/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking increases the risk of many diseases, and is also linked to blood DNA methylation changes that may be important in disease etiology. To identify novel CpG sites associated with cigarette smoking. We used two epigenome-wide datasets from the Sister Study to identify and confirm CpG sites associated with smoking. One included 908 women with methylation measurements at 27,578 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip; the other included 200 women with methylation measurements for 473,844 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Significant CpGs from the second dataset that were not included in the 27k assay were validated by pyrosequencing in a subset of 476 samples from the first dataset. Our study successfully confirmed smoking associations for nine previously established CpGs and identified two potentially novel CpGs: cg26764244 in GNG12 (p= 9.0×10(-10)) and cg22335340 in PTPN6 (p=2.9×10(-05)). In addition to this we provide the first independent confirmation of the association between smoking status and cg02657160 in CPOX (p=7.28x10(-7)). All 12 CpGs were undermethylated in current smokers and showed increasing percent methylation in former and never smokers. We identified two potentially novel smoking related CpG sites, and provided independent replication of ten previously reported CpGs sites related to smoking, one of which is situated in the gene CPOX. The corresponding enzyme is involved in heme biosynthesis and smoking is known to increase heme production. Our study extends the evidence base for smoking-related changes in DNA methylation.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 04/2014; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and non-accidental mortality in rural populations. To examine the relationship between PM2.5 and non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality in the US Agricultural Health Study cohort. The cohort (n=83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators primarily residing in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 30, 2009 were identified by record linkage. Six-year average (2001-2006) remote-sensing derived estimates of PM2.5 were assigned to participants' residences at enrollment and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) in relation to a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 adjusted for individual-level covariates. In total, 5931 non-accidental and 1967 cardiovascular deaths occurred over a median follow-up time of 13.9 years. PM2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality in the cohort as a whole (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.20) but consistent inverse relationships were observed among women. Positive associations were observed between ambient PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality among men, and these associations were strongest among men who did not move from their enrollment address (HR=1.63, 95% 0.94, 2.84). In particular, cardiovascular mortality risk in men was significantly increased when analyses were limited to non-moving participants with the most precise exposure geocoding (HR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.36). Rural PM2.5 may be associated with cardiovascular mortality in men; however, similar associations were not observed among women. Further evaluation is required to explore these gender differences.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2014; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies typically target inherited autosomal variants, but less studied genetic mechanisms can play a role in complex disease. Sex-linked variants aside, three genetic phenomena can induce differential risk in maternal versus paternal lineages of affected individuals: 1. maternal effects, reflecting the maternal genome's influence on prenatal development; 2. mitochondrial variants, which are inherited maternally; 3. autosomal genes, whose effects depend on parent of origin. We algebraically show that small asymmetries in family histories of affected individuals may reflect much larger genetic risks acting via those mechanisms. We apply these ideas to a study of sisters of women with breast cancer. Among 5,091 distinct families of women reporting that exactly one grandmother had breast cancer, risk was skewed toward maternal grandmothers (p<0.0001), especially if the granddaughter was diagnosed between age 45 and 54. Maternal genetic effects, mitochondrial variants, or variant genes with parent-of-origin effects may influence risk of perimenopausal breast cancer.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2014; 10(3):e1004174. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper develops a hierarchical framework for identifying spatiotemporal patterns in data with a high degree of censoring using the gradient process. To do this, we impute censored values using a sampling-based inverse CDF method within our Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, thereby avoiding burdensome integration and facilitating efficient estimation of other model parameters. We illustrate use of our methodology using a simulated data example, and uncover the danger of simply substituting a space- and time-constant function of the level of detection for all missing values. We then fit our model to area measurement data of volatile organic compounds (VOC) air concentrations collected on vessels supporting the response and clean-up efforts of the Deepwater Horizon oil release that occurred starting April 20, 2010. These data contained a high percentage of observations below the detectable limits of the measuring instrument. Despite this, we were still able to make some interesting discoveries, including elevated levels of VOC near the site of the oil well on June 26th. Using the results from this preliminary analysis, we hope to inform future research on the Deepwater Horizon study, including the use of gradient methods for assigning workers to exposure categories.
    Spatial Statistics. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Few studies of ADHD prevalence have used population-based samples, multiple informants, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria. Moreover, children who are asymptomatic while receiving ADHD medication often have been misclassified. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in elementary school children using DSM-IV criteria. Method: We screened 7,587 children for ADHD. Teachers of 81% of the children completed a DSM-IV checklist. We then interviewed parents using a structured interview (DISC). Of these, 72% participated. Parent and teacher ratings were combined to determine ADHD status. We also estimated the proportion of cases attributable to other conditions. Results: Overall, 15.5% of our sample met DSM- (4th ed.; text rev., DSM-IV-TR) criteria for ADHD (95% CI [14.6%, 16.4%]); 42% of cases reported no previous diagnosis. With additional information, other conditions explained 9% of cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of ADHD in this population-based sample was considerably higher than 3% to 7%. To compare study results, the DSM criteria need standardization. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).
    Journal of Attention Disorders 12/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,323.21 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • University of Bergen
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2002–2014
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Epidemiology (EPI)
      • • Branch of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology
      Maryland, United States
  • 1988–2014
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • School of Nursing
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1985–2014
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • • Epidemiology Branch
      • • Biostatistics Branch
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2013
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Evanston, IL, United States
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Respiratory Disease Studies
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
    • Georgia Regents University
      Augusta, Georgia, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutionen för medicinsk epidemiologi och biostatistik
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2012
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
    • Parkinson’s Institute
      Sunnyvale, California, United States
    • Georgia Health Sciences University
      Augusta, Georgia, United States
  • 2011
    • Charles University in Prague
      • Matematicko-fyzikální fakulta
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
    • Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
      • Department of Health Science
      Provo, UT, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • University of Iowa
      • • Department of Occupational and Environmental Health
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Iowa City, IA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Nevada, Reno
      Reno, Nevada, United States
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Buffalo, NY, United States
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
      Winston-Salem, NC, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1996–2010
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      • • Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology
      • • Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2009
    • United States Environmental Protection Agency
      • Office of Research and Development
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Family And Community Medicine
      Albuquerque, NM, United States
    • Korea University
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2008
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2000
    • Temple University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States