Kevin C Cain

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (128)561.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Poststroke fatigue (PSF) is common, but the biological basis of this fatigue is unknown. We explored the possibility that PSF is related to systemic inflammation by investigating polymorphisms in 2 genes that affect the immune response. In a substudy of a larger trial that evaluated the role of the immune response on stroke outcome, fatigue was assessed at 30, 90, 180, and 365 days after ischemic stroke using the Fatigue Assessment Scale. Subjects were genotyped for 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, one in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN; rs4251961, a T/C substitution) and two in the in toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) gene (1063 A/G [Asp299Gly] rs4986790 and 1363 C/T [Thr399Ile] rs4986791). Of the 39 participants, 22 (56%) endorsed fatigue during the study. The degree of fatigue was remarkably constant over time and independent of stroke outcome. The C allele of the rs4251961 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IL1RN was associated with self-reported fatigue (P = .03), whereas the cosegregating polymorphisms in TLR4 were associated with lower levels of fatigue (P = .04). SNPs in 2 genes with opposing effects on inflammatory immune responses were significantly, but differentially, associated with PSF. These findings suggest a direct link between immune signaling dysregulation and PSF. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 12/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in neuroinflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4, including 1063 A/G [Asp299Gly] and 1363 C/T [Thr399Ile], are associated with altered immune responses but their effect on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome is unknown. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and genotype data on 113 AIS patients and performed multivariate analyses to assess associations between TLR4 SNP haplotype and either neurological outcome, infection, or inflammatory markers. In adjusted analyses, TLR4 SNPs were associated with worse outcome as well as increases in circulating leukocytes, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. In AIS, variations in TLR4 may influence neurological outcome (for video abstract, please see Supplemental digital content 1 file,
    Neuroreport 05/2014; 25(8):580-584. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop both cognitive and motor impairment, and biomarkers for progression are urgently needed. Although α-synuclein is altered in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD, it is not known whether it predicts motor or cognitive deterioration. We examined clinical data and α-synuclein in >300 unmedicated patients with PD who participated in the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, with up to 8 years of follow-up. Longitudinal measures of motor and cognitive function were studied before (phase 1) and during (phase 2) levodopa therapy; cerebrospinal fluid was collected at the beginning of each phase. Correlations and linear mixed models were used to assess α-synuclein association with disease severity and prediction of progression in the subsequent follow-up period. Despite decreasing α-synuclein (phase 1 to phase 2 change of −0.05 ± 0.21 log-transformed values, P < 0.001), no correlations were observed between α-synuclein and motor symptoms. Longitudinally, lower α-synuclein predicted better preservation of cognitive function by several measures [Selective Reminding Test total recall α-synuclein × time interaction effect coefficient, −0.12 (P = 0.037); delayed recall, −0.05 (P = 0.002); New Dot Test, −0.03 (P = 0.002)]. Thus, α-synuclein, although not clinically useful for motor progression, might predict cognitive decline, and future longitudinal studies should include this outcome for further validation.
    American Journal Of Pathology 04/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary cortisol levels before and after the CPM test and to examine the relationship of CPM efficiency with gastrointestinal pain, somatic pain, psychological distress symptoms, and salivary cortisol levels in each group. Women, aged 20-42 years, gave consent, completed questionnaires, and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks. CPM efficiency was tested with a heat test stimulus and cold water condition stimulus in a laboratory between 8 and 10 a.m. on a follicular phase day. Salivary cortisol samples were collected just before and after the experimental testing. Compared to the HC group, women with IBS reported more days with gastrointestinal and somatic pain/discomfort, psychological distress, fatigue, and feeling stressed. During the CPM baseline testing, women with IBS reported greater pain sensitivity compared to the HC group. There was no significant group difference in salivary cortisol levels nor in CPM efficiency, though a post-hoc analysis showed a higher prevalence of impaired CPM efficiency among IBS subjects with more severe lower-GI symptoms. In the IBS group, reduced CPM efficiency was associated with daily abdominal pain/discomfort and psychological distress. Overall, women with IBS exhibited an increased sensitivity to thermal stimuli. Impaired CPM was present in a subset of women with IBS.
    Biological Research for Nursing 01/2014; · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and immune measures are present in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but the relationship to symptoms is poorly defined. In adults with IBS, we compared permeability, unstimulated peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, IBS life interference, and GI and psychological distress symptoms. In 88 women and 18 men with IBS, GI permeability was quantitated as percent recovery of urinary sucrose and the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. IL-10 was measured in supernatants from 72-h incubated, unstimulated PBMCs. Participants completed a 4-week daily diary recording IBS life interference on daily activities and work, IBS symptoms, and psychological distress symptoms. They also completed the Brief Symptom Inventory. The L/M ratio but not percent sucrose recovery was significantly correlated with IBS interference with activities and work and retrospectively measured anxiety and depression. Unstimulated PBMC production of IL-10 correlated significantly with IBS interference with daily work, IBS symptom score, and abdominal pain. We identified a subgroup of IBS subjects with higher IL-10 and/or higher L/M ratio who had substantially higher IBS interference and IBS symptom scores. Our findings suggest a distinct subgroup of IBS patients with alterations in gut barrier function. This subgroup is characterized by increased GI permeability and/or increased PBMC production of IL-10. These physiologic alterations reflect more severe IBS as measured by interference of IBS with daily activities and daily IBS symptoms.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxins are endogenous antioxidants that function as peroxide and peroxynitrite scavengers. Extracellular peroxiredoxins, however, are shown to initiate inflammation within the ischemic brain through activation of Toll-like receptors. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that plasma peroxiredoxin concentrations in ischemic stroke would correlate biomarkers of inflammation and predict poor outcome. In a prospective study of patients with ischemic stroke, plasma peroxiredoxin 5 (PRX5) concentrations and inflammatory biomarkers at day 3 after stroke onset were correlated and the association between PRX5 at day 3 and outcome at 3 months assessed. PRX5 concentrations were available for 98 patients and were lower in those with more severe strokes (P=0.001). PRX5 was inversely correlated to biomarkers of inflammation at day 3 after stroke and did not predict 3-month outcome. Plasma PRX5 is decreased in severe stoke and inversely correlated to biomarkers of systemic inflammation. These data suggest that PRX5 is not a proinflammatory mediator in acute stroke. Moreover, the inverse relationship between PRX5 and stroke severity suggests that PRX5 is either consumed or its production is impaired in severe stroke. Further study is needed to define the potential role of PRX5 in stroke.
    Stroke 01/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report sleep disturbances. Previously, we have shown that self-reported sleep difficulties predicted exacerbations of next-day IBS symptoms, mood disturbance, and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to explore whether objectively measured sleep using actigraphy, as well as self-report, predicts next-day symptoms in women with IBS and to explore whether or not symptoms also predict self-report and objective sleep.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(9). · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report higher levels of psychological distress, specifically anxiety, and depression than non-IBS patients. The management of gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological distress is demonstrably amenable to cognitive-behavioral therapies in a significant number of patients with IBS. The present secondary analysis evaluates the impact of nurse-delivered self-management interventions on anxiety, depression, and urine catecholamine levels in adult IBS patients. Participants in the study were randomized to 2 intervention groups of either comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention or usual care control. Daily diary ratings of gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were recorded every evening for 28 days during the baseline period and subsequently at 3, 6, and 12 months postrandomization. Catecholamine levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were measured from 4 weekly 1st morning urine samples at baseline as well as at each follow-up time. The CSM group reported significantly lower levels of anxiety and depression at follow-up than the usual care group (p = .018 and .021, respectively). In contrast, urine catecholamine levels displayed no appreciable change. Thus, although nurse-delivered CSM interventions showed no impact on urinary catecholamine levels, daily psychological distress was measurably reduced.
    Gastroenterology nursing: the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates 01/2014; 37(1):24-32. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection is a common phenomenon following stroke, and adversely affects outcome. Previous studies suggest that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL1RN gene might influence the risk of post-stroke infection and outcome. In this study, we addressed the effects of the rs4251961 SNP in IL1RN on infection risk and outcome. Subjects with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled within 72 h of symptom onset and followed up to 1 year. Plasma IL-1ra was measured at multiple time points and outcome assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Active surveillance for infection occurred while subjects were hospitalized. Subjects were genotyped for the IL1RN rs4251961 polymorphism. In the population of 113 subjects for this study, those with the minor C allele of rs4251961 polymorphism in IL1RN were more likely to be Caucasian, hypertensive, and to be afflicted with coronary heart disease. Higher plasma IL-1ra was associated with an increased risk of infection (other than pneumonia), and the minor C allele of rs4251961 was independently associated with a decreased risk of infection (other than pneumonia). Initial plasma IL-1ra was not predictive of long-term outcome, but patients with the minor C allele of rs4251961 were more likely to experience good (modified Rankin Score <2) long-term outcome. These data indicate that IL-1ra and IL1RN may influence the risk of infection after stroke, but this influence seems limited to infections other than pneumonia. Further studies are needed to better understand the complexities of immune regulation on infection and outcome after stroke.
    Neurocritical Care 11/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tau gene has been consistently associated with the risk of Parkinson disease in recent genome wide association studies. In addition, alterations of the levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau [181P], and amyloid beta 1–42 in cerebrospinal fluid have been reported in patients with sporadic Parkinson disease and asymptomatic carriers of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations, in patterns that clearly differ from those typically described for patients with Alzheimer disease. To further determine the potential roles of these molecules in Parkinson disease pathogenesis and/or in tracking the disease progression, especially at early stages, the current study assessed all three proteins in 403 Parkinson disease patients enrolled in the DATATOP (Deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism) placebo-controlled clinical trial, the largest cohort to date with cerebrospinal fluid samples collected longitudinally. These initially drug-naive patients at early disease stages were clinically evaluated, and cerebrospinal fluid was collected at baseline and then at endpoint, defined as the time at which symptomatic anti-Parkinson disease medications were determined to be required. General linear models were used to test for associations between baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels or their rates of change and changes in the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (total or part III motor score) over time. Robust associations among candidate markers are readily noted. Baseline levels of amyloid beta were weakly but negatively correlated with baseline Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale total scores. Baseline phosphorylated tau/total tau and phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta were significantly and negatively correlated with the rates of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale change. While medications (deprenyl and/or tocopherol) did not appear to alter biomarkers appreciably, a weak but significant positive correlation between the rate of change in total tau or total tau/amyloid beta levels and the change of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale was observed. Notably, these correlations did not appear to be influenced by APOE genotype. These results are one of the very first pieces of evidence suggesting that tau and amyloid beta are critically involved in early Parkinson disease progression, potentially by a different mechanism than that in Alzheimer disease, although their applications as Parkinson disease progression markers will likely require the addition of other proteins.
    Acta Neuropathologica 05/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purposes/Aims: Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The first aim was to compare a measure of pain sensitivity and central pain modulation, the diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), salivary cortisol levels, pain and psychological symptoms in women with IBS to healthy control (HC) women. Second, the relationships among self-reported pain/discomfort and physiological measures (DNIC and cortisol) were examined in both groups. Methods: Twenty women IBS and 20 HC, ages 20-42, gave consent, completed questionnaires and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks. DNIC response was tested with a counter-irritation approach in a laboratory between 8 and 10 am on a follicular phase day. Salivary cortisol levels were collected before and after the DNIC test. Results: Compared to the HC group, women with IBS report more days with gastrointestinal and somatic pain/discomfort, psychological distress and feeling stressed. During the DNIC baseline testing, women with IBS reported greater pain sensitivity compared to HC group. In the IBS group, the DNIC response was associated with the PROMIS pain interference measure, daily abdominal pain/discomfort, and psychological distress, in particular anxiety. There was no group difference in salivary cortisol levels. Implications: Overall, a subgroup of women with IBS exhibit an increased sensitivity to pain to thermal stimuli and this increased sensitivity is linked to level of psychological distress. Impaired central modulation of pain is present in a subset of women with IBS. Grant from NINR, NIH 1RC2NR011959
    2014 Western Institute of Nursing Annual Communicating Nursing Research Conference; 04/2013
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Heavy alcohol intake may exacerbate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the role of alcohol in IBS is unclear. We investigated prospective associations between daily patterns of alcohol intake and next day's GI symptoms using daily diaries.METHODS:In an observational study of women aged 18-48 years with IBS and healthy controls, participants recorded daily GI symptoms, alcohol intake, caffeine intake, and cigarette smoking for ∼1 month. GI symptoms included abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, intestinal gas, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, stomach pain, heartburn, and indigestion. Binge drinking was defined as 4+ alcohol-containing drinks/day.RESULTS:Patterns of alcohol intake did not differ between IBS patients and controls. Although patterns of drinking were associated with GI symptoms among women with IBS, this was not the case with the healthy controls. The strongest associations for IBS patients were between binge drinking and the next day's GI symptoms (e.g., diarrhea, P=0.006; nausea, P=0.01; stomach pain, P=0.009; and indigestion, P=0.004), whereas moderate and light drinking either were not associated or weakly associated with GI symptoms. Associations between alcohol intake and GI symptoms were stronger for women with IBS-diarrhea than for IBS-constipation or IBS-mixed. Effects of binge drinking on GI symptoms were strongest when comparing between individuals (rather than within individuals).CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that IBS symptoms differ according to the pattern of alcohol intake among IBS patients, suggesting that the pattern of drinking may in part explain the inconsistent findings between alcohol and IBS symptoms.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 8 January 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2012.414.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in oxidative stress, cell death, and synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that total DJ-1 levels decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid, but do not change significantly in human plasma from patients with Parkinson disease when compared with controls. In this study, we measured total DJ-1 and its isoforms in whole blood of patients with Parkinson disease at various stages, Alzheimer disease, and healthy controls to identify potential peripheral biomarkers of PD. In an initial discovery study of 119 subjects, 7 DJ-1 isoforms were reliably detected, and blood levels of those with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modifications were discovered to be altered in late-stage Parkinson disease. This result was further confirmed in a validation study of another 114 participants, suggesting that, unlike total DJ-1 levels, post-translationally modified isoforms of DJ-1 from whole blood are candidate biomarkers of late-stage Parkinson disease.
    Scientific Reports 12/2012; 2:954. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The signals that initiate the poststroke inflammatory response are unknown. High-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 protein is a nuclear protein that is passively released from necrotic tissue and is able to activate leukocytes, which in turn secrete HMGB1. HMGB1 is also able to activate antigen-presenting cells and therefore stands at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity. METHODS: Plasma HMGB1 concentrations were determined at multiple time points after ischemic stroke (N=110) and correlated to stroke severity and biomarkers of inflammation. The relationships between HMGB1, stroke outcome, and autoimmune responses to brain antigens were also assessed. RESULTS: Stroke resulted in an increase in HMGB1 that persisted for 30 days. Plasma HMGB1 was correlated with the number of circulating leukocytes but was not predictive of either stroke outcome or the development of autoimmune responses to brain antigens. Patients with a Th1(+) response to myelin basic protein at 90 days after stroke, however, had higher plasma HMGB1. CONCLUSIONS: HMGB1 appears to be involved in the postischemic inflammatory response, but it remains unclear whether HMGB1 initiates this response or merely reflects activation of leukocytes by another signal.
    Stroke 11/2012; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this exploratory study were to examine whether tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene polymorphisms are associated with psychosocial factors in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TPH1 gene and one SNP in the TPH2 gene were selected based on previous studies investigating associations between these SNPs and psychiatric or behavioral disorders. One hundred ninety-nine Caucasian women with IBS were included. Results of univariate analysis showed no association between TPH1and TPH2 gene SNPs and current level of psychological distress or psychiatric illness. However, TPH1 gene SNPs were associated with IBS-related cognitions (rs4537731 and rs21105) and quality of life (rs684302 and rs1800532), in particular the mental health and energy subscales. These associations were independent of the subjects' levels of gastrointestinal symptoms. These results suggest that patients' perception of their illness, and of the impact it has on their lives, may be subject to genetic influences, in this case sequence variants in TPH1. However, caution should be used in interpreting these results given the large number of hypothesis tests performed in this exploratory hypothesis-generating study, and the results should be considered tentative until confirmed in an independent sample.
    Biological Research for Nursing 11/2012; · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain associated with alterations in bowel function. Given the heterogeneity of the symptoms, multiple pathophysiologic factors are suspected to play a role. We classified women with IBS into four subgroups based on distinct symptom profiles. In-depth shotgun proteomic analysis was carried out to profile the urinary proteomes to identify possible proteins associated with these subgroups. First void urine samples with urine creatinine level ≥100 mg/dL were used after excluding samples that tested positive for blood. Urine from 10 subjects representing each symptom subgroup was pooled for proteomic analysis. The urine proteome was analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) using a data-independent method known as Precursor Acquisition Independent From Ion Count (PAcIFIC) that allowed extended detectable dynamic range. Differences in protein quantities were determined by peptide spectral counting followed by validation of select proteins with ELISA or a targeted single reaction monitoring (LC–SRM/MS) approach. Four IBS symptom subgroups were selected: (1) Constipation, (2) Diarrhea + Low Pain, (3) Diarrhea + High Pain, and (4) High Pain + High Pychological Distress. A fifth group consisted of Healthy Control subjects. From comparisons of quantitative spectral counting data among the symptom subgroups and controls, a total of 18 proteins that showed quantitative differences in relative abundance and possible physiological relevance to IBS were selected for further investigation. Three of the 18 proteins were chosen for validation by either ELISA or SRM. An elevated expression of gelsolin (GSN) was associated with the high pain groups. Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3) levels were higher in IBS groups compared to controls. In this study, the IBS patients subclassified by predominant symptoms showed differences in urine proteome levels. Proteins showing distinctive changes are involved in homeostasis of intestinal function and inflammatory response. These findings warrant future studies with larger, independent cohorts to enable more extensive assessment and validation of urinary protein markers as a diagnostic tool in adults with IBS.
    Journal of Proteome Research 10/2012; 11(12):5650–5662. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies to brain antigens are present in stroke survivors. In this study, we assessed autoantibody responses to white matter antigens, their correlation to white matter disease and stroke outcome. Antibody titers (immunoglobulin G [igG]) to myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP) and tetanus toxoid (TT) were available at one or more time points for 112 subjects with ischemic stroke. In comparison to the control subjects (N=40), there was a global decrease in IgG titers to TT early after stroke. Patients with white matter disease on magnetic resonance imaging had elevated titers of antibodies to both MBP and PLP at 30days after stroke, and anti-MBP antibodies were associated with worse outcome. The potential pathologic consequences of antibodies to white matter, especially MBP, is deserving of further investigation.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 08/2012; 252(1-2):106-12. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a unique chemokine that is constitutively expressed on neurons where it serves as an adhesion molecule for lymphocytes and monocytes. CX3CL1 may also be cleaved from the surface of these cells and enter the circulation to act as a traditional chemokine. CX3CL1 could thus influence the inflammatory response after stroke. We hypothesized that patients with higher plasma CX3CL1 after stroke would have a more robust inflammatory response and experience worse outcome. Plasma CX3CL1 concentrations were assessed in 85 patients who were part of a larger study evaluating immune responses after ischemic stroke; CX3CL1 values were available from Day 1 to Day 180 after stroke onset. CX3CL1 was correlated to measures of inflammation and its effect on outcome assessed. At 1 day after stroke, CX3CL1 was lower in patients with severe strokes. At 180 days after stroke, CX3CL1 concentrations were lower in patients with poor outcome. The association of CX3CL1 and outcome at 180 days was independent of initial stroke severity. Plasma CX3CL1 at 180 days was inversely associated with systemic markers of inflammation, including white blood cell counts and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In contrast to our original hypothesis, lower concentrations of CX3CL1 are associated with worse stroke outcome. In light of recent studies suggesting an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective role for CX3CL1 in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, a therapeutic role for CX3CL1 in stroke recovery should be considered.
    Stroke 07/2012; 43(9):2300-6. · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose/Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the different types of technology in use in adult family homes in order to better design tools that will enhance care in these settings. Rationale/ Background: America’s current health care system is unable to meet the health care needs of our aging population. This shortfall is becoming increasingly pronounced due to diminishing resources and a lack of nurses trained in gerontology. Beyond the need for competency in caring for older adults in hospitals, nurses also need critical thinking skills to provide nursing care oversight for community dwelling vulnerable older adults. Older adults prefer to age in place in home-like environments. One residential setting that is meeting varying levels of care needs of many community dwelling older adults is the adult family home (AFH). However, limited research on care giving has been done in this setting and there is a need for innovative solutions that will address the challenge of reduced resources. A progressive solution for extending limited health care resources is telehealth, using real-time audio-video conferencing to bridge geographic distance. Such an approach could potentially be beneficial for AFH settings as well. There is however, minimal data on types of technology being used, learning needs of direct caregivers, and best model of community-based nursing oversight of care practices. This project remedies the lack of evidence by assessing current technology usage in adult family homes and learning needs of caregivers for frail older adult residents in this setting. Methods: Cross sectional descriptive design was employed to survey technology usage and potential learning needs of AFH operators in Washington State. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the researcher’s affiliated University. Using the Delphi technique, a survey was designed to assess technology usage and pain assessment learning needs of AFH caregivers. The survey was mailed with a letter of introduction to all AFHs listed by the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services (n=2848). Completed anonymous surveys were returned via self addressed postage paid envelopes to the researcher (response rate =12.1%). Results: Preliminary findings indicate diverse profiles of technology usage in AFHs. Most homes have plain old telephone land lines (POTS) (98%) and cellular phones (96%). Less than half of the respondents (40%) have used telehealth and approximately one-third (30%) have used real-time audio-video voice over internet protocol (VoIP). In addition to communication technologies, preliminary findings indicate over one-third of respondent AFH (39%) use health monitoring devices as part of resident care. Conclusions/Implications: The results of this study inform the development of community-driven curriculum for care of diverse community dwelling vulnerable older adults in settings such as adult family homes. This study also informs development of service learning strategies and care delivery programs that use telehealth in the AFH setting.
    2013 Western Institute of Nursing Annual Communicating Nursing Research Conference; 04/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that subgroups of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are hyper-responsive to a variety of laboratory stress conditions. Methods: This study compared sleep quality and night time plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serum cortisol levels in response to anticipation of public speaking between 43 women with IBS and 24 healthy control women. In addition, comparisons were made between subgroups within the IBS sample based on predominant stool patterns, 22 IBS-constipation and 21 IBS-diarrhea. Subjects slept three nights in a sleep laboratory, and on the third night serial blood samples were drawn every 20 min from 08:00 PM until awakening. As the subjects had different sleep onsets, each subject's results were synchronized to the first onset of stage 2 sleep. Compared the healthy control group, women with IBS had significantly worse sleep efficiency, and higher cortisol but not ACTH levels over the night. However, there were no IBS bowel pattern subgroup differences. Among IBS subjects, cortisol levels early in the night were higher than found in our previous study with a similar protocol but without the threat of public speaking. These results suggest that a social stressor, such as public speaking prior to bedtime, increases cortisol but not ACTH levels suggesting HPA dysregulation in women with IBS. This response to a social stressor contributes to our understanding of the relationship of stress to symptom expression in IBS.
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 04/2012; 24(7):626-31, e270-1. · 2.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
561.37 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2014
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      • • Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems
      • • School of Nursing
      • • Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • Fujian Agricultural University
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
    • Keimyung University
      • College of Nursing
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Division of Nursing Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1990
    • Swedish Medical Center Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States