[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of galectin-1 in patients with cervical cancer after definitive radiation therapy.
We reviewed 154 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma. Patients underwent curative-intent radiation therapy. Paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry staining for galectin-1. The rates of cancer-specific survival (CSS), local recurrence (LR), and distant metastasis were compared among patient tissue samples with no, weak, and strong galectin-1 expression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively.
The areas under the curve for the intracellular expression scores of galectin-1 for both LR and CSS were significantly higher than those for stromal expression. There were no significant differences in the demographic data, such as stage and serum tumor markers, between patients with and without intracellular expression of galectin-1 in cancer tissue samples. Using multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios of LR and CSS were 2.60 (95% CI 1.50-4.52) (P=.001) and 1.94 (95% CI 1.18-3.19) (P=.010), respectively.
Galectin-1 is an independent prognostic factor associated with LR and CSS in stage I-II cervical cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy. Further studies targeting galectin-1 may improve the local control of cervical cancer.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with cervical cancer diagnosed with a para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis by computed tomography (CT) scan were analyzed to identify associated prognostic factors. A total of 55 patients were reviewed, and 27 of these patients underwent extended-field radiotherapy (EFRT). The median PALN dose in patients receiving EFRT was 45 Gy (range, 27-57.6 Gy). Of the 55 patients, 28 underwent pelvic radiotherapy (RT); concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 41 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the actuarial rate. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 41% and 17.9% in patients undergoing EFRT and pelvic RT (P = 0.030), respectively. Age < 53 years (P = 0.023), FIGO Stage I-II (P = 0.002), and treatment with EFRT (P = 0.003) were independent predictors of better OS. The use of CCRT (P = 0.014), Stage I-II (P = 0.002), and treatment using EFRT (P = 0.036) were independent predictors of distant metastasis. In patients undergoing EFRT plus CCRT, the 5-year OS was 50%. Three-year PALN disease-free rates were 8.8%, 57.9% and 100% (P < 0.001) in CCRT patients who received PALN doses of 0 Gy, ≤45 Gy and ≥50.4 Gy, respectively. Although PALN metastasis is thought to be distant metastasis in cervical cancer, EFRT plus CCRT shows a good outcome, particularly in younger patients in an early FIGO stage. Cervical cancer with a PALN metastasis should not be considered incurable. Doses ≥50.4 Gy for treating PALN may result in better disease control.
Journal of Radiation Research 06/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To compare the treatment results of 2 fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From June 2001 through January 2008, 267 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 4-field pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT. The median central and parametrial doses were 39.6 Gy and 45 Gy, respectively. Patient underwent either 6 Gy × 4 (HDR-4) (n=144) or 4.5 Gy × 6 (HDR-6) (n=123) to point A of ICBT using (192)Ir isotope twice weekly. The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, proctitis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were compared between HDR-4 and HDR-6. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the demographic data between HDR-4 and HDR-6 except for total treatment time. The 5-year proctitis rates were 23.0% and 21.5% in HDR-4 and HDR-6 (P=.399), respectively. The corresponding rates of grade 2-4 proctitis were 18.7% and 9.6% (P=.060). The corresponding rates of grades 3-4 proctitis were 5.2% and 1.3% (P=.231). Subgroup analysis revealed that HDR-4 significantly increased grade 2-4 proctitis in patients aged ≥62 years old (P=.012) but not in patients aged <62 years (P=.976). The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were not significantly different between HDR-4 and HDR-6 schedules. CONCLUSION: The small fraction size of HDR-ICBT is associated with grade 2 proctitis without compromise of prognosis in elderly patients. This schedule is suggested for patients who tolerate an additional 2 applications of HDR-ICBT.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels as a risk factor for para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for cervical cancer.
From March 1995 to January 2008, 188 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix were analyzed retrospectively. No patient received PALN irradiation as the initial treatment. CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) were measured before and after radiotherapy. PALN recurrence was detected by computer tomography (CT) scans. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were carried out with Cox regression models. We stratified the risk groups based on the hazard ratios (HR).
Both pretreatment CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL and SCC-Ag levels < 10 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 8.838), SCC-Ag levels ≥ 40 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 12.551), and SCC-Ag levels of 10-40 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 4.2464) were significant factors for PALN recurrence. The corresponding 5-year PALN recurrence rates were 51.5%, 84.8%, and 27.5%, respectively. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate for patients with both low (< 10 ng/mL) SCC and CEA was only 9.6%. CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL or SCC-Ag levels ≥ 10 ng/mL at PALN recurrence were associated with overall survival after an isolated PALN recurrence. Pretreatment CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL were also associated with survival after an isolated PALN recurrence.
Pretreatment CEA ≥ 10 ng/mL is an additional risk factor of PALN relapse following definitive CCRT for SCC of the uterine cervix in patients with pretreatment SCC-Ag levels < 10 ng/mL. More comprehensive examinations before CCRT and intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in patients with SCC-Ag or CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels have a prognostic role in patients after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix.
A retrospective study of 550 patients was performed. The SCC antigen (SCC-Ag) and CEA levels were regarded as elevated when they were ≥2 and ≥5 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 208 patients underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the distant metastasis (DM), local failure (LF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was evaluated for the risk of a poor prognosis.
Compared with the patients with normal CEA/SCC-Ag levels, CEA levels ≥10 ng/mL but without elevated SCC-Ag levels was an independent factor for LF (HR, 51.81; 95% CI, 11.51-233.23; p < .001), DM (HR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.58-23.01; p = .008), DFS (HR, 10.17; 95% CI, 3.18-32.56; p < .001), and OS (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 1.82-18.18; p = .003) after RT alone. However, no significant role for CEA was noted in patients with SCC-Ag levels ≥2 ng/mL. In patients undergoing CCRT, a CEA level ≥10 ng/mL was an independent factor for LF (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.01-6.21; p = .047), DM (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.56-7.46; p = .002), DFS (HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.39-5.36; p = .003), and OS (HR, 3.93; 95% CI 1.99-7.75; p < .001). A SCC-Ag level of ≥40 ng/mL was another prognostic factor for DM, DFS, and OS in patients undergoing not only CCRT, but also RT alone. The 5-year OS rate for CCRT patients with CEA <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL was 75.3% and 35.8%, respectively (p < .001). CCRT was an independent factor for better OS (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97; p = .034).
Pretreatment CEA levels in patients with SCC of the uterine cervix provide complementary information for predicting LF, DM, DFS, and OS, except for in patients with abnormal SCC-Ag levels before RT alone. More aggressive therapy might be advisable for patients with CEA levels of ≥10 ng/mL.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2010; 81(4):1105-13. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer.
From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD.
Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1)
Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2009; 76(2):490-5. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the response to radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and determine the factors favoring its efficacy.
Patients with HCC and PVT referred for radiation therapy between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had undergone treatment to primary HCC before radiation or had extrahepatic metastasis were excluded. A radiation dose of 60 Gy with 2 to 3Gy per fraction was prescribed. Clinical features before therapy were investigated, and the most significant imaging change after radiotherapy was regarded as the treatment response. Survival times were compared and the hazard ratios of independent variables were determined.
The treatment response rate of the 326 patients included in the study was 25.2% (n = 82). The median survival times were 13.3, 11.6, 9.0, 4.5, and 2.1 months for complete response, partial response, vascular transformation, no response, and the lost follow-up patients, respectively. Statistically significant differences in survival were not found among responder groups (p = 0.224-0.916) but were found between responders and nonresponders (p = 0.002). The most significant independent variables associated with survival (p < 0.001) were performance status and radiation dose. Minor independent factors were ascites, alfa-fetoprotein, albumin, and HBsAg (p = 0.009-0.038). In patients with favorable performance status, those with no more than one minor risk factor had a superior prognosis after radiation therapy (p = 0.013). This result was verified by a review of similar patients in 2006.
Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for selected HCC patients with PVT.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2008; 73(4):1155-63. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the survival, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated by high-dose-rate-brachytherapy (HDR-BT) plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) versus EBRT alone at a single institute in Taiwan.
Eighty-eight patients with T1c-T3b prostate cancer consecutively treated by EBRT alone (33 patients) or HDR-BT+EBRT (55 patients) were studied. The median dose of EBRT was 70.2 Gy in the EBRT group and 50.4 Gy in the HDR-BT group. HDR-BT was performed 2-3 weeks before EBRT, with 12.6 Gy in three fractions over 24 h.
Five patients (15.2%) in the EBRT group and seven (12.7%) in the HDR-BT group developed a biochemical relapse. The 5-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival rates were 65.0% in the EBRT group and 66.7% in the HDR-BT group (P = 0.76). The 5-year actuarial likelihood of late > or =Grade 2 and > or =Grade 3 GI toxicity in the EBRT versus HDR-BT group was 62.8 versus 7.7% (P < 0.001) and 19.6 versus 0% (P = 0.001), respectively. In a multivariate analysis, the only predictor for late GI toxicity was the mode of RT. The 5-year actuarial likelihood of late > or =Grade 2 and > or =Grade 3 GU toxicity in the EBRT versus HDR-BT group was 14.8 versus 15.9% (P = 0.86) and 3.6 versus 8.5% (P = 0.40), respectively.
The addition of HDR-BT before EBRT with a reduced dose from the EBRT produces a comparable survival outcome and GU toxicity but a significantly less GI toxicity for prostate cancer patients.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2008; 38(7):474-9. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the pretreatment risk factors of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence after primary radiotherapy for cervical cancer.
Between May 1992 and January 2006, the data from 758 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were retrospectively analyzed. No patient had undergone PALN radiotherapy as their initial treatment. PALN recurrence was diagnosed by computed tomography. PALN relapse-free status was determined clinically or radiographically. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox regression models.
Of the 758 patients, 38 (5%) and 42 (6%) had isolated and nonisolated PALN recurrences after a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 2-159 months), respectively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate after PALN recurrence was 35% and 28%, respectively. A squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) level >40 ng/mL (p <0.001), advanced parametrial involvement (score 4-6; p = 0.002), and the presence of pelvic lymphadenopathy (p = 0.007) were independent factors associated with PALN relapse on multivariate analysis. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate in patients with a SCC-Ag level >40 ng/mL, SCC-Ag level of 20-40 ng/mL, parametrial score of 4-6, pelvic lymphadenopathy, and no risk factors was 57%, 22%, 34%, 37%, and 9%, respectively.
Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and a high SCC-Ag level, pelvic lymphadenopathy, or advanced PM involvement were predisposed to PALN recurrence after definitive radiotherapy. More intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in high-risk patients.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 04/2008; 72(3):834-42. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 57-year-old male developed an adenocarcinoma lung cancer in November 2003. He received the full course chemotherapy but without a significant regression. The targeted therapy gefitinib was prescribed 2 years after diagnosis, producing a very good partial response. However, brain metastasis was diagnosed. A whole brain irradiation was performed for 37.5Gy with a fraction size of 2.5Gy and gefitinib was replaced with erlotinib on the 5th day after radiation therapy commenced for disease progressing. Unexpectedly, the patient developed a severe skin reaction in the region exposed to the radiation field, and a bilateral subdural hemorrhage, following radiation therapy. The reaction was thought to be triggered by the combination of radiation and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which may be responsible for hypersensitizing the radiation response in normal tissue in the unique individual.
Lung Cancer 04/2008; 59(3):407-10. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies.
From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions.
The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 +/- 27 cm(3) and 489 +/- 34 cm(3) (p < 0.001) in Group I patients with Grade 0-1 and Grade 2-3 diarrhea, respectively. The corresponding mean V100 of Group II patients was 56 +/- 14 cm(3) and 132 +/- 19 cm(3) (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively.
Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2007; 69(3):732-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of needle tract seeding after fine needle aspiration (FNA) or percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and compare iatrogenic or spontaneous soft tissue metastasis (STM) by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) postradiotherapy (RT) in responses.
From November 1997 to January 2006, those who presented with STM by HCC after our invasive procedures or developed spontaneously were enrolled into this retrospective study. Metastatic lesions could be divided into procedure related (PR), which were located at the liver span and were related to invasive procedures, and non-procedure related (NPR), which were in extrahepatic areas. STM was treated with an electron or photon beam.
A total of 39 HCC cases with developed STM were referred for RT, including 17 in the PR group and 22 in the NPR group. During the same period, a total of 18,227 person-times of FNA or PEI were performed on these HCC patients. The overall incidence of HCC with STM that was caused by invasive procedures was estimated at 0.13%. According to the Cox' regression model, the initial treatment modality influences the time duration after the initial diagnosis of HCC when STM has not occurred. None of these patients' soft tissue tumor increased in size during RT. The PR group had lower rates of bone metastasis (P=0.003) and coexisting extrahepatic metastasis (P=0.011) and a longer survival rate (P=0.003) than the NPR group. The estimated rates of 18-gauge and 22-gauge needle-induced HCC-related STM were 0.60% and 0.11%, respectively (P=0.064).
The PR group bears a better prognosis than the NPR group post-RT.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 04/2007; 27(2):192-200. · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed factors of locoregional (LR) recurrence and skin complications in patients after postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT).
From January 1988 to December 1999, a total of 246 women with Stage II and III breast cancer received PMRT. Doses of 46 to 52.2 Gy/23 to 29 fractions were delivered to the chest wall (CW) and peripheral lymphatic drainage with 12 to 15 MeV single-portal electrons or 6MV photons. Of the patients, 84 patients received an additional 6 to 20 Gy boost to the surgical scar using 9 MeV electrons. We used the Cox regression model for multivariate analyses of CW, supraclavicular nodes (SCN), and LR recurrence.
N3 stage (positive nodes >9) (p = 0.003) and diabetes (p = 0.004) were independent factors of CW recurrence. Analysis of ipsilateral SCN recurrence showed that N3 stage (p < 0.001) and electrons (p = 0.006) were independent factors. For LR recurrence, N3 (p < 0.001), T3 to T4 (p = 0.033) and electrons (p = 0.003) were significant factors. Analysis of skin telangiectasia revealed that electrons (p < 0.001) and surgical scar boost (p = 0.003) were independent factors.
Photons are superior to single-portal electrons in patients receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy because of better locoregional control and less skin telangiectasia. In patients in whom the number of positive axillary nodes is >9, more aggressive treatment may be considered for better locoregional control.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2006; 65(5):1389-96. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study demonstrates that the large increase in normal tissue penalty often degrades target dose uniformity without a concomitant large improvement in normal tissue dose, especially in anatomically unfavorable patients. The excessively large normal tissue penalties do not improve treatment plans for patients having unfavorable geometry.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 11/2005; 77(1):53-7. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is as important as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the radical radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer. The degree of urinary bladder distension during ICBT may affect the dose distribution in the bladder and rectum, to which an overdose may increase the chance of developing treatment-related complications. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess and quantify the impact of bladder distension on dosimetry in ICBT in patients with cervical cancer.
We recruited 20 patients with cervical cancer during a 12-month period. Inclusion criteria included pathological diagnosis of cervical cancer with IA to IIIB stages, and intact uterus. Patients were evaluated for brachytherapy after EBRT, and eligible individuals (cervical os could be identified clearly) were invited enter to this protocol to receive ICBT. In the first brachytherapy, bladder preparation (evacuation and distension by a Foley catheter) and CT scan were performed soon after the insertion of CT-compatible applicators. Then the bladder wall doses [median dose, maximum dose and dose-volume histograms (DVH)] were calculated via the PLATO computer planning system (Nucletron PLATO-RTS version 2.0). The individual data regarding doses and DVH were collected and compared. Bladder distension may shift the applicator position, and posterior displacement of the applicator system may increase the dose to the rectal wall, so this effect was also evaluated.
All the continuous variables of these 20 patients followed a normal distribution. By paired t-test and multiple linear regression analysis, we found that bladder distension statistically significantly decreased the median bladder wall dose with an average reduction of 48% of the dose of an empty bladder (P<0.001), and the maximum dose did not change; on the other hand, the bladder distension did not have any adverse effects on the rectal wall doses.
Using CT-assisted three-dimensional techniques to assess the bladder and rectal wall doses is feasible. Bladder distension reduces the median dose in the bladder wall, which may reduce treatment-related complications.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 10/2005; 77(1):77-82. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate volume effect of small bowel for diarrhea during pelvic irradiation in gynecologic patients with or without prior abdomen operation.
From January 1996 through December 2003, 759 patients undergoing 4-field pelvic irradiation for cervical or uterine cancer were analyzed. Whole pelvic (WP), modified whole pelvic (MWP), or lower pelvic (LP) irradiation were delivered initially. According to contrast medium within small bowel in simulation films, we categorized the small-bowel volume of full dose related to WP fields as small-volume and large-volume groups. We recorded the severity of diarrhea until 39.6 Gy/22 fractions of pelvic irradiation. The actuarial rates of overall and moderate to severe diarrhea were compared among different groups.
Significantly more large-volume distribution (85%) was noted in patients >60 years without prior operation (P < 0.001). Large-volume distribution was 53%, 65%, and 82% in post-operative patients with no diarrhea, mild diarrhea, and moderate to severe diarrhea (P = 0.002), respectively. The corresponding rate was 79%, 77%, and 80% in patients without prior abdomen operation (P = 0.869). In multivariate analysis, prior operation with LP fields (P = 0.005) and prior operation with small volume (P = 0.031) were significantly protective factors for overall diarrhea. The latter was also a protective factor for moderate to severe diarrhea (P = 0.026). Prior operation could diminish overall diarrhea in patients without simultaneous large-field (WP or MWP) and large-volume. Large volume was a significant factor of overall (P = 0.014) and moderate to severe (P = 0.004) diarrhea in large-field patients with operation. The volume effect did not exist in those patients without operation.
Age and operation can change small-bowel distribution. Prior operation may attenuate diarrhea if irradiated volume of small bowel is small. There is a volume effect in post-operative rather than non-operative patients receiving large-field irradiation. More practical dose-volume evaluation of small bowel may be applied for volume effect in gynecologic patients without prior operation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Occurrence of pneumocephalus in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is rare. To date, there were only five single-case reports in literature. We here report two additional cases. Both patients were male, aged 35 and 49. They presented initially as advanced disease with intracranial invasion, and received a full course of radiotherapy. Spontaneous pneumocephalus developed after tumor recurrence. Clinical course of the two patients was subacute. Both survived 3 months after the onset of pneumocephalus. It is speculated that local recurrence following high-dose irradiation and associated osteoradionecrosis of the base of the skull are possible factors predisposing to the development of this rare complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in quality of life (QoL) for patients with advanced stage (stage III or IV) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) following primary radiotherapy (RT) or concomitant chemoradiotherapy.
From January 2001 to January 2003, 149 patients with advanced HNSCC were enrolled. The data pertaining to their QoL were collected using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EORTC Head and Neck Module (QLQ-H&N35) before and 1 year after RT.
Sixty-eight (46%) patients dropped out during the study period. Thirty-nine (57%) of them died of cancer. Those who were older, stage IV, treated by RT alone, or had worse pretreatment EORTC QoL scales were significantly more likely to drop out. For those completing the study, only the problems of swallowing, dry mouth, and sticky saliva were found to become more serious with both statistical (p < 0.05) and clinical (difference >10 points) significance 1 year after RT. Those subjects with cancer at the hypopharynx/larynx had a 3.3-fold higher probability to report an improvement in global QoL (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.11-6.82) than those with cancer at the oral cavity/oropharynx. Those alive without cancer 1 year after RT had a 3.6-fold higher probability to report an improvement in global QoL (95% CI: 1.32-7.13) than those alive with cancer.
The study showed a high dropout rate in this longitudinal QoL study for patients with advanced HNSCC. Pretreatment cancer sites and living with cancer or not after treatment significantly affected the change in global QoL 1 year after RT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) data are becoming an important supplement to information pertaining to treatment outcome for cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRQL outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and to investigate the variables associated with their HRQL.
Sixty-six oral cancer patients with cancer-free survival after surgery plus postoperative RT of >2 years were enrolled. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire in the Taiwan Chinese version was self-reported by all participants at the clinics. The linear regression model was used to analyze the socio-demographic and medical-related variables correlated with the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) in SF-36.
The mean scores of the eight functional domains in the SF-36 were markedly lower for oral cancer survivors compared with the Taiwanese and US norms. Those with older age, lower annual family income, more advanced cancer stage and flap reconstruction had significantly worse PCS, and those with lower annual family income, unemployment and more advanced cancer stage reported significantly worse MCS. This model accounts for 63% of variance in PCS, and 51% in MCS.
These results provided patient-reported evidence that oral cancer survivors lived with a worse HRQL compared with the general Taiwanese population. Socio-economic factors and cancer stage were important factors correlated with their HRQL.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2004; 34(11):641-6. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze dosimetric factors of radiation-induced severe bowel complications among patients with cervical cancer.
We reviewed 297 patients of stage IB-IVA cervical cancer managed by curative-intent radiotherapy from May 1993 through December 1997. Whole-pelvic irradiation of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (34.2-48.6 Gy/19-27 fractions) was delivered to all patients. Two hundred and three patients received additional bilateral parametrial boost (3.6-18 Gy/2-10 fractions). High dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT), 16-24 Gy/5 fractions to Point A, was given after external irradiation. Cumulative rectal biologically effective dose (CRBED) at rectal reference point was determined by summation of EBRT and ICBT component.
The 5-year incidences of Grade 3-4 enterocolitis and proctitis were 10% and 7%, respectively. Both complications were associated with external parametrial dose (PMD) and CRBED. Interaction of CRBED and PMD was noted in multivariate analysis of enterocolitis (P < 0.001) and proctitis (P < 0.001). In CRBED > or = 100 Gy(3) group, PMD was an independent factor in enterocolitis (P = 0.010) and proctitis (P = 0.039). In PMD > or = 54 Gy group, CRBED was an independent factor in enterocolitis (P = 0.003) and proctitis (P = 0.036). Patients with both PMD > or = 54 Gy and CRBED > or = 100 Gy(3) had higher incidence of 5-year enterocolitis (26%) (P < 0.001) and proctitis (17%) (P < 0.001) than other dose groups.
Radiation-induced severe bowel complications are association on both high PMD and high CRBED. We do not suggest both external PMD > or = 54 Gy and CRBED > or = 100 Gy(3) for treatment of cervical cancer due to unacceptably high incidence of severe bowel complications.