P Rantakallio

University of Oulu, Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland

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Publications (82)216.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to study how many of the individuals with intellectual disability (ID; IQ < or = 70) in an age cohort were not receiving a disability pension by the age of 34 years and what their life situation was like in terms of employment, education and morbidity. In 2000, the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=12,058 live-born) included 129 individuals with ID. The outcome data on employment, education, pensions and morbidity were obtained from national registers. A total of 85.3% (n=110) of all the individuals with ID were on pension, and 66 of them had severe ID (IQ <50) and 44 had mild ID (IQ 50-70). Altogether 99 were drawing a pension because of ID, and 11 had a main diagnosis other than ID in the register of Social Insurance Institution. Nineteen individuals with mild ID were not on disability pension. The educational level of those without pension was low, and all whose occupation was known worked in low-level manual trades in the open labour market. During the past 8 years (1993-2000), their employment rate had been lower and unemployment rate correspondingly higher and unemployment periods longer than those of the reference group (IQ >85 or not measured). As to the morbidity, they had been hospitalized twice more often than those in the reference group and the mean of their hospitalization days was over fourfold. More attention should be paid to the vocational education and supported employment services of individuals with ID to help them to manage as independently as possible.
    Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 03/2005; 49(Pt 3):218-27. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research - SCHIZOPHR RES. 01/2003; 60(1):44-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed childhood development may precede adult psychoses. We tested this hypothesis in a large, general population birth cohort (n=12058) followed to age 31 years. The ages at which individuals learned to stand, walk, speak, and became potty-trained (bowel control) and dry (bladder control), were recorded at a 1-year examination. Psychiatric outcome was ascertained through linkage to a national hospital discharge register. Cumulative incidence of DSM-III-R schizophrenia, other psychoses and non-psychotic disorders were stratified according to the timing of milestones and compared within the cohort using internal standardization. 100 cases of DSM-III-R schizophrenia, 55 other psychoses, and 315 non-psychotic disorders were identified. The ages at learning to stand, walk and become potty-trained were each related to subsequent incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Compared with the whole cohort, earlier milestones reduced, and later milestones increased, the risk in a linear manner. These developmental effects were not seen for non-psychotic outcomes. The findings support hypotheses regarding psychosis as having a developmental dimension with precursors apparent in early life.
    Schizophrenia Research 11/2001; 52(1-2):1-19. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between juvenile and early adult cigarette smoking and educational achievements up to the age of 31 years. As a part of the follow-up of the North Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n = 10542) from 1966 to 1997, smoking was assessed at the ages of 14 and 31 by postal questionnaires. The highest level of educational attainment was obtained from the National Education Registry of Statistics Finland up to the age of 31 years. Adult smoking (at age 31) and prolonged smoking (at ages 14 and 31) were both associated with an approximately two- to sixfold, adjusted odds for educational underachievement. Smoking only at age 14 showed none of these associations. These results are unlikely to be causal, but may be explained by other characteristics associated with smoking such as personality or lifestyle factors, as well as the effect of knowledge related to smoking gained during higher education.
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 07/2001; 29(2):87-95. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental disorders often begin during the formative years of education. They may disrupt education and lead to social underachievement. We examined the impact of mental disorders treated in hospital (ages 16-29) on educational attainment up to 31 years in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (N = 10581). People discharged due to mental illness were grouped by DSM-III-R diagnoses (of schizophrenia, other psychoses and non-psychotic disorders) and were compared with those having no such hospital treatment. Associations between diagnoses and educational outcome (completion of basic level, upper secondary or tertiary education) were analysed stratified by age at onset (early onset < 22 years v. later), and adjusted for confounding by perinatal risk, early motor development, maternal education, family structure, parental social class, and school achievement using prospective data from earlier assessments and logistic regression analysis. Twelve per cent of the comparison group completed basic level education, 62% upper secondary, and 26% tertiary education. People with early onset disorder tended to stagnate in the basic level. Early onset schizophrenia and all non-psychotic cases had 3- to 6-fold adjusted odds for this outcome. Many with early onset schizophrenia completed secondary education, but none completed the tertiary level. Hospitalization for non-psychotic disorder increased the risk of underachievement in tertiary education for those with early onset. Mental disorder treated in hospital truncates education. Failure to complete higher education may contribute to the 'social exclusion' of the mentally ill through reduced opportunities in later occupational life and failure to accumulate social capital.
    Psychological Medicine 03/2001; 31(2):339-49. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subtle motor, emotional, cognitive and behavioral abnormalities are often present in apparently healthy children and adolescents who later develop schizophrenia. This suggests that some aspects of causation are established long before psychosis is manifest. We aim to develop a descriptive model of the factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia. Our main focus is on genetic factors, pregnancy and delivery complications, early development and scholastic performance. This is done by reviewing the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, its scientific activities (publications and work in progress) and selected literature.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 02/2000; 250(6):311-9. · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 01/2000; 41(1):70-70. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 01/2000; 41(1):80-81. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 01/2000; 41(1):83-83. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • P Zitting, P Rantakallio, H Vanharanta
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    ABSTRACT: A cohort study of 12,000 persons with a follow-up period ranging from birth to the age of 28 years. To determine the cumulative incidence of lumbar disc disease leading to hospitalization in a well-defined geographic population, with special emphasis on age of onset and differences between the genders and among disease categories. There are few published reports on low back pain in adolescence, and most of them are cross-sectional in design. The Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register was used to identify all possible cases of lumbar disc disease. Copies of all hospital records regarding the diagnosis and course of the disease were collected and the hospitalizations were classified into three categories: 1) confirmed herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP), 2) unconfirmed HNP (sciatica symptoms without visible herniation), and 3) other low back diseases. The patients were classified according to the highest category of diagnosis achieved by each. Symptomatic low back pain leading to hospitalization first appeared around the age of 15 years, and the incidence rose more sharply from the age of 19, especially in men with other low back diseases. Men were hospitalized more than twice as often as women. Lumbar disc diseases leading to hospitalization begin early.
    Spine 12/1998; 23(21):2337-43; discussion 2343-4. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • B Xu, P Rantakallio, M R Järvelin
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    ABSTRACT: We followed 11,355 children born in 1966 up to the age of 24 years to investigate the impact of birthweight on long-term outcomes of death and development. As expected, low-birthweight (LBW, 1500-2,499 gm) children showed a higher risk of death than normal-birthweight (NBW, > or =2,500 gm) children before the age of 15 years. Rate ratios for LBW children ranged from 25 for the first week of life to 2.5 for ages 5-14 years. Rate ratios of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, <1,500 gm) children for the first year of life were 10 times higher than those of LBW children. Similarly, for the first 14 years of life, surviving LBW children experienced a higher risk of being hospitalized as well as staying in hospitals for over 2 weeks if they were hospitalized. The LBW children still had a higher risk of receiving sick pensions at the age of 24 years.
    Epidemiology 11/1998; 9(6):662-5. · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Archives of General Psychiatry 11/1998; 55(10):949. · 13.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deterioration in school achievement may pre-date adult mental disorders. We studied the association between compulsory school performance and later onset hospital-treated psychiatric morbidity experienced by the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (N = 11017) in adult life. School performance was operationalized in two ways: school class level (in normal, i.e. age-appropriate class v. not in normal class, i.e. class below age level or in special school) at the age of 14, and marks for individual school subjects at the age of 16. School class level was ascertained by postal questionnaire and school marks from national application register. These were linked to data on psychiatric morbidity from the National Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. By the end of 1994 (between ages 16 and 28 years), a total of 383 subjects had psychiatric illness. DSM-III-R diagnoses were grouped into three categories: schizophrenia; other psychoses; and non-psychotic disorders. The remaining population with no psychiatric hospitalization served as a single comparison group. School class level and values of school marks in the three diagnostic categories were each compared with this comparison group, stratified by sex. In the comparison group 6.8% of boys and 3.4% of girls were not in their normal class. In all the diagnosis groups the proportions of those not in normal class were from 2 to 8 times higher than in the comparison group. A majority of those not in normal class and having psychiatric diagnosis were intellectually subnormal (IQ < 85). Among adolescents who later developed nonpsychotic disorders, means of school marks were lower (P < 0.05, adjusted for social class and place of residence) than in the comparison group. Lower marks were not found in categories schizophrenia or other psychoses. Logistic regression analysis confirmed these findings after adjustment for confounding factors. Not being in the normal class at age 14 predicted future hospital-treated disorders, but low school marks at age 16 predicted only non-psychotic disorders. These findings may be an early manifestation of the disorders themselves, or a marker of vulnerability or other risk factors. The mechanisms may differ between diagnoses.
    Psychological Medicine 08/1998; 28(4):967-74. · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Baizhuang Xu, P Rantakallio
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    ABSTRACT: Although a developing country, China has a lower occurrence of low birth weight (LBW) than many developed countries. This study of two population-based one-year birth cohorts, from Finland in 1985-86 and China in 1992, shows the occurrence of low birth weight (LBW) (1000- < 2500 g) among singletons to be 2.6 percent in the Chinese cohort and 3.0 percent in the Finnish one, and that of preterm births (28- < 37 weeks) 2.7 percent and 4.5 percent, respectively. The main component of LBW is term LBW (57.4 percent) in the Chinese case and preterm LBW (64.7 percent) in the Finnish case. The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was twice as high in the Chinese cohort (13.0 vs. 5.9 per thousand). The occurrence of LBW in the Finnish cohort decreased to 2.3 percent after crosstabulation of the Finnish mothers to conform in structure to the population of Chinese mothers in terms of maternal age, marital status and maternal smoking. The result suggests that the lower incidence of LBW in the Chinese cohort seems to be a reflection of the Chinese socio-cultural environment, which provides Chinese mothers with favourable characteristics. The Finnish excess LBW would have disappeared if the mothers had possessed those characteristics as well. The excess perinatal deaths in the Chinese series might be explained by the different levels of perinatal health care in the two countries.
    Scandinavian journal of social medicine 03/1998; 26(1):10-7.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that schizophrenia and alcoholism are associated with violent behavior. But so far there are no published studies from unselected cohorts quantifying the actual risk associated with schizophrenia both with and without comorbid alcoholism. In this study, an unselected birth cohort (n = 11,017) was prospectively followed to the age of 26, and data on psychiatric disorders and crimes were collected from national registers. The odds ratios for violent offenses and recidivism were calculated for each diagnostic group. Men who abused alcohol and were diagnosed with schizophrenia were 25.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.1-97.5) times more likely to commit violent crimes than mentally healthy men. The risk for nonalcoholic patients with schizophrenia was 3.6 (95% CI 0.9-12.3) and for other psychoses, 7.7 (95% CI 2.2-23.9). None of the patients with schizophrenia who did not abuse alcohol were recidivists (> 2 offenses), but the risk for committing more crimes among alcoholic subjects with schizophrenia was 9.5-fold (95% CI 2.7-30.0). This study suggests that to prevent the crimes being committed by people with schizophrenia, it is important that clinicians watch for comorbid alcohol abuse.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 01/1998; 24(3):437-41. · 8.61 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 01/1998; 29(1):16-16. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Schizophrenia Research 12/1997; 29(1):11-11. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes patterns of sex differentials in perinatal mortality in China and Finland. The analysis is based on three population-based one-year birth cohorts, one from Qingdao, China, in 1992 and two from Northern Finland in 1966 and 1985-86, comprised of 9,219, 11,422 and 9,207 singletons with at least 28 gestational weeks and 1000 g in birthweight, respectively. Both Finnish cohorts had an excess of male over female perinatal deaths, but in the Chinese cohort girls were more likely to die than boys. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of perinatal mortality for boys was 1.31 (95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 0.98, 1.78) and 1.57 (95 per cent CI 0.89, 2.78) in the Finnish 1966 and 1985-86 cohorts, respectively, and 0.82 (95 per cent CI 0.55, 1.20) in the Chinese cohort. The corresponding figure for stillbirths in the Chinese was 0.57 (95 per cent CI 0.33, 0.98), which could explain the total excess of female deaths during the perinatal period. Our results suggest that the role of different social and cultural environments on the existing sex differentials in perinatal mortality between the countries needs further evaluation.
    Social biology 09/1997; 44(3-4):170-8.
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    P Rantakallio, P Jones, J Moring, L Von Wendt
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal exposure to influenza epidemics during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. We investigated the association between central nervous system (CNS) infections defined prospectively up to the age of 14, and later onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses in the 1966 birth cohort in Northern Finland, which covers 96% of all births in the area during that year. Data regarding CNS infections were collected 1966-1980. Registered diagnoses of psychoses in 1982-1993 were validated on DSM-III-R criteria. Out of 11,017 subjects, 145 had suffered a CNS infection during childhood, 102 of them a viral infection, 76 had DSM-III-R schizophrenia and 53 some other psychosis. Four cases of schizophrenia had suffered viral CNS infection and two cases of other psychosis bacterial infection. When neurological abnormalities and father's social class were adjusted odds ratio (OR) of schizophrenia after viral CNS infection was 4.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI] : 1.6-14.0); the other significant risk factors being intelligence quotient (IQ) < 85, perinatal brain damage and male sex but not epilepsy. Similarly adjusted OR of other psychoses was 6.9 (95% CI: 1.4-32.8) after bacterial CNS infection; the other significant risk factors being IQ < 85 and severe hearing defect. Two of the live viral infections were caused by Coxsackie B5 during an epidemic in which 16 neonates were infected together. Central nervous system infections during childhood clearly carried an increased risk of adult onset schizophrenia or other psychoses, viral infections being important for schizophrenia, particularly Coxsackie B5 during the newborn period.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 08/1997; 26(4):837-43. · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This multilevel study of spatial variability in, and determinants of, birthweight was conducted using individual and ecological data in a geographically defined prospective birth cohort for 1986 in northern Finland. The study area comprises three large areas defined by latitude: Northern Lapland (NL), Southern Lapland (SL) and Oulu province (OP), comprising 74 localities with a total study population of 9216 singleton births. The mean birthweight was 3482 g for NL, 3537 g for SL and 3587 g for OP (NL vs. OP and SL vs. OP: P < 0.05). The crude rate for stillbirths was highest in NL. The women in the northernmost area were socially less privileged and the localities less prosperous compared with those in the southernmost area. Significant spatial clustering of mean birthweights was found (P = 0.0016), with highest birthweight in the south-western part of the study area. A variable expressing the wealth of each locality, the financial capacity category (FCC), had its lowest mean value in NL, with a range of one to six for the localities studied here. A multilevel multiple regression model showed that, after allowing for sex, gestational age, mother's age, height and hypertensive disorders, parity, body mass index, previous low birthweight child and smoking as individual determinants of birthweight, part of the residual variation could be explained by the locality wealth parameter. Using the multilevel model, the differences in mean birthweight across the three latitude areas persisted but were reduced (difference OP vs. NL reduced from 105 g to 86.5 g). The relationship between birthweight and FCC was inverse U-shaped with the highest mean birthweight estimated for localities occurring in the middle of the range (FCC = 3). The wealthiest urban localities (FCC = 6) and the most deprived localities (FCC = 1) both had a predicted birthweight about 60 g below the maximum at FCC = 3, if all other factors were held constant. This result, taken together with the spatial clustering of birthweights, suggests that there may be important social and environmental determinants of birthweight that have yet to be identified.
    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 07/1997; 11(3):298-312. · 2.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
216.17 Total Impact Points


  • 1983–2005
    • University of Oulu
      • • Department of Public Health Science and General Practice
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland
  • 2001
    • Oulu University of Applied Sciences
      Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland
  • 1998
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland