[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of copper/amine based preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with these solutions
is still higher than leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic
acids (octanoic, 2-ethylhexanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. An experiment of leaching
of copper from Norway spruce was performed according to the modified standard procedure (EN 1250). Results confirmed that
carboxylic acids significantly improve copper fixation. The best fixation was determined in specimens impregnated with the
preservative solutions consisting of copper, ethanolamine, boric acid and octanoic acid. From such wood, only 1.6% of copper
Wood Science and Technology 04/2012; 39(8):685-693. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: and Schizophyllum commune). The third species was the brown-rot fungi Antrodia vaillantii, using three different strains of this species. Antrodia vaillantii substantially decreased the pH-value of impregnated and unimpregnated wood before any mass loss appeared. On the other hand,
the white-rot fungus T. versicolor and S. commune caused a slight increase of the pH of impregnated and unimpregnated wood. It is suggested that a decrease of pH of wood may
indicate early stages of decay by brown rot fungi.
und Schizophyllum commune). Die dritte Art war vom Braunfäuletyp (Antrodia vaillantii), wovon drei verschiedene Stämme eingesetzt wurden. Antrodia vaillantii senkte den pH deutlich in imprägnierten und unbehandelten Proben, noch bevor ein Massenverlust auftrat. Die beiden Weissfäuleerreger
T. versicolor und Sch. commune ließen den pH dagegen ansteigen. Anhand des pH-Abfalls konnte man schon frühe Stadien eines Braunfäuleabbaus erkennen.
Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 04/2012; 59(4):288-293. · 0.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 01/2012; 14(4):419-24. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and on fungal community structure was studied. The experiments were performed on an organically poor fly ash deposit covered with a 10 cm layer of beech wood chips inoculated with P. ostreatus isolate ZIM76. Compared to non-inoculated wood chips, inoculation increased the temperatures and relative humidities and, in the first 6 months, accelerated Klason lignin degradation by 9% and also, after 17 months, increased iron translocation into wood chips by 30%. After 6 months, PCR-DGGE showed 22-28 and 13-21 fungal taxa in non-inoculated and P. ostreatus-inoculated beech chips, respectively. The differences in number of taxa and in the fungal community structure (based on Dice coefficient) between non-inoculated and inoculated wood chips diminished with time. The results indicate that the naturally occurring processes of wood degradation are as efficient as those occurring in sites inoculated with P. ostreatus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grifola frondosa, a medicinal and edible mushroom, was cultivated on substrates composed of olive oil press cakes with different supplements. Crude extracts were prepared from mature fruiting bodies and tested for their capacity to stimulate splenocyte proliferation. Two wild-growing fruiting bodies were extracted for comparison. Olive oil press cakes reduced the mushroom yield, and the best biological efficiency was obtained on substrates supplemented with wheat bran and without olive oil press cakes. All extracts were capable of inducing splenocyte proliferation and were half as effective as the positive control (6.0 microg/mL phytohaemagglutinin). No correlation between substrate composition and bioactivity could be established. Extracts from wild-growing G. frondosa were superior to cultivated ones in respect to biological activity.
New Biotechnology 09/2009; 26(5):260-2. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mycoremediation system of wood substrate and fungal inoculum was established on an organically poor fly ash deposit at the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia. A mini-block method with beech wood samples was used to select a suitable fungal isolate for inoculation into the mycoremediation system. Pleurotus ostreatus ZIM 76 proved to be the most appropriate for further tests. Compared to the mass loss in a non-contaminated medium, wood degradation with the selected fungal isolate was reduced by 51% on wood substrate contaminated with 17% (w/w) fly ash. The deterioration processes of wood chips on inoculated and non-inoculated experimental plots were studied by ionic chromatographic analyses of volatile organic acids in water extracts. The presence of P. ostreatus did not influence the concentrations of acetic and formic acids in water extracts from wood chips collected at experimental plots in different intervals from May 2006 to November 2007 comparing inoculated vs. non-inoculated plots.
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 01/2009;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal treatment is one of environmental friendly wood modification processes, developed in order to improve wood’s natural
durability and dimensional stability. Beside wood species, mainly isothermal temperature of heat-treatment and process duration
affect these properties, which also correlate with the mass losses caused by the treatment. However, there is a lack of suitable
external quality control methods. In this work thermogravimetry as a potential method for determining the degree of thermal
modification is presented. Several calibration curves, representing the mass losses in a certain temperature range (the values
obtained from the TG curves) compared to weight losses caused by previous heat-treatment (known values), were established
for spruce wood samples modified at different isothermal temperatures (from 170 to 220 °C). Linear plot and good correlation
2 = 0.95 and 0.96) were obtained for the TG mass losses from 130 to 280 °C and from 130 to 300 °C, both under nitrogen atmosphere.
The predominant cause of mass loss in this temperature region was depolymerisation and thermal decomposition of hemicelluloses
residues. Lower correlation factors were obtained under the air atmosphere and in the wider temperature range, respectively.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2009; 98(1):189-195. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanin is chemically and by physical characteristics very similar to lignin, a major constituent of wood, and therefore ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi were tested for their ability to selectively degrade melanin. Melanin degradation was studied both in liquid suspensions of melanin and on melaninised paper samples. Liquid suspension samples were tested for changes in their chemical composition (appearance and relative representation of functional groups and chemical bonds) with FTIR spectrometry. Changes in colour of melaninised paper samples were investigated with a colorimeter. Effectiveness of the treatment (bleaching) was determined as a change in lightness (ΔL). Melanin was oxidised in the liquid suspensions, and the intensity of modification varied depending on the procedure employed. The most pronounced changes in melanin were observed in laccase-1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) treatment at heightened air pressure. The most prominent discoloration of the melaninised paper samples (and no visually detectable damage to the integrity of the paper) was, like in the case of the liquid suspensions, observed after laccase-HBT treatment.
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 01/2009;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the brewing industry, spent brewery grains (SBGs) are byproducts with a low economic value. The potential use of this leftover as a substrate ingredient for Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body cultivation and enzyme production was evaluated. The best substrate mixture for P. ostreatus mycelium growth comprised 30% wheat bran (WB), 68% beech sawdust (BS) and 2% CaCO3. On the substrates containing SBG, the fastest mycelium growth was observed on the substrate composed of 10% SBG, 20% WB, 68% BS and 2% CaCO3. The highest biological efficiency (51%) of fruiting bodies was determined on the mixtures containing 20% WB, 10% SBG and 2% CaCO3. The SBGs with the addition of WB were also shown to be suitable as a substrate for enzyme production. However, the supplementation levels designate which enzymes are produced and in what amounts.
New Biotechnology 09/2008; 25(2-3):157-61. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS), surface-active compounds from the marine sponge Reniera sarai, have been shown to stimulate the fruit body formation from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium. In nutrient media supplemented with poly-APS (>or= 0.01 microg ml(-1)), the formation of primordia and development of fruit bodies were detected approximately 10d earlier than in the absence of poly-APS, and also led to a considerably larger quantity of young mushrooms. This effect appears to be specific, as other surface-active compounds, lysophospholipids and fatty acids, showed no induction of fruiting.
Mycological Research 09/2008; 112(Pt 9):1085-7. · 2.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai act as antifouling and anticholinesterase agents. They also show moderate haemolytic and cytotoxic activities against different cell lines. The haemolytic activity of poly-APS is due to their detergent-like structure and behaviour in aqueous solutions. In this work, the lytic activity of poly-APS against freshwater and marine algae, and inhibitory effects on wood decay fungi, were investigated. The results show that poly-APS inhibit the proliferation and movements of susceptible algae. Effects of poly-APS were time- and concentration-dependent and differed between various algal species. No growth inhibition effects were observed towards the examined wood fungi.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oak (Quercus sp.) is considered as one of the most durable European wood species. The most important factor influencing oak durability is extractive content. In our work, we were interested in the effect of ring width and related density on oak-wood durability. Therefore, oak heartwood specimens made of boards with different ring widths were exposed to five different fungal species Daedalea quercina, Antrodia vaillantii, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor according to the EN 113 Procedure. In parallel, extractives and nitrogen content were determined as well. From gravimetrically determined mass losses and a microscopical analysis of decayed specimens it can be resolved that oak heartwood specimens with the narrowest growth rings and consequently lower density are more susceptible to fungal decay than denser specimens made of wider growth rings. Durability of oak heartwood with rings of 0.77 mm and density around 550 kg/m3 is comparable to durability of common beech.
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 01/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruiting initiation in mushrooms can be triggered by a variety of environmental and biochemical stimuli, including substances of natural or synthetic origin. In this work ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein specifically expressed during the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus, was applied to nutrient media inoculated with mycelium of P. ostreatus, and its effects on mycelial growth and fructification of the mushroom studied. The addition of ostreolysin slightly inhibited the growth of mycelium, but strongly induced the formation of primordia, which appeared 10 d earlier than in control plates supplemented with bovine serum albumin or with the dissolving buffer alone. Moreover, ostreolysin stimulated the subsequent development of primordia into fruit bodies. However, direct involvement of this protein in the sporulation of the mushroom is unlikely, as it was also detected in large amounts in the non-sporulating strain of P. ostreatus.
Mycological Research 01/2008; 111(Pt 12):1431-6. · 2.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper ethanolamine preservatives are one of the most important solutions for wood preservation. As
copper itself can not ensure sufficient protection against wood destroying organisms we combine it with
other co-biocides like quaternary ammonium compounds, azoles and/or boron. Influence of different boron
compounds and octanoic acid on copper fixation as well as performance of spruce wood impregnated with different
copper/ethanolamine/boron based aqueous solutions is described in this paper. Copper fixation was determined
according to the modified ENV 1250 (1994) standard method, while performance against Antrodia
vaillantii, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes
versicolor was tested according to the mini block procedure. The results showed that addition
of boron increases copper leaching, but on the contrary improves performance against wood decay fungi. On
the other hand, addition of octanoic acid improves copper fixation, and slightly decreases resistance against
copper tolerant fungi.
Kupferethanolamin ist eine der wichtigsten Substanzen für Holzschutzmittel. Da Kupfer alleine
keinen ausreichenden Schutz gegen Holz zerstörende Organismen bietet, wird es mit anderen Bioziden,
wie zum Beispiel quaternären Ammoniumverbindungen, Pyrrol und/oder Bor, kombiniert. Diese Arbeit beschreibt
den Einfluss verschiedener Borverbindungen sowie Octansäure auf die Kupferfixierung sowie das Verhalten
von mit verschiedenen kupfer-/ethanolamin-/borhaltigen Lösungen imprägniertem Fichtenholz. Die
Kupferfixierung wurde in Anlehnung an ENV 1250 (1994) bestimmt. Die Wirksamkeit gegen Antrodia
vaillantii, Gloeophyllum trabeum und Trametes
versicolor wurde mit dem “Mini-Block”-Verfahren geprüft. Dabei zeigte sich,
dass der Zusatz von Bor zu einer erhöhten Kupferauswaschung führte, jedoch die Wirksamkeit gegen
Holz zerstörende Pilze verbesserte. Der Zusatz von Octansäure verbesserte dagegen die Kupferfixierung,
verringerte aber in geringem Umfang die fungizide Wirkung.
Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 01/2007; 65(1):17-21. · 0.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cu–ethanolamine-based preservatives are currently the most important alternatives for classical chromated-copper formulation. However, emissions of Cu from wood impregnated with copper–ethanolamine-based preservatives are still higher compared to emissions from wood preserved with copper–chromium based preservatives. In order to elucidate leaching of copper from specimens treated (brushed, soaked or vacuum-impregnated) with different copper–ethanolamine containing biocides of two different concentrations the following research on specimens made of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Beech (Fagus sylvatica) were performed. The results showed that leaching is significantly affected by the wood species used. The lowest leaching rates were determined in specimens made of spruce, while the highest ones were determined in beech wood. Concentration of active ingredient influences the Cu fixation as well. Unfortunately, ethanolamine at higher concentration causes depolymerisation of lignin macromolecules, which results in increased copper leaching.
Building and Environment - BLDG ENVIRON. 01/2007; 42(2):578-583.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Fixation in copper-ethanolamine treated Norway spruce wood is finished in the first or in the second
week after impregnation depending on the concentration of wood preservatives used. However, copper losses
increased after four weeks of fixation again, presumably due to lignin depolymerisation caused by ethanolamine.
Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 01/2007; 65(4):329-330. · 0.89 Impact Factor