[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of polyubiquitin precursors and small ubiquitin adducts. UCH-L1 has been detected in a variety of malignant and metastatic tumours but its biological function in these cells is unknown. We have previously shown that UCH-L1 is highly expressed in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and is up-regulated upon infection of B lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here we show that knockdown of UCH-L1 by RNAi inhibits the proliferation of BL cells in suspension and semisolid agar and activates strong LFA-1-dependent homotypic adhesion. Induction of cell adhesion correlated with cation-induced binding to ICAM-1, clustering of LFA-1 into lipid rafts and constitutive activation of the Rap1 and Rac1 GTPases. Expression of a catalytically active UCH-L1 promoted the proliferation of a UCH-L1-negative EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) and inhibited cell adhesion, whereas a catalytic mutant had no effect, confirming the requirement of UCH-L1 enzymatic activity for the regulation of these phenotypes. Our results identify UCH-L1 as a new player in the signalling pathways that promote the proliferation and invasive capacity of malignant B cells.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 08/2009; 13(8B):1666-78. · 4.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated malignancy with high prevalence in Southern Chinese. In order to assess whether defects of EBV-specific immunity may contribute to the tumor, the phenotype and function of circulating T-cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were investigated in untreated NPC patients. Circulating naïve CD3+CD45RA+ and CD4+CD25- cells were decreased, while activated CD4+CD25+ T-cells and CD3-CD16+ NK-cells were increased in patients compared to healthy donors. The frequency of T-cells recognizing seven HLA-A2 restricted epitopes in LMP1 and LMP2 was lower in the patients and remained low after stimulation with autologous EBV-carrying cells. TILs expanded in low doses of IL-2 exhibited an increase of CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD45RO+ and CD4+CD25+ cells and 2 to 5 fold higher frequency of LMP1 and LMP2 tetramer positive cells compared to peripheral blood. EBV-specific cytotoxicity could be reactivated from the blood of most patients, whereas the TILs lacked cytotoxic activity and failed to produce IFNgamma upon specific stimulation. Thus, EBV-specific rejection responses appear to be functionally inactivated at the tumor site in NPC.
PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(11):e1122. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin specific proteases (USPs) regulate the production and recycling of ubiquitin and are thereby critically involved in the control of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Increasing evidence implicates deregulation of USPs in malignant transformation but there is very little information on the overall and specific activity of USPs in normal and tumor tissues. We have used a chemistry-based functional proteomics approach to profile the activities of individual USPs in biopsies of human papillomavirus (HPV) carrying cervical carcinoma and adjacent normal tissue. To assess the contribution of HPV proteins, USP activity was also compared in HPV positive and negative cervical carcinoma cell lines and HPV E6/E7 immortalized human keratinocytes. The activity of the C-terminal hydrolases UCH-L3 and UCH37 was upregulated in the majority of tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. UCH-L1 activity was lower in a significant proportion of the tumors but to a less extent in advanced tumors. In accordance with the relatively low UCH-L1 activity in tumor biopsies, UCH-L1 was detected only in one out of eight cervical carcinoma lines. UCH-L1, UCH-L3, USP7, and USP9X activity was upregulated following HPV E6/E7 immortalization of keratinocytes, suggesting a role of these enzymes in growth transformation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel classes of biocompatible core-shell anionic microspheres, composed of an inner hard insoluble core, either made of poly(styrene) (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and a soft outer tentacular shell made of long soluble negatively charged arms derived from the steric stabilizer, hemisuccinated poly(vinyl alcohol) or Eudragit L100/55, respectively, were prepared by dispersion polymerization and characterized. Five types of these novel microspheres, two made of poly(styrene) and hemisuccinated poly(vinyl alcohol) (A4 and A7), and three made of poly(methyl methacrylate) and Eudragit L100/55 (1D, 1E, H1D), differing for chemical composition, size, and surface charge density were analyzed for the delivery of the HIV-1 Tat protein for vaccine applications. All microspheres reversibly adsorbed the native biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein preventing Tat from oxidation and maintaining its biological activity, therefore increasing the shelf-life of the Tat protein vaccine. The microspheres efficiently delivered Tat intracellularly, and were not toxic in vitro nor in mice, even after multiple administrations. These results indicate that these novel microparticles are safe and represent a promising delivery system for vaccination with Tat, as well as for other subunit vaccines, particularly when a native protein conformation is required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family of ubiquitin (Ub)-specific proteases (USP) removes Ub from Ub conjugates and regulates a variety of cellular processes. The human genome contains many putative USP-encoding genes, but little is known about USP tissue distribution, pattern of expression, activity, and substrate specificity. We have used a chemistry-based functional proteomics approach to identify active USPs in normal, virus-infected, and tumor-derived human cells. Depending on tissue origin and stage of activation/differentiation, different USP activity profiles were revealed. The activity of specific USPs, including USP5, -7, -9, -13, -15, and -22, was up-regulated by mitogen activation or virus infection in normal T and B lymphocytes. UCH-L1 was highly expressed in tumor cell lines of epithelial and hematopoietic cell origin but was not detected in freshly isolated and mitogen-activated cells. Up-regulation of this USP was a late event in the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines and correlated with enhanced proliferation, suggesting a possible role in growth transformation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2004; 101(8):2253-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor