Samir Mitragotri

University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States

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Publications (158)1165.44 Total impact

  • Samir Mitragotri, Paul A Burke, Robert Langer
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    ABSTRACT: The formulation and delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins, poses substantial challenges owing to their large size and susceptibility to degradation. In this Review we highlight recent advances in formulation and delivery strategies - such as the use of microsphere-based controlled-release technologies, protein modification methods that make use of polyethylene glycol and other polymers, and genetic manipulation of biopharmaceutical drugs - and discuss their advantages and limitations. We also highlight current and emerging delivery routes that provide an alternative to injection, including transdermal, oral and pulmonary delivery routes. In addition, the potential of targeted and intracellular protein delivery is discussed.
    Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted nanomedicine holds promise to find clinical use in other medical areas. Endothelial cells that line the luminal surface of blood vessels represent a key target for treatment of inflammation, ischemia, thrombosis, stroke, and other neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and oncological conditions. In other cases, the endothelium is a barrier for tissue penetration or a victim of adverse effects. Several endothelial surface markers including peptidases (e.g., ACE, APP, and APN) and adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1 and PECAM) have been identified as key targets. Binding of nanocarriers to these molecules enables drug targeting and subsequent penetration into or across the endothelium, offering therapeutic effects that are unattainable by their non-targeted counterparts. We analyze diverse aspects of endothelial nanomedicine including: i) circulation and targeting of carriers with diverse geometries; ii) multivalent interactions of carrier with endothelium; iii) anchoring to multiple determinants; iv) accessibility of binding sites and cellular response to their engagement; v) role of cell phenotype and microenvironment in targeting; vi) optimization of targeting by lowering carrier avidity; vii) endocytosis of multivalent carriers via molecules not implicated in internalization of their ligands; and, viii) modulation of cellular uptake and trafficking by selection of specific epitopes on the target determinant, carrier geometry and hydrodynamic factors. Refinement of these aspects and improving our understanding of vascular biology and pathology is likely to enable the clinical translation of vascular endothelial targeting of nanocarriers.
    ACS Nano 04/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • Aaron C Anselmo, Samir Mitragotri
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular hitchhiking leverages the use of circulatory cells to enhance the biological outcome of nanoparticle drug delivery systems, which often suffer from poor circulation time and limited targeting. Cellular hitchhiking utilizes the natural abilities of circulatory cells to: (i) navigate the vasculature while avoiding immune system clearance, (ii) remain relatively inert until needed and (iii) perform specific functions, including nutrient delivery to tissues, clearance of pathogens, and immune system surveillance. A variety of synthetic nanoparticles attempt to mimic these functional attributes of circulatory cells for drug delivery purposes. By combining the advantages of circulatory cells and synthetic nanoparticles, many advanced drug delivery systems have been developed that adopt the concept of cellular hitchhiking. Here, we review the development and specific applications of cellular hitchhiking-based drug delivery systems.
    Journal of Controlled Release 04/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Aaron C Anselmo, Samir Mitragotri
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    ABSTRACT: Drug delivery systems are widely researched and developed to improve the delivery of pharmaceutical compounds and molecules. The last few decades have seen a marked growth of the field fueled by increased number of researchers, research funding, venture capital and the number of start-ups. Collectively, the growth has led to novel systems that make use of micro/nano-particles, transdermal patches, inhalers, drug reservoir implants and antibody-drug conjugates. While the increased research activity is clearly an indication of proliferation of the field, clinical and commercial translation of early-stage research ideas is critically important for future growth and interest in the field. Here, we will highlight some of the examples of novel drug delivery systems that have undergone such translation. Specifically, we will discuss the developments, advantages, limitations and lessons learned from: (i) microparticle-based depot formulations, (ii) nanoparticle-based cancer drugs, (iii) transdermal systems, (iv) oral drug delivery systems, (v) pulmonary drug delivery, (vi) implants and (vii) antibody-drug conjugates. These systems have impacted treatment of many prevalent diseases including diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases, among others. At the same time, these systems are integral and enabling components of products that collectively generate annual revenues exceeding US $100 billion. These examples provide strong evidence of the clinical and commercial impact of drug delivery systems.
    Journal of Controlled Release 04/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biosensors based on Field-Effect-Transistor (FET) have attracted a lot of attention as they offer rapid, inexpensive and label-free detection technique. While the low sensitivity of FET biosensors based on bulk 3D structures has been overcome by using 1D structures (nanotubes/nanowires), the latter face severe fabrication challenges impairing their practical applications. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate FET biosensors based on molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which provides extremely high sensitivity and at the same time offer easy patternability and device fabrication, due to its 2D atomically layered structure. A MoS2 based pH sensor achieving sensitivity as high as 713 for a pH change by 1 unit along with efficient operation over a wide pH range (3-9) is demonstrated. Ultra-sensitive and specific protein sensing is also achieved with a sensitivity of 90 even at 100 femto-Molar concentration. While graphene is also a 2D material, we show here that it cannot compete with MoS2 based FET biosensor, which surpasses the sensitivity of that based on graphene by more than 74-fold. Moreover, we establish through theoretical analysis that MoS2 is greatly advantageous for biosensor device scaling without compromising its sensitivity. Furthermore, MoS2 with its highly flexible and transparent nature can offer new opportunities in advanced diagnostics and medical prosthesis. This unique fusion of desirable properties makes MoS2 a highly potential candidate for next-generation low-cost biosensors.
    ACS Nano 03/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offer a potential tool for the treatment of skin disorders. However, applications of siRNA for dermatological conditions are limited by their poor permeation across the stratum corneum of the skin and low penetration into skin's viable cells. In this study, we report the use of SPACE-peptide in combination with a DOTAP-based ethosomal carrier system to enhance skin delivery of siRNA. A DOTAP-based SPACE Ethosomal System significantly enhanced siRNA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 6.3±1.7-fold (p<0.01) with an approximately 10-fold (p<0.01) increase in epidermis accumulation of siRNA compared to that from an aqueous solution. Penetration of siRNA was also enhanced at the cellular level. Internalization of SPACE-peptide occurred in a concentration dependent manner marked by a shift in intracellular distribution from punctate spots to diffused cytoplasmic staining at a peptide concentration of 10mg/mL. In vitro delivery of GAPDH siRNA by SPACE peptide led to 83.3±3.0% knockdown relative to the control. In vivo experiments performed using female BALB/C mice also confirmed the efficacy of DOTAP-SES in delivering GAPDH-siRNA into skin. Topical application of DOTAP-SES on mice skin resulted in 63.2%±7.7% of GAPDH knockdown, which was significantly higher than that from GAPDH-siRNA PBS (p<0.05). DOTAP-SES formulation reported here may open new opportunities for cutaneous siRNA delivery.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Sutapa Barua, Samir Mitragotri
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an effective modality for the treatment of various diseases including cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Various forms of NPs including liposomes, polymer particles, micelles, dendrimers, quantum dots, gold NPs and carbon nanotubes have been synthesized and tested for therapeutic applications. One of the greatest challenges that limit the success of NPs is their ability to reach the therapeutic site at necessary doses while minimizing accumulation at undesired sites. The biodistribution of NPs is determined by body's biological barriers that manifest in several distinct ways. For intravascular delivery of NPs, the barrier manifests in the form of: (i) immune clearance in the liver and spleen, (ii) permeation across the endothelium into target tissues, (iii) penetration through the tissue interstitium, (iv) endocytosis in target cells, (v) diffusion through cytoplasm and (vi) eventually entry into the nucleus, if required. Certain applications of NPs also rely on delivery through alternate routes including skin and mucosal membranes of the nose, lungs, intestine and vagina. In these cases, the diffusive resistance of these tissues poses a significant barrier to delivery. This review focuses on the current understanding of penetration of NPs through biological barriers. Emphasis is placed on transport barriers and not immunological barriers. The review also discusses design strategies for overcoming the barrier properties.
    Nano today. 01/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilm-protected microbial infections in skin are a serious health risk that remains to be adequately addressed. The lack of progress in developing effective treatment strategies is largely due to the transport barriers posed by the stratum corneum of the skin and the biofilm. In this work, we report on the use of Ionic Liquids (ILs) for biofilm disruption and enhanced antibiotic delivery across skin layers. We outline the syntheses of ILs, analysis of relevant physicochemical properties, and subsequent neutralization effects on two biofilm-forming pathogens: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. Further, the ILs were also examined for cytotoxicity, skin irritation, delivery of antibiotics through the skin, and treatment of biofilms in a wound model. Of the materials examined, choline-geranate emerged as a multipurpose IL with excellent antimicrobial activity, minimal toxicity to epithelial cells as well as skin, and effective permeation enhancement for drug delivery. Specifically, choline-geranate was comparable with, or more effective than, bleach treatment against established biofilms of S. enterica and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In addition, choline-geranate increased delivery of cefadroxil, an antibiotic, by >16-fold into the deep tissue layers of the skin without inducing skin irritation. The in vivo efficacy of choline-geranate was validated using a biofilm-infected wound model (>95% bacterial death after 2-h treatment). This work establishes the use of ILs for simultaneous enhancement of topical drug delivery and antibiotic activity.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are one of the most widely investigated approaches for developing novel therapies for a variety of diseases. However, rapid clearance and poor targeting limit their clinical utility. Here, we describe an approach to harness the flexibility, circulation, and vascular mobility of red blood cells (RBCs) to simultaneously overcome these limitations (Cellular Hitchhiking). A non-covalent attachment of nanoparticles to RBCs simultaneously increases their level in blood over a 24 hour period and allows transient accumulation in the lungs, while, reducing their uptake by liver and spleen. RBC-adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited ~3-fold increase in blood persistence and ~7-fold higher accumulation in lungs. RBC-adsorbed nanoparticles improved lung/liver and lung/spleen nanoparticles accumulation by over 15-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Accumulation in lungs is attributed to mechanical transfer of particles from RBC surface to lung endothelium. Independent tracing both nanoparticles and RBCs in vivo confirmed that RBCs themselves do not accumulate in lungs. Attachment of anti-ICAM-1 antibody to the exposed surface of NPs that were attached to RBCs led to further increase in lung targeting and retention over 24 hours. Cellular hitchhiking onto RBCs provides a new platform for improving the blood pharmacokinetics and vascular delivery of nanoparticles while simultaneously avoiding uptake by liver and spleen, thus opening the door for new applications.
    ACS Nano 11/2013; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Topical penetration of macromolecules into skin is limited by their low permeability. Here, we report the use of a skin penetrating peptide, SPACE peptide, to enhance topical delivery of a macromolecule, hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 200-325kDa). The peptide was conjugated to phospholipids and used to prepare an ethosomal carrier system (~110nm diameter), encapsulating HA. The SPACE-ethosomal system (SES) enhanced HA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 7.8+/-1.1-fold compared to PBS. The system also enhanced penetration of HA in human skin in vitro, penetrating deep into the epidermis and dermis in skin of both species. In vivo experiments performed using SKH1 hairless mice also confirmed increased dermal penetration of HA using the delivery system; a 5-fold enhancement in penetration was found compared to PBS control. Concentrations of HA in skin were about 1000-fold higher than those in blood; confirming the localized nature of HA delivery into skin. The SPACE-ethosomal delivery system provides a formulation for topical delivery of macromolecules that are otherwise difficult to deliver into skin.
    Journal of Controlled Release 10/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Samir Mitragotri, Sutapa Barua
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    ABSTRACT: Design of carriers for effective delivery and targeting of drugs to cellular and sub-cellular compartments is an unmet need in medicine. Here, we report pure drug nanoparticles comprising camptothecin (CPT), trastuzumab (TTZ) and doxorubicin (DOX) to enable cell-specific interactions, subcellular accumulation and growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. CPT is formulated in the form of nanorods which are coated with TTZ. DOX is encapsulated in the TTZ corona around the CPT nanoparticle. Our results show that TTZ/DOX-coated CPT nanorods exhibit cell-specific internalization in BT-474 breast cancer cells, after which TTZ is recycled to the plasma membrane leaving CPT nanorods in the perinuclear region and delivering DOX into the nucleus of the cells. The effects of CPT-TTZ-DOX nanoparticles on growth inhibition are synergistic (combination index = 0.17±0.03) showing 10-10,000 fold lower inhibitory concentrations (IC50) compared to those of individual drugs. The design of antibody-targeted pure drug nanoparticles offers a promising design strategy to facilitate intracellular delivery and therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs.
    ACS Nano 09/2013; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major challenges faced by therapeutic polypeptides remains their invasive route of delivery. Oral administration offers a potential alternative to injections; however, this route cannot be currently used for peptides due to their limited stability in the stomach and poor permeation across the intestine. Here, we report mucoadhesive devices for oral delivery that are inspired by the design of transdermal patches and demonstrate their capabilities in vivo for salmon calcitonin (sCT). The mucoadhesive devices were fabricated by compressing a polymeric matrix containing carbopol, pectin and sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (1:1:2), and were coated on all sides but one with an impermeable and flexible Ethyl Cellulose (EC) backing layer. Devices were tested for in vitro dissolution, mucoadhesion to intestinal mucosa and enhancement of drug absorption in vitro (Caco-2 monolayer transport) and in vivo in rats. Devices showed steady drug release with≈75% cumulative drug released in 5hrs. Devices also demonstrated strong mucoadhesion to porcine small intestine to withstand forces up to 100 times their own weight. sCT-loaded mucoadhesive devices exhibited delivery of sCT across Caco-2 monolayers and across the intestinal epithelium in vivo in rats. A≈52-fold (pharmacokinetic) and≈44-fold (pharmacological) enhancement of oral bioavailability was observed with mucoadhesive devices when compared to direct intestinal injections. Oral delivery of devices in enteric coated capsules resulted in significant bioavailability enhancement.
    Journal of Controlled Release 09/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelium offers a variety of therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Significant research has been focused on developing agents to target the endothelium in diseased tissues. This includes identification of antibodies against adhesion molecules and neovascular expression markers or peptides discovered using phage display. Such targeting molecules also have been used to deliver nanoparticles to the endothelium of the diseased tissue. Here we report, based on in vitro and in vivo studies, that the specificity of endothelial targeting can be enhanced further by engineering the shape of ligand-displaying nanoparticles. In vitro studies performed using microfluidic systems that mimic the vasculature (synthetic microvascular networks) showed that rod-shaped nanoparticles exhibit higher specific and lower nonspecific accumulation under flow at the target compared with their spherical counterparts. Mathematical modeling of particle-surface interactions suggests that the higher avidity and specificity of nanorods originate from the balance of polyvalent interactions that favor adhesion and entropic losses as well as shear-induced detachment that reduce binding. In vivo experiments in mice confirmed that shape-induced enhancement of vascular targeting is also observed under physiological conditions in lungs and brain for nanoparticles displaying anti-intracellular adhesion molecule 1 and anti-transferrin receptor antibodies.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delivery of therapeutic macromolecules is limited by the physiological limitations of the gastrointestinal tract including poor intestinal permeability, low pH and enzymatic activity. Several permeation enhancers have been proposed to enhance intestinal permeability of macromolecules; however their utility is often hindered by toxicity and limited potency. Here, we report on a novel permeation enhancer, Dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS), with excellent enhancement potential and minimal toxicity. PPS was tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, delivery of two model fluorescent molecules, sulforhodamine-B and FITC-insulin in vitro, and absorption enhancement of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in vivo. Caco-2 studies revealed that PPS is an effective enhancer of macromolecular transport while being minimally toxic. TEER measurements in Caco-2 monolayers confirmed the reversibility of the effect of PPS. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that molecules permeate via both paracellular and transcellular pathway in presence of PPS. In vivo studies in rats showed that PPS enhanced relative bioavailability of sCT by 45-fold after intestinal administration. Histological studies showed that PPS does not induce damage to the intestine. PPS is an excellent permeation enhancer which provides new opportunities for developing efficacious oral/intestinal delivery systems for therapeutic macromolecules.
    Journal of Controlled Release 05/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Gang Bao, Samir Mitragotri, Sheng Tong
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in nanotechnology and growing needs in biomedical applications have driven the development of multifunctional nanoparticles. These nanoparticles, through nanocrystalline synthesis, advanced polymer processing, and coating and functionalization strategies, have the potential to integrate various functionalities, simultaneously providing (a) contrast for different imaging modalities, (b) targeted delivery of drug/gene, and (c) thermal therapies. Although still in its infancy, the field of multifunctional nanoparticles has shown great promise in emerging medical fields such as multimodal imaging, theranostics, and image-guided therapies. In this review, we summarize the techniques used in the synthesis of complex nanostructures, review the major forms of multifunctional nanoparticles that have emerged over the past few years, and provide a perceptual vision of this important field of nanomedicine. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 15 is July 11, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual review of biomedical engineering 04/2013; · 11.24 Impact Factor
  • Zhimin Zhou, Aaron C Anselmo, Samir Mitragotri
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    ABSTRACT: Nanorods provide distinct advantages over their spherical counterparts for targeted drug delivery. Here, a novel method is described for the synthesis of biocompatible protein nanorods from spherical polystyrene templates using the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. These nanorods can be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to diseased sites.
    Advanced Materials 04/2013; · 14.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies are used in numerous therapeutic and diagnostic applications; however, their efficacy is contingent on specificity and avidity. Here, we show that presentation of antibodies on the surface of nonspherical particles enhances antibody specificity as well as avidity toward their targets. Using spherical, rod-, and disk-shaped polystyrene nano- and microparticles and trastuzumab as the targeting antibody, we studied specific and nonspecific uptake in three breast cancer cell lines: BT-474, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231. Rods exhibited higher specific uptake and lower nonspecific uptake in all cells compared with spheres. This surprising interplay between particle shape and antibodies originates from the unique role of shape in determining binding and unbinding of particles to cell surface. In addition to exhibiting higher binding and internalization, trastuzumab-coated rods also exhibited greater inhibition of BT-474 breast cancer cell growth in vitro to a level that could not be attained by soluble forms of the antibody. The effect of trastuzumab-coated rods on cells was enhanced further by replacing polystyrene particles with pure chemotherapeutic drug nanoparticles of comparable dimensions made from camptothecin. Trastuzumab-coated camptothecin nanoparticles inhibited cell growth at a dose 1,000-fold lower than that required for comparable inhibition of growth using soluble trastuzumab and 10-fold lower than that using BSA-coated camptothecin. These results open unique opportunities for particulate forms of antibodies in therapeutics and diagnostics.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; 110(9):3270-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Vivek Gupta, Nishit Doshi, Samir Mitragotri
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    ABSTRACT: Caco-2 monolayers are one of the most widely used in vitro models for prediction of intestinal permeability of therapeutic molecules. However, the conventional Caco-2 monolayer model has several drawbacks including labor-intensive culture process, unphysiological growth conditions, lack of reproducibility and limited throughput. Here, we report on the use of 3-day Caco-2 monolayers for assessing permeability of polypeptide drugs. The 3-day monolayers were grown in a commercially available transwell set-up, which facilitates rapid development of the Caco-2 monolayers in an intestinal epithelial differentiation mimicking environment. This set-up included use of serum-free medium of defined composition with supplements such as butyric acid, hormones, growth factors, and other metabolites, reported to regulate the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. We measured permeability of 3 different therapeutic polypeptides; insulin, calcitonin, and exenatide across the monolayer. Preliminary validation of the monolayer was carried out by confirming dose-dependent permeation of FITC-insulin and sulforhodamine-B. Transport of insulin, calcitonin, and exenatide measured at different loading concentrations suggests that the permeability values obtained with 3-day cultures resemble more closely the values obtained with ex vivo models compared to permeability values obtained with conventional 21-day cultures. Short-term 3-day Caco-2 monolayers provide new opportunities for developing reproducible and high-throughput models for screening of therapeutic macromolecules for oral absorption.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57136. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • S Mitragotri
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    ABSTRACT: Transdermal drug delivery continues to provide an advantageous route of drug administration over injections. While the number of drugs delivered by passive transdermal patches has increased over the years, no macromolecule is currently delivered by the transdermal route. Substantial research efforts have been dedicated by a large number of researchers representing varied disciplines including biology, chemistry, pharmaceutics and engineering to understand, model and overcome the skin's barrier properties. This article focuses on engineering contributions to the field of transdermal drug delivery. The article pays tribute to Prof. Robert Langer, who pioneered the engineering approach towards transdermal drug delivery. Over a period spanning nearly 25 years since his first publication in the field of transdermal drug delivery, Bob Langer has deeply impacted the field by quantitative analysis and innovative engineering. At the same time, he has inspired several generations of engineers by collaborations and mentorship. His scientific insights, innovative technologies, translational efforts and dedicated mentorship have transformed the field. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 01/2013; 26(4-6):263-76. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, allows transport of only low-molecular weight (<500) lipophilic solutes. Here, we report a surprising finding that avicins (Avs), a family of naturally occurring glycosylated triterpenes with a molecular weight > 2,000, exhibit skin permeabilities comparable to those of small hydrophobic molecules, such as estradiol. Systematic fragmentation of the Av molecule shows that deletion of the outer monoterpene results in a 62% reduction in permeability, suggesting an important role for this motif in skin permeation. Further removal of the tetrasaccharide residue results in a further reduction of permeability by 79%. These results, taken in sum, imply that synergistic effects involving both hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues may hold the key in facilitating translocation of Avs across skin lipids. In addition to exhibiting high permeability, Avs provided moderate enhancements of skin permeability of estradiol and polysaccharides, including dextran and inulin but not polyethylene glycol.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2012; · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,165.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 2013
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2011
    • Chosun University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2009–2010
    • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
      • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1995–2009
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2008
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Beersheba, Southern District, Israel