[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium.
Human Mutation 10/2010; 31(12):1374-81. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome) have a high risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the efficacy of annual surveillance colonoscopies to detect adenomas and CRCs.
In a prospective, multicenter cohort study, 1126 individuals underwent 3474 colonoscopies. We considered individuals from 3 groups of HNPCC families: those with a pathogenic germline mutation in a mismatch repair gene (MUT group), those without a mutation but with microsatellite instability (MSI group), and those who fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria without microsatellite instability (MSS group).
Compliance to annual intervals was good, with 81% of colonoscopies completed within 15 months. Ninety-nine CRC events were observed in 90 patients. Seventeen CRCs (17%) were detected through symptoms (8 before baseline colonoscopy, 8 at intervals >15 months to the preceding colonoscopy, and 1 interval cancer). Only 2 of 43 CRCs detected by follow-up colonoscopy were regionally advanced. Tumor stages were significantly lower among CRCs detected by follow-up colonoscopies compared with CRCs detected by symptoms (P = .01). Cumulative CRC risk at the age of 60 years was similar in the MUT and MSI groups (23.0% combined; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.8%-31.2%) but considerably lower in the MSS group (1.8%; 95% CI, 0.0%-5.1%). Adenomas at baseline colonoscopy predicted an earlier occurrence of subsequent adenoma (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0) and CRC (hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7-8.5), providing information about interindividual heterogeneity of adenomas and kinetics of CRC formation.
Annual colonoscopic surveillance is recommended for individuals with HNPCC. Less intense surveillance might be appropriate for MSS families.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 10/2009; 8(2):174-82. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for 10-15% of all CRCs. In about 5% of all cases, CRC is associated with a highly penetrant dominant inherited syndrome. The most common inherited form of non-polyposis CRC is the Lynch syndrome which is responsible for about 2-4% of all cases. Surveillance of individuals at high risk for CRC prevents the development of advanced CRC. About 1 million individuals in Western Europe are at risk for Lynch syndrome. We performed a survey to evaluate the strategies currently used to identify individuals at high risk for CRC in 14 Western European countries. Questionnaires were distributed amongst members of a European collaborative group of experts that aims to improve the prognosis of families with hereditary CRC. The survey showed that in all countries obtaining a family history followed by referral to clinical genetics centres of suspected cases was the main strategy to identify familial and hereditary CRC. In five out of seven countries with a (regional or national) CRC population screening program, attention was paid in the program to the detection of familial CRC. In only one country were special campaigns organized to increase the awareness of familial CRC among the general population. In almost all countries, the family history is assessed when a patient visits a general practitioner or hospital. However, the quality of family history taking was felt to be rather poor. Microsatellite instability testing (MSI) or immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of CRC are usually recommended as tools to select high-risk patients for genetic testing and are performed in most countries in patients suspected of Lynch syndrome. In one country, IHC was recommended in all new cases of CRC. In most countries there are no specific programs on cancer genetics in the teaching curriculum for medical doctors. In conclusion, the outcome of this survey and the discussions within an European expert group may be used to improve the strategies to identify individuals at high risk of CRC. More attention should be given to increasing the awareness of the general population of hereditary CRC. Immunohistochemical analysis or MSI-analysis of all CRCs may be an effective tool for identifying all Lynch syndrome families. The cost-effectiveness of this approach should be further evaluated. All countries with a CRC population screening program should obtain a full family history as part of patient assessment.
Familial Cancer 09/2009; 9(2):109-15. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, an autosomal dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer and other malignancies, is caused by inactivating mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Missense mutations affect protein structure or function, but may also cause aberrant splicing, if located within splice sites (ss) or cis-acting sequences of splicing regulatory proteins, i.e., exonic splicing enhancers or exonic splicing silencers. Despite significant progress of ss scoring algorithms, the prediction for the impact of mutations on splicing is still unsatisfactory. For this study, we assessed ten ss and nine missense mutations outside ss in MLH1 and MSH2, including eleven newly identified mutations, and experimentally analyzed their effect at the RNA level. We additionally tested and compared the reliability of several web-based programs for the prediction of splicing outcome for these mutations.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 136(1):123-34. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (synonymous for HNPCC = hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is characterized by the development of colorectal, endometrial, gastric, and various other cancers, and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. One of the main challenges in the clinical management of Lynch syndrome remains the broad spectrum and heterogeneity among and between affected families. To date, no clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlation for the two main affected genes hMSH2 and hMLH1 has been established. Clinical management of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a challenge for clinicians. The overlap of syndromes with different underlying genetic causes and the differentiated risk management of colorectal and associated malignancies require state-of-the-art management recommendations.Regarding the identification of Lynch syndrome, the available criteria (revised Bethesda guidelines) appear to be effective for the selection of families for analysis of tumor MMR status. To date, the significant proportion of mutation carriers in Germany are still unknown and diagnosis still relies on patients with index cancers. Taking into account the tremendous importance the identification of MMR mutation carriers implies, future directives could include routine antibody staining for MMR genes in all CRCs. Increasing evidence suggests that microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) are an important prognostic factor and may predict the response to chemotherapy, therefore a broad application of these tools is envisaged in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The remarkable progress in characterizing the human genome sequence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project and the HapMap Consortium, has led to the perception that knowledge and the tools (e.g., microarrays) are sufficient for many if not most biomedical research efforts. A large amount of data from diverse studies proves this perception inaccurate at best, and at worst, an impediment for further efforts to characterize the variation in the human genome. Because variation in genotype and environment are the fundamental basis to understand phenotypic variability and heritability at the population level, identifying the range of human genetic variation is crucial to the development of personalized nutrition and medicine. The Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org/) was proposed initially to systematically collect mutations that cause human disease and create a cyber infrastructure to link locus specific databases (LSDB). We report here the discussions and recommendations from the 2008 HVP planning meeting held in San Feliu de Guixols, Spain, in May 2008.
Human Mutation 05/2009; 30(4):496-510. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect on the colon.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch syndrome.
Among 1071 persons in 43 centers, 62 were ineligible to participate in the study, 72 did not enter the study, and 191 withdrew from the study. These three categories were equally distributed across the study groups. Over a mean period of 29 months (range, 7 to 74), colonic adenoma or carcinoma developed in 141 participants. Of 693 participants randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo, neoplasia developed in 66 participants receiving aspirin (18.9%), as compared with 65 receiving placebo (19.0%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.4). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the development of advanced neoplasia (7.4% and 9.9%, respectively; P=0.33). Among the 727 participants receiving resistant starch or placebo, neoplasia developed in 67 participants receiving starch (18.7%), as compared with 68 receiving placebo (18.4%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.4). Advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers were evenly distributed in the two groups. The prevalence of serious adverse events was low, and the events were evenly distributed.
The use of aspirin, resistant starch, or both for up to 4 years has no effect on the incidence of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma among carriers of the Lynch syndrome. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN59521990.)
New England Journal of Medicine 01/2009; 359(24):2567-78. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the main challenges in the clinical management of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the overlap of syndromes with different underlying genetic causes and the differentiated risk management of colorectal and associated malignancies. The Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, HNPCC) is characterized by the development of colorectal, endometrial, gastric and other cancers and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) are important prognostic factors and may predict the response to chemotherapy. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may be seen as a counterpart to Lynch syndrome, responsible for <1% of all CRC cases. Recently the MUTYH gene has been identified as a further polyposis gene. The associated disorder has been termed MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and displays an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. For clinical management, distinguishing between Lynch syndrome, attenuated FAP and MAP is important for risk assessment, surveillance recommendations and indication for prophylactic surgery.
Der Chirurg 10/2008; 79(11):1038-46. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in a large cohort of individuals with a germline mutation in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene, the major genetic determinant of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). These prevalences have been estimated previously in smaller studies, and the results have been found to be variable.
Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme 2 trial is a chemoprevention trial in people classified as having HNPCC. The 695 patients with a proven germline MMR mutation and documented screening history before the chemoprevention study were the focus of this study. The number, histology, size, and location of polyps found at the participants' first ever colonoscopy were analyzed in a cross-sectional study.
Seventy-four patients (10.6%) were found to have at least one adenoma at first colonoscopy, whereas 37 (5.3%) had at least one hyperplastic polyp. The frequency of an adenoma at first colonoscopy increased from 5.0% (95% CI, 2.8% to 8.3%) in patients younger than 35 years old to 18.9% (95% CI, 9.4% to 32.0%) in patients age at least 55 years (P = .0001 for trend). No such trend was observed for hyperplastic polyps. No sex differences were found for either type of polyp. A marginal association was found between the co-occurrence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Adenomas tended to be more proximally distributed through the colon, whereas hyperplastic polyps tended to be located in the distal colon.
Adenoma prevalence increases with age among MMR mutation carriers, whereas hyperplastic polyp prevalence is consistent. No sex differences were observed for either type of lesion.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2008; 26(20):3434-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), which were recently associated with colorectal cancer risk in a comprehensive, array based study (AKAP9 M463I, DKK3 G335R, AMPD1 Q12X, LIPC L356F, PSMB9 V32I, THBS1 N700S, CA6 S90G, ASCC3 C1995S, DHX36 S416C and CPA4 G303C) were re-evaluated in the present study based on 626 German familial non-HNPCC colorectal cancer patients and 736 healthy controls. No associations of any of the 10 nsSNPs with colorectal cancer could be replicated. The combined analyses indicated that further research based on additional independent samples is required.
Cancer letters 08/2008; 271(1):153-7. · 5.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression profiling is a well established tool for the genome-wide analysis of human cancers. However, the high sensitivity of this approach combined with the well known cellular and molecular heterogeneity of cancer often result in extremely complex expression signatures that are difficult to interpret functionally. The majority of sporadic colorectal cancers are triggered by mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene, leading to the constitutive activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and formation of adenomas. Despite this common genetic basis, colorectal cancers are very heterogeneous in their degree of differentiation, growth rate, and malignancy potential. Here, we applied a cross-species comparison of expression profiles of intestinal polyps derived from hereditary colorectal cancer patients carrying APC germline mutations and from mice carrying a targeted inactivating mutation in the mouse homologue Apc. This comparative approach resulted in the establishment of a conserved signature of 166 genes that were differentially expressed between adenomas and normal intestinal mucosa in both species. Functional analyses of the conserved genes revealed a general increase in cell proliferation and the activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, the conserved signature was able to resolve expression profiles from hereditary polyposis patients carrying APC germline mutations from those with bi-allelic inactivation of the MYH gene, supporting the usefulness of such comparisons to discriminate among patients with distinct genetic defects.
American Journal Of Pathology 06/2008; 172(5):1363-80. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a well-described inherited syndrome, which is responsible for <1% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. The syndrome is characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colorectum. Almost all patients will develop CRC if they are not identified and treated at an early stage. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and caused by mutations in the APC gene. Recently, a second gene has been identified that also gives rise to colonic adenomatous polyposis, although the phenotype is less severe than typical FAP. The gene is the MUTYH gene and the inheritance is autosomal recessive. In April 2006 and February 2007, a workshop was organised in Mallorca by European experts on hereditary gastrointestinal cancer aiming to establish guidelines for the clinical management of FAP and to initiate collaborative studies. Thirty-one experts from nine European countries participated in these workshops. Prior to the meeting, various participants examined the most important management issues according to the latest publications. A systematic literature search using Pubmed and reference lists of retrieved articles, and manual searches of relevant articles, was performed. During the workshop, all recommendations were discussed in detail. Because most of the studies that form the basis for the recommendations were descriptive and/or retrospective in nature, many of them were based on expert opinion. The guidelines described herein may be helpful in the appropriate management of FAP families. In order to improve the care of these families further, prospective controlled studies should be undertaken.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent study described a recessive ATPase activating germ-line mutation in smooth-muscle myosin (smmhc/myh11) underlying the zebrafish meltdown (mlt) phenotype. The mlt zebrafish develops intestinal abnormalities reminiscent of human Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and juvenile polyposis (JP). To examine the role of MYH11 in human intestinal neoplasia, we searched for MYH11 mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), PJS and JP. We found somatic protein-elongating frameshift mutations in 55% of CRCs displaying microsatellite instability and in the germ-line of one individual with PJS. Additionally, two somatic missense mutations were found in one microsatellite stable CRC. These two missense mutations, R501L and K1044N, and the frameshift mutations were functionally evaluated. All mutations resulted in unregulated molecules displaying constitutive motor activity, similar to the mutant myosin underlying mlt. Thus, MYH11 mutations appear to contribute also to human intestinal neoplasia. Unregulated MYH11 may affect the cellular energy balance or disturb cell lineage decisions in tumor progenitor cells. These data challenge our view on MYH11 as a passive differentiation marker functioning in muscle contraction and add to our understanding of intestinal neoplasia.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2008; 105(14):5513-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wesentliche Herausforderungen in der klinischen Betreuung von Patienten mit einer familiären Veranlagung zu kolorektalen Karzinomen
bleiben weiterhin die Überschneidung der verschiedenen Entitäten mit unterschiedlicher genetischer Grundlage sowie das differenzierte
Management der kolorektalen und deren assoziierten Malignome. Das Lynch-Syndrom (hereditäres nichtpolypöses kolorektales Karzinom,
HNPCC) ist durch die Entstehung von kolorektalen-, Endometrium-, Magen- und anderen Karzinomen charakterisiert und wird durch
eine Mutation in einem der Mismatch-Reparaturgene (MMR) verursacht. Die Mikrosatelliteninstabilität (MSI) und/oder immunhistochemische
Befunde (IHC) sind wichtige Faktoren und haben prognostische Bedeutung für das Ansprechen auf eine Chemotherapie. Die familiäre
adenomatöse Polyposis (FAP) ist für <1% aller kolorektalen Karzinome verantwortlich und mag als polypenreiches Pendant zum
Lynch-Syndrom gesehen werden. Kürzlich wurde das MUTYH als weiteres Polyposisgen identifiziert. Die begleitende Krankheitsausprägung wird als MYH-assoziierte Polyposis (MAP) bezeichnet
und weist ein autosomal-rezessives Vererbungsmuster auf. Für den Kliniker ist die Unterscheidung zwischen dem Lynch-Syndrom,
der attenuierten FAP und der MAP zur Risikoeinschätzung, Vorsorgeempfehlung und Indikation zu einer prophylaktischen Chirurgie
One of the main challenges in the clinical management of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the overlap of syndromes
with different underlying genetic causes and the differentiated risk management of colorectal and associated malignancies.
The Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, HNPCC) is characterized by the development of colorectal,
endometrial, gastric and other cancers and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Microsatellite
instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) are important prognostic factors and may predict the response to chemotherapy.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may be seen as a counterpart to Lynch syndrome, responsible for <1% of all CRC cases.
Recently the MUTYH gene has been identified as a further polyposis gene. The associated disorder has been termed MYH-associated polyposis (MAP)
and displays an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. For clinical management, distinguishing between Lynch syndrome,
attenuated FAP and MAP is important for risk assessment, surveillance recommendations and indication for prophylactic surgery.
Der Chirurg 01/2008; 79(11):1038-1046. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is characterised by the development of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and various other cancers, and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The discovery of these genes, 15 years ago, has led to the identification of large numbers of affected families. In April 2006, a workshop was organised by a group of European experts in hereditary gastrointestinal cancer (the Mallorca-group), aiming to establish guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome. 21 experts from nine European countries participated in this workshop. Prior to the meeting, various participants prepared the key management issues of debate according to the latest publications. A systematic literature search using Pubmed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews reference lists of retrieved articles and manual searches of relevant articles was performed. During the workshop, all recommendations were discussed in detail. Because most of the studies that form the basis for the recommendations were descriptive and/or retrospective in nature, many of them were based on expert opinion. The guidelines described in this manuscript may be helpful for the appropriate management of families with Lynch syndrome. Prospective controlled studies should be undertaken to improve further the care of these families.
Journal of Medical Genetics 07/2007; 44(6):353-62. · 5.70 Impact Factor