Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros

Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brazil

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Publications (12)17.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although various reports have described entomological inoculation rates of malaria vector species, most were limited to providing descriptive field data. Here, we report biting rates and survival data for two important malaria vectors in the Amazon, Anopheles darlingi (Root) and Anopheles albitarsis E (Lynch-Arribalzaga) (Diptera: Culicidae), in the state of Roraima, Brazil. We calculated theoretical sporozoite infection rates and critical vector biting rates for these species during 1 year, comprising six bimestrial collections. Anopheles darlingi had higher sporozoite rates and lower critical biting rates, indicating that it would be the more efficient vector at the beginning of epidemic malaria transmission. Our data, together with compiled information from the literature in the Amazon, suggest that epidemic malaria transmission may be initiated by the primary vector, such as A. darlingi, while secondary vectors, such as A. albitarsis E, may only become epidemiologically important when there is an increase in the prevalence of human malaria. We propose that mathematical modeling may be able to quantify the relative importance of secondary vector species in malaria epidemiology.
    Neotropical Entomology 10/2012; 41(5):426-34. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deforestation has been linked to a rise in malaria prevalence. In this paper, we studied longitudinally 20 spots, including forested and deforested portions of a temporary river in a malarigenous frontier zone. Larval habitat parameters influencing distribution of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were studied. We observed that larvae were clustered in forested-deforested transitions. For the first time in the literature, it was verified that parameters determining larval distribution varied from deforested to forested areas. The proximity to human dwellings was also a significant factor determining distribution, but larvae was most importantly associated with a previously undescribed parameter, the presence of small obstructions to river flow, such as tree trunks within the river channel, which caused pooling of water during the dry season ('microdams'). In deforested areas, the most important factor determining distribution of larvae was shade (reduced luminance). Larvae were absent in the entire studied area during the wet season and present in most sites during the dry season. During the wet-dry transition, larvae were found sooner in areas with microdams, than in other areas, suggesting that flow obstruction prolongs the breeding season of An. darlingi. Adult mosquito densities and malaria incidence were higher during the dry season. Our data correlate well with the published literature, including the distribution of malaria cases near the forest fringes, and has permitted the creation of a model of An. darlingi breeding, where preference for sites with reduced luminance, human presence and microdams would interact to determine larval distribution.
    Bulletin of entomological research 07/2011; 101(6):643-58. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros, Nildimar Alves Honório, Mércia Eliane Arruda
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria has reemerged in tropical regions with rapid population growth and deforestation. The dynamics of malaria transmission in agricultural settlements of the Amazon have been poorly defined. We studied the spatial distribution of malaria incidence in Roraima, Brazil, using multi regression analysis on 12 parameters that described social, housing, and behavioral variables. Malaria cases were associated with the proximity of Anopheles darlingi breeding sites, the main vector in these areas. During the dry season, transmission was enhanced near a temporary river. Cases occurred throughout the year near fish-farming dams. Epidemiological models derived from urban or riverine malaria are probably inadequate for describing disease transmission in agricultural settlements, where cases are clustered near breeding sites, while the majority of the population remains unaffected. Identification of these areas, associated with residual insecticide spraying or surveillance, may considerably decrease the costs of control efforts.
    Journal of Vector Ecology 06/2011; 36(1):159-69. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros, Nildimar Alves Honório, Mércia Eliane Arruda
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a longitudinal study of adult survival of Anopheles darlingi, the most important vector in the Amazon, in a malarigenous frontier zone of Brazil. Survival rates were determined from both parous rates and multiparous dissections. Anopheles darlingi human biting rates, daily survival rates and expectation of life where higher in the dry season, as compared to the rainy season, and were correlated with malaria incidence. The biting density of mosquitoes that had survived long enough for completing at least one sporogonic cycle was related with the number of malaria cases by linear regression. Survival rates were the limiting factor explaining longitudinal variations in Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence and the association between adult mosquito survival and malaria was statistically significant by logistic regression (P<0.05). Survival rates were better correlated with malaria incidence than adult mosquito biting density. Mathematical modeling showed that P. falciparum and P. malariae were more vulnerable to changes in mosquito survival rates because of longer sporogonic cycle duration, as compared to P. vivax, which could account for the low prevalence of the former parasites observed in the study area. Population modeling also showed that the observed decreases in human biting rates in the wet season could be entirely explained by decreases in survival rates, suggesting that decreased breeding did not occur in the wet season, at the sites where adult mosquitoes were collected. For the first time in the literature, multivariate methods detected a statistically significant inverse relation (P<0.05) between the number of rainy days per month and daily survival rates, suggesting that rainfall may cause adult mortality.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22388. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal variation of adults and larvae of anophelines was studied during 2003 and 2004 in Roraima State, located in the Northern region of Brazilian Amazon. Species diversity increased with distance of capture to human dwellings. Greater diversity was found in extradomiciliary collections than in peridomiciliary or intradomiciliary. A significant association between Anopheles darlingi Root and An. albitarsis (s.l.) Arribálzaga (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding sites and the proximity to human dwellings was observed. Malaria Sporozoite Antigen Panel Assay (VectestTM Malaria) indicated An. albitarsis s.l. as one of the local vectors in the studied area. In this study, an index to describe the anthropophilic behavior of each anopheline species is proposed.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2010; 39(6):1039-43. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue fever has become the most important vector-borne viral disease in Brazil. Human facilitated transport of desiccation-resistant eggs has led to its two most important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, becoming widespread. In this paper, we report seasonal and spatial variation in larval abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus across a small-scale transition zone between an urban area and an urban wooded/forested area within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We installed 400 ovitraps across 10 sites with different human population densities and vegetation coverage. Eggs and larvae were collected for three weeks during the wet and dry seasons of 2002 and 2003. Ae. albopictus was predominantly found in the forested areas of the study site whereas in the urbanized area Ae. aegypti was more abundant. Both species peaked during the wet season. This distribution pattern, which may reflect adult flight range, may favor the co-occurrence of larvae of these species in a small-scale urban/urban forest transition zone.
    Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 07/2009; 25(6):1203-14. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of vector distribution is important for the design of effective local malaria control programs. Here we apply ecological niche modeling to analyze and predict the distributions of malaria vectors based on entomological collection points in the State of Roraima in the northern Brazilian Amazon Basin. Anopheline collections were conducted from 1999 to 2003 at 76 localities, all with active malaria transmission. A total of 13 anopheline species was identified from 17,074 adult females collected: Anopheles darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari, An. triannulatus s.l., An. braziliensis, An. peryassui, An. oswaldoi s.l., An. mattogrossensis, An. strodei, An. evansae, An. squamifemur, An. mediopunctatus s.l, An. intermedius. Anopheles darlingi, and An. albitarsis were the most frequently found species. An. squamifemur was found for the first time in Roraima. A distributional prediction model (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction-GARP) and environmental variables were used to predicted potential distribution range for six anopheline species that occurred at > or = 19 collection points. The method allows for the application of moderate sample sizes to produce distribution maps of vector species that could be used to maximize efficiency of surveys and optimize use of economic resources in epidemiology and control.
    Journal of Vector Ecology 12/2007; 32(2):161-7. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parity and age composition for Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albitarsis in the northern Amazon Basin, Brazil, were investigated. Anopheline ovaries and ovarioles were examined in order to determine whether hourly and seasonal parity status for the vectors An. albitarsis and An. darlingi would vary in two different landscapes (forest and savanna/forest) where malaria is endemic in the northern Amazon Basin. A total of 1,199 anophelines (535 An. darlingi and 664 An. albitarsis) was dissected for parity status, ovariole dilatations, and follicular stages. The total number of nulliparous and parous females for both species varied by time of collection, locality, and season. During the rainy season for the first two h of collection, more nulliparous An. albitarsis and An. darlingi females were collected in the first hour (18:00-19:00), but during the second hour (19:00-20:00) more parous females of both species were captured. During the dry season in Copaíbas, more parous females of An. albitarsis were observed in the first hour while more nulliparous females were observed in the second hour. Nulliparous and parous females of both species for both hours were not significantly different at Road 19 in the dry season. This location was characterized by a forest malaria pattern of transmission with higher numbers of parous females and population stability in the dry season. In Copaíbas, the density and parity of An. darlingi increased during the rainy season, and it could be classified as an alluvial malaria pattern of transmission. For Copaíbas, control measures would be more successful if adopted at the transition from dry to rainy season. Further investigation on longitudinal spatio-temporal change in longevity and survival rates would help us to clarify differences in vector competence for An. darlingi and An. albitarsis and add to the understanding of differences regarding prevailing landscapes in malaria epidemiology in the northern Amazon Basin.
    Journal of Vector Ecology 07/2007; 32(1):54-68. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros, Nildimar Alves Honório
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria control has been directed towards regional actions where more detailed knowledge of local determinants of transmission is of primary importance. This is a short report on range distribution and biting indices for Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis during the dry and rainy season that follows river level variation in a savanna/alluvial forest malaria system area in the Northern Amazon Basin. Distribution range and adult biting indices were at their highest during the rainy season for both An. darlingi and An. albitarsis. During the rainy season the neighboring alluvial forest was extensively flooded. This coincided with highest rates in malaria transmission with case clustering near the river. As the river receded, anopheline distribution range and density decreased. This decrease in distribution and density corresponded to a malaria decrease in the near area. An exponential regression function was derived to permit estimations of An. darlingi distribution over specified distances. Anopheline spatio-temporal variations lead to uneven malaria case distribution and are of important implications for control strategies.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 07/2007; 102(3):299-302. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the different background landscapes in which malaria transmission occurs is fundamental to understanding malaria epidemiology and to designing effective local malaria control programs. Geology, geomorphology, vegetation, climate, land use, and anopheline distribution were used as a basis for an ecological classification of the state of Roraima, Brazil, in the northern Amazon Basin, focused on the natural history of malaria and transmission. We used unsupervised maximum likelihood classification, principal components analysis, and weighted overlay with equal contribution analyses to fine-scale thematic maps that resulted in clustered regions. We used ecological niche modeling techniques to develop a fine-scale picture of malaria vector distributions in the state. Eight ecoregions were identified and malaria-related aspects are discussed based on this classification, including 5 types of dense tropical rain forest and 3 types of savannah. Ecoregions formed by dense tropical rain forest were named as montane (ecoregion I), submontane (II), plateau (III), lowland (IV), and alluvial (V). Ecoregions formed by savannah were divided into steppe (VI, campos de Roraima), savannah (VII, cerrado), and wetland (VIII, campinarana). Such ecoregional mappings are important tools in integrated malaria control programs that aim to identify specific characteristics of malaria transmission, classify transmission risk, and define priority areas and appropriate interventions. For some areas, extension of these approaches to still-finer resolutions will provide an improved picture of malaria transmission patterns.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 07/2007; 102(3):349-57. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program.
    Neotropical Entomology 01/2007; 36(5):809-11. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a field survey performed in a malaria-endemic region of Northern Amazon, Brazil, we encountered ciliate protozoa of the family Tetrahymenidae infecting adults and larvae of the following mosquito species: Culex sp., Anopheles albitarsis l.s., Anopheles strodei, Anopheles mattogrossensis, Anopheles darlingi, and Anopheles oswaldoi l.s. Based on morphological features and life style, we have tentatively identified the parasite as Lambornella sp. The association appears pathogenic for the mosquito. Prevalence of infection in both larvae and adults was higher in the dry season.
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 04/2006; 91(3):199-201. · 2.67 Impact Factor