Shoko Nagotani

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (26)77.08 Total impact

  • European Journal of Neurology 08/2011; 18(8):e100-1. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether acoustic impairment can be one of the characteristic extracerebellar symptoms in sporadic and hereditary ataxias including spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31). We investigated genotypes of dominant ataxia families, and determined a frequency of each form in our cohort of 154 families. Acoustic function in the groups of various forms of ataxia with multiple system atrophy of cerebellar predominance (MSA-C), cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA), and hereditary ataxias including SCA31 was evaluated by using audiogram and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). Genetic analysis of dominant ataxia families revealed that a frequency of SCA31 in our cohort was fewer than that reported from other areas of Japan, indicating that SCA31 is not widely distributed throughout Japan. Results of audiogram showed no significant difference of hearing levels among ataxic groups, and those of BAEPs did not support inner ear dysfunction in SCA31 in which hearing loss had initially been suggested as one of its characteristic symptoms. This study suggests that acoustic impairment is neither specific to SCA31, MSA-C and CCA nor useful in making a differential diagnosis among them.
    Neurological Research 05/2011; 33(4):427-32. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Possible strategies for treating stroke include: 1) thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA): restoring cerebral blood flow in the acute phase of ischemic stroke but sometimes causing hemorrhagic transformation (HT); 2) stem cell therapy: the repair of disrupted neuronal networks with newly born neurons in the chronic phase of ischemic stroke. Firstly, we estimated the vascular protective effect of a free radical scavenger, edaravone, in the tPA-treated rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Edaravone prevented dramatically decreased the hemorrhagic transformation and improved the neurologic score and survival rate of tPA-treated rats. Secondly, we attempted to restore brain tissue using a novel biomaterial, polydimethysiloxane-tetraethoxysilane (PDMS-TEOS) hybrid with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and we could show that implantation of a PDMS-TEOS scaffold with VEGF might be effective for treating old brain infarction or trauma. In the future, we will combine these strategies to develop more effective therapies for treatment of strokes.
    Cell Transplantation 09/2010; 20(1):95-7. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is a major neurologic disorder. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be produced from basically any part of patients, with high reproduction ability and pluripotency to differentiate into various types of cells, suggesting that iPS cells can provide a hopeful therapy for cell transplantation. However, transplantation of iPS cells into ischemic brain has not been reported. In this study, we showed that the iPS cells fate in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Undifferentiated iPS cells (5 x 10(5)) were transplanted into ipsilateral striatum and cortex at 24 h after 30 mins of transient MCAO. Behavioral and histologic analyses were performed at 28 day after the cell transplantation. To our surprise, the transplanted iPS cells expanded and formed much larger tumors in mice postischemic brain than in sham-operated brain. The clinical recovery of the MCAO+iPS group was delayed as compared with the MCAO+PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) group. iPS cells formed tridermal teratoma, but could supply a great number of Dcx-positive neuroblasts and a few mature neurons in the ischemic lesion. iPS cells have a promising potential to provide neural cells after ischemic brain injury, if tumorigenesis is properly controlled.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 03/2010; 30(8):1487-93. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Possible strategies for treating ischemic stroke include neuroprotection (preventing injured neurons from undergoing apoptosis in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia) and stem cell therapy (the repair of disrupted neuronal networks with newly born neurons in the chronic phase of cerebral ischemia). First, we estimated the neuroprotective effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) by administration of GFNF protein. GDNF protein showed a direct protective effect against ischemic brain damage. Pretreatment of animals with adenoviral vector containing GDNF gene (Ad-GDNF) 24 h before the subsequent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) effectively reduced infarcted volume. Secondly, we studied the neuroprotective effect of a calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine, or a by-product of heme degradation, biliverdin. Both azelnidipine and biliverdin had a neuroprotective effect in the ischemic brain through their antioxidative property. Lastly, we developed a restorative stroke therapy with a bioaffinitive scaffold, which is able to provide an appropriate platform for newly born neurons. In the future, we will combine these strategies to develop more effective therapies for treatment of strokes.
    Cell Transplantation 05/2009; 18(9):999-1002. · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • K. Abe, K. Deguchi, T. Yamashita, S. Nagotani
    Journal of The Neurological Sciences - J NEUROL SCI. 01/2009; 285.
  • Neuroscience Research 01/2009; 65. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic effect of a novel RNA viral vector, Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene (SeV/GDNF), on the infarct volume, was investigated after 90 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats with relation to nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). The topical administration of SeV/GDNF induced high level expression of GDNF protein, which effectively reduced the infarct volume when administrated 0 and 1 hours as well after the reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, the obvious nuclear translocation of AIF was found in neurons of peri-infarct area, which significantly reduced with administration of SeV/GDNF 0 or 1 hour after reperfusion, as well as the number of TUNEL positive cells. These results demonstrate that SeV vector-mediated gene transfer of GDNF effectively reduced ischemic infarct volume after tMCAO and extended the therapeutic time window compared with previous viral vectors, and that promoting neuronal survival of GDNF might be related to the reduction of AIF nuclear translocation, indicating the high therapeutic potency of SeV/GDNF for cerebral ischemia.
    Neurological Research 07/2008; 30(7):731-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliverdin (BV), one of the byproducts of heme catalysis through heme oxygenase (HO) system, is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that BV treatment could protect rat brain cells from oxidative injuries via its anti-oxidant efficacies. Cerebral infarction was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. BV or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally immediately after reperfusion. The size of the cerebral infarction 2 days after tMCAO was evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain. Superoxide generation 4 h after tMCAO was determined by detection of oxidized hydroethidine. In addition, the oxidative impairment of neurons were immunohistochemically assessed by stain for lipid peroxidation with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and damaged DNA with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). BV treatment significantly reduced infarct volume of the cerebral cortices associated with less superoxide production and decreased oxidative injuries of brain cells. The present study demonstrated that treatment with BV ameliorated the oxidative injuries on neurons and decreased brain infarct size in rat tMCAO model.
    Brain Research 02/2008; 1188:1-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2008; 9(1):215-215.
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    ABSTRACT: Statin reduces cerebrovascular events independent of its cholesterol lowering effect. We hypothesized that statin inhibits early atherosclerotic change in common carotid artery (CCA), and investigated its effect on lectin-like oxidized-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression, both of which are early atherosclerotic markers. Stroke-prone spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) of 8 weeks old were orally treated with vehicle or simvastatin (20mg/kg) daily. After 4 weeks of simvastatin or vehicle treatment, or 2 weeks of vehicle and 2 weeks of simvastatin treatment, CCA was removed. LOX-1 and MCP-1 expression as well as macrophage infiltration were histologically investigated. Lipid deposition was also investigated by Sudan III staining. Simvastatin groups showed significantly smaller amount of lipid deposition and LOX-1 and MCP-1 expression, independent of serum lipid levels. Macrophage infiltration was also decreased. Reduction of cerebrovascular events by statins may be brought by the direct inhibition of atherosclerotic change.
    Current Neurovascular Research 12/2007; 4(4):268-73. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet derived-endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) is a highly potent angiogenic factor. Although angiogenesis plays an active role in pathophysiology of stroke, the expression pattern of this molecule in ischemic brain has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the change of PD-ECGF expression in the brain after ischemia. Using male Wistar rats, the right middle cerebral artery was occluded by a nylon thread for 90 minutes. The animals were decapitated 3 hours, 1, 4 and 10 days after the reperfusion, and frozen sections were prepared. We then performed immunohistochemistry for PD-ECGF and identified the cell phenotype which strongly expressed it by fluorescent double staining. In the sham-operated brain, only small numbers of cells slightly expressed PD-ECGF. The number of positively stained cells increased at the peri-ischemic area from hour 3 of reperfusion. Not only small-sized cells but also large-sized cells became stained. The number of stained cells further increased, and peaked at day 4 for large-sized cells and at day 10 as to small-sized cells. Fluorescent double staining revealed that both large-sized and small-sized cells were neurons, indicating that neurons are the main source of PD-ECGF production in the ischemic brain. PD-ECGF has a strong angiogenic property without vascular permeability increasing effect. This molecule may have a therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke treatment.
    Neurological Research 08/2007; 29(5):463-8. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report two patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) with cranial and spinal motor neuron involvement. They initially presented with cerebellar ataxia, followed by bulbar palsy and limb motor neuron sign. One of the patients had a brother with allied disorder. SCA type 1 (SCA1), SCA3 and SCA6 have been reported to involve the motor neuron system, but they were excluded by DNA analyses in the present two patients. These two patients may form a distinct disease entity among SCAs.
    Internal Medicine 02/2007; 46(11):751-5. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduction of brain plasticity underlies the poor outcome of aged stroke patients. The molecular mechanism of plasticity reduction by aging is uncertain, but disturbed lipid metabolism may be implicated. We investigated the expression of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDL-R) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE), both of which play active roles in lipid metabolism in young adult and old rat brains after ischemia. LDL-R, trivially expressed in the sham-operated brain neurons, was increased from day 1 and became prominent at days 7 and 21 at the peri-ischemic cortex. The magnitude was smaller in the old than in the young adult rats. ApoE was increased in the astrocytes and neurons of the peri-ischemic cortex at day 1, which became further pronounced in the neurons but not in the astrocytes at days 7 and 21. ApoE expression was again less prominent in the old animals at days 7 and 21. As ApoE-containing lipoprotein is recruited via LDL-R, the present results suggest that old brains had less capability to induce LDL-R, which resulted in impaired recruitment of lipoprotein after the ischemic injury. Impaired lipid recruitment causes disturbance of synaptogenesis and thus brain plasticity reduction. This molecular mechanism may result in poor functional recovery of aged stroke patients.
    Neurological Research 01/2007; 28(8):822-5. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For brain tissue regeneration, any scaffold for migrated or transplanted stem cells with supportive angiogenesis is important once necrotic brain tissue has formed a cavity after injury such as cerebral ischemia. In this study, a new porous gelatin-siloxane hybrid derived from the integration of gelatin and 3-(glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane was implanted as a three-dimensional scaffold into a defect of the cerebral cortex. The porous hybrid implanted into the lesion remained at the same site for 60 days, kept integrity of the brain shape, and attached well to the surrounding brain tissues. Marginal cavities of the scaffolds were occupied by newly formed tissue in the brain, where newly produced vascular endothelial, astroglial, and microglial cells were found with bromodeoxyuridine double positivity, and the numbers of those cells were dose-dependently increased with the addition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Extension of dendrites was also found from the surrounding cerebral cortex to the newly formed tissue, especially with the addition of bFGF and EGF. The present study showed that a new porous gelatin-siloxane hybrid had biocompatibility after implantation into a lesion of the central nervous system, and thus provided a potential scaffold for cell migration, angiogenesis and dendrite elongation with dose-dependent effects of additive bFGF and EGF.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 11/2006; 26(10):1263-73. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic during cerebral ischemia, depending on the NO synthase (NOS) isoform involved. In addition to neurotoxic effect in ischemic brain, inducible NOS (iNOS) also adversely affect ischemic outcome by blocking neurogenesis. In the present study, therefore, we studied the chronological and spatial change of the distribution of iNOS and cell proliferation in subventricular zone (SVZ) after transient focal cerebral ischemia. After 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), iNOS-positive cells decreased in the ischemic core at 1 to 21 days, and increased in the ipsilateral periischemic area at 1 and 3 days. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells appeared in the ischemic core at 3 to 21 days, appeared in the periischemic area at 3 and 7 days, and increased in the ipsilateral SVZ at 7 days. ED-1-positive cells appeared in the ischemic core at 3 to 21 days, and some of them were double positive with BrdU or iNOS, but the majority were BrdU-negative. The present study suggests that astrocytes are born within the periischemic area at early stage after tMCAO and migrate from SVZ into periischemic area at later stage, and that time-dependent and spatial changes of iNOS expression may be involved in the proliferation and differentiation of adult neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.
    Brain Research 07/2006; 1093(1):190-7. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis occurs in a wide range of conditions. As ischemic tissue usually depends on collateral blood flow from newly produced vessels, acceleration of angiogenesis should be of therapeutic value to ischemic disorders. Indeed, therapeutic angiogenesis reduced tissue injury in myocardial or limb ischemia. In ischemic stroke, on the other hand, angiogenic factors often increase vascular permeability and thus may deteriorate tissue damage. In order to apply safely the therapeutic angiogenesis for ischemic stroke treatment, elucidating precise mechanism of brain angiogenesis is mandatory. In the present article, we review previous reports which investigated molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis. Endothelial cell mitogens, enzymes that degrade surrounding extracellular matrix, and molecules implicated in endothelial cells migration are induced rapidly in the ischemic brain. Their possible neuroprotective or injury exacerbating effects are discussed. Because therapeutic potential of angiogenic factors application had gained much attention, we here extensively reviewed relevant previous reports. In the future however, there is a need to consider angiogenesis in relation with regenerative medicine, as angiogenic factors sometimes possess neuron producing property.
    Current Neurovascular Research 06/2006; 3(2):119-29. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 07/2005; · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 07/2005; · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in ischemic neuronal cell death. In order to determine the effect of dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist, on ER stress response and ischemic brain injury, we investigated changes in ER stress-related molecules, that is phosphorylated form of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylated form of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (p-eIF2alpha), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the peri-ischemic area and ischemic core region of rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In contrast to the cases treated with vehicle, the infarct volume and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly reduced at 24 h of reperfusion by treatment with dantrolene. The immunoreactivities for p-PERK, p-eIF2alpha, ATF-4, and CHOP were increased at the ischemic peripheral region after MCAO, which were partially inhibited by dantrolene treatment. The present results suggest that dantrolene significantly decreased infarct volume and provided neuroprotective effect on rats after transient MCAO by reducing ER stress-mediated apoptotic signal pathway activation in the ischemic area.
    Brain Research 07/2005; 1048(1-2):59-68. · 2.88 Impact Factor